Title: Design and Manufacturing of a Fixed Delta Wing Fighter Aircraft UAV for the Training Purpose (Flight Target)
Author(s): Hussein Zein, Ali Al-Suhaibani
Pages: 1-22 Paper ID: 200206-5757-IJMME-IJENS Published: December, 2020
Abstract: The field of fighter aircraft industry is one of the most interesting fields. When this field is linked with the UAV industry, the subject becomes more interesting. This study introduces a complete design process and manufacturing of a fixed delta wing (FDW) fighter aircraft as an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for the training purpose (flight target). The main objective of this work is to develop an unmanned aircraft that can be used for the training purpose (flight target). To achieve this objective, an FDW-UAV like modern fighter aircraft, such as Eurofighter Typhoon or Mirage 2000 or Rafale is designed by using UNIGRAPHICS software (NX12). Then, all components of this fighter aircraft were fabricated and assembled. Finally, the flight test results showed that the performance of the designed aircraft was satisfactory.
Keywords: Delta wing; Design; UAV; Manufacturing; Unigraphics; Flight target.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 2,142 KB
Title: The Effect of Isoline, Shallow and Spiral Finishing Strategy on Dimensional Accuracy and Surface Roughness of Prismatic Parts in CNC Milling
Author(s): Mohd Nazri Ahmad, Mohamad Zul Ariff Md Kamsor, Ridhwan Jumaidin, Nur Farah Bazilah Wakhi Anuar, Mohamed saiful firdaus Hussin
Pages: 23-29 Paper ID: 200506-3838-IJMME-IJENS Published: December, 2020
Abstract: The finishing process mainly contributes on how the quality of finished parts on surface roughness and dimensional accuracy to satisfy the demand of the industry. The study was selected the isoline, shallow and spiral as finishing strategy for milling process. Three samples were machined by computer numerical control (CNC) milling machine and the G-codes were programed by using computer aided manufacturing (CAM) software. Then, these three machined parts have been inspected by a surface roughness machine for roughness value (Ra) and dimension accuracy was analysed by using reverse engineering (RE) method. The result of dimensional accuracy was reported in colour mapped to show the values of deviation. From the result, it shows a spiral finishing is the best strategy to machine concave and convex profile of the parts with the value of Ra 0.775µm and 79% accuracy (±0.5 tolerance). Therefore, the aim of this paper is to identify the best finishing strategies between isoline, shallow and spiral against the quality of roughness and dimension of the prismatic parts.
Keywords: Isoline, Shallow, Spiral, Finishing strategy, Roughness, Accuracy, Reverse engineering
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 600 KB
Title: Denoising Noisy Signal using Reconstruction Technique of HHT for Face Milling Cutter Condition Monitoring
Author(s): Agus Choirul Arifin, Agus Susanto, Kholis Nur Faizin, Keiji Yamada, Martinez, Surajet Khonjun
Pages: 30-35 Paper ID: 201006-8383-IJMME-IJENS Published: December, 2020
Abstract: In face milling process of the train wheel, cutter is one of the most important parts. This part should be monitored from wearing for improving the final products of train wheel during machining process. One of the best ways for face milling cutter condition monitoring is by signal analysis. However, noise usually contaminates measured signals during measurement using sensors. Therefore, efficient technique is necessary to denoise noisy signal to monitor face milling cutter condition immediately. This study presented effective denoising noisy signal for face milling condition monitoring by mean analyzing the vibration signals. First, the noisy synthetic signal was created, then separate by Empirical Mode Decomposition to be intrinsic mode decompositions (IMFs). From IMFs, the noise could be detected and then it was removed. Following, IMFs which contain no noise were then reconstructed to be a new signal. In order to demonstrate the proposed method, the Hilbert-Huang spectrum (HHT) spectrum of reconstruction signal was generated and then compared to HHT baseline spectrum and HHT contained noise. The result showed that the denoising signal using the reconstruction technique worked well for analyzing signal. Without reconstruction technique, the face milling cutter condition phenomenon was difficult to be revealed by the HHT spectrum.
Keywords: Railway axle bearing; fault condition monitoring; HHT, EMD, IMFs, Denoising signal, reconstruction signal, HHT spectrum.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,286 KB
Title: Numerical Investigation on the Performance Characteristics of a Double Suction Pump Running as a Turbine
Author(s): S. M. Talebya, N. Pourmahmoud
Pages: 36-48 Paper ID: 201106-4747-IJMME-IJENS Published: December, 2020
Abstract: Nowadays, the application of pump as turbine (PAT) in small hydropower resources have become an attractive alternative. Despite the extensive investigations on the operation of the single stage PATs, the turbine mode of double suction pumps (DSP) awaits further studies. In this paper, a numerical simulation method is utilized to predict the hydraulic characteristics of an industrial double suction centrifugal pump in the turbine operating mode. The numerical simulations were carried out using Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with the SST k-ω turbulence model under steady state conditions. The numerical model was validated with the pump operating experimental data. The best efficiency point (BEP) and characteristic curves of the PAT were calculated and compared with BEP and off design prediction methods. This study revealed that relations developed based on the single stage PATs studies are not applicable for DSP PATs. Furthermore, radial and axial force studies showed that DSP PATs can operate in turbine mode without any mechanical failure due to the exceeding of radial or axial forces. Also, the analysis of flow inside the impeller and suction path indicated that conducting the flow to the impeller with proper angle and removing rib in suction path improves the PAT efficiency at overload.
Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, double suction centrifugal pump, pump as turbine, radial force, axial force, PAT.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 975 KB
Title: Teaching Prosthetic Alignment Through a Computer Program
Author(s): L. A. Luengas-C, E. Camargo-C, Distrital Francisco José de Caldas, E. Garzón-G
Pages: 49-54 Paper ID: 201306-8585-IJMME-IJENS Published: December, 2020
Abstract: The teaching of the prosthesis alignment process is mainly theoretical, being the expository class the most used. In clinical practice, information is partially validated with amputated patients since it is not possible to see direct involvement on amputees’ biomechanical alignment parameters; the lack of information affects when starting a career. In order to enhance the physical rehabilitation students’ understanding on concepts and to ease the recognition of the structural changes on amputees, the computerized educational material APRO was developed. The methodology used was educational descriptive cross-sectional, measurement data was gathered, and it worked as the basis for the development of the software; APRO was obtained through the use of the evolutionary development prototype-based model. A database of biomechanical parameters associated with the alignment of the prosthesis was created, also the educational tool APRO was obtained, which was evaluated with an average of 4.7 out of 5 by 76 people using the heuristic method and Likert scale. This work shows benefits of technological tools to support academic areas and as a social practice in various educational contexts in Colombia and Latin America.
Keywords: amputation, medical education, physical and rehabilitation medicine, software.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 688 KB
Title: Workspace Analysis and Development of Delta Robot Using Forward Kinematic
Author(s): Aziah Khamis, Nor Aishah Muhammad, Nur Syafiqah Zulfakar
Pages: 55-61 Paper ID: 202106-3737-IJMME-IJENS Published: December, 2020
Abstract: A serial robot has been widely used for pick-and- place applications in industries, but it requires large workspace areas. In contrast, Delta robot (DR), which is a parallel robot, provides excellent stiffness and accuracy within a small workspace. This paper presents a compact and low-cost development of DR that can help small-sized businesses get introduced to automation for a lower initial investment. The structure of the DR prototype is developed based on a morphological chart and weight decision matrix. All parts of the DR are designed and developed using light-weight and low-cost materials, such as aluminium and plastic. Then, the workspace analysis is performed by using Forward Kinematic solution, where the three- dimensional (3D) coordinates of the end-effector are obtained and then being used in the experiment to validate the accuracy of the proposed DR. Simulation and experimental results are compared under several positions of the end-effector. The results demonstrate that the workspace decreases with the increase of the length of the active arm. The proposed DR able to handle load up to 5 grams. Ensure that your abstract reads well and is grammatically correct.
Keywords: Delta robot, workspace analysis, kinematic simulation, prototype.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,053 KB
Title: Evaluation of Small Scale-Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Installation in Wind Farm Nganjuk District, East Java, Indonesia
Author(s): Ali Musyafa, Imam Abadi, Khalid Fauzi, R.D. Noriyati, H.Harsono, M.Khamim Asy’ari
Pages: 62-67 Paper ID: 202506-8383-IJMME-IJENS Published: December, 2020
Abstract: The critical conditions in the installation of wind turbines in wind farms are related to the environmental factors in which the wind turbines are to be installed, especially related to the wind speed and frequency during the annual period. Nganjuk is a district in East Java Province which is located in the lowlands and is located between two mountains, namely Mount Wilis and Mount Kendeng, so that the area has a relatively high average annual wind speed compared to other areas in general. Wind speed characteristics in Nganjuk Regency were studied to see the potential for small-scale wind turbine installation. Wind speed data is obtained from Metrology Station BMKG Sawahan for wind speed every month during the period 2014-2018. Based on these data in 2018, wind speeds ranged from (4-8) m / s with an average value of 7.9 m / s. Wind characteristics were assessed through the Power Density Method (PDM) and Moment Method (MM), then the Weibull parameter was determined, in order to obtain the most prospective wind characteristics. It is known that the power density MM and PDM are valuable between (4885-497) w / m2. It is proven that Nganjuk has a relatively high wind energy potential and according to the standards of the United States Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is at grade 7. And is able to produce total annual production for wind turbines with a capacity of 600 watts with a voltage of 12 and 24 volts is 1639 kWH and 1935 kWh.
Keywords: Weibull, power density method, moment method, electric power, wind turbines
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,052 KB
Title: Experimental Study on Enhancements to Heat Transfer in a Circular Pipe Partially Filled with Wire Mesh Porous Media
Author(s): Rapeepong Peamsuwan, Nat Kasayapanand, Bundit Krittacom
Pages: 68-76 Paper ID: 202906-4848-IJMME-IJENS Published: December, 2020
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to study Nusselt number (Nu), Friction factor (f), and Performance Evaluation Criteria (PEC) caused by the forced fluid flow (air) inside a circular pipe containing stainless steel wire mesh porous media at the constant surface temperature of the pipe. The stainless steel wire mesh - 304 Grade used as porous media is made of thin wires with 0.91 mm in diameter woven or knitted into a pattern that leaves square gaps between the wires. The number of the square holes is generally counted in one linear inch, called Pores Per Inch (PPI). This experimental study examined four instances of PPI, including 4, 8, 10, and 12. The number of the wire mesh plates (N) inserted in the test section consisted of four sets which is 5, 10, 15, and 20 with the layer thickness of wire mesh (t) of 1, 2, 3, and 4 layers, respectively. The Reynolds number (Re) ranged from 4000 to 9000. The research findings were found that a rise in PPI, N, and t would lead to an increase of the Nu and f. This could be explained that when the number of PPI, N, and t was increased, volume of solid inside the porous media (wire mesh) would mount up, which enabled it to store vast amounts of energy from hot air. As well, there would be an improvement in circulation of the air that led to heat transfer to surface area of the pipe in higher rate. Notwithstanding, an increasing number of PPI, N, and t could be a hindrance to the air flow causing a resistance to flow or a higher degree of pressure drop(P). The research results were also observed that the maximum value of Performance Evaluation Criteria (PEC) was 1.452 where the number of PPI, N, and t was 8, 20, and 4, respectively, due to having the fittest ratio of the heat transfer to the flow resistance.
Keywords: Nusselt number, Friction factor, Performance evaluation criteria, Wire mesh porous media
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 706 KB
Title: Effect of Using the Biolubricant Oil on the Dynamic Performance of Journal Bearings
Author(s): Tariq Mohammad Hammza, Nassear Rasheid Hmoad and Aveen Ahmed Abdulkareem
Pages: 77-84 Paper ID: 201606-4747-IJMME-IJENS Published: December, 2020
Abstract: This research aims to study the effect of using biolubricant oil on the fluid film journal bearing performance, in the recent years, there has been a widespread study of use of biolubricant oil to lubricate journal bearings due to environmental rules, rising prices of oil and political reasons about dependence on oil. This accelerated using of biolubricant to need to understand the effect of biolubricant on the performance of journal bearings. The fluid film journal bearings are widely using in the many applications and they are lubricating by using mineral oil. Using of biolubricant oil in journal bearings will lead to change the dynamic coefficients such stiffness, damping and another bearing characteristic that depending on lubricant oil such as pressure, oil film thickness and attitude angle. The results showed the pressure is decreasing by 1.17% by using the synthetic oil (SAE-10W40) and 3.2 % by using the biolubricant (AWS-100) respectively. The oil film of biolubricant oil (AWS-100) is thinner than that for synthetic oil (SAE-10W40) and mineral oil (SAE-30).generally the biolubricant enhancing the stiffness coefficients and has little effect on the dynamic coefficients of journal bearings.
Keywords: lubricant oil, Journal bearing, Dynamic coefficients, Stiffness and Damping
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 958 KB
Title: Dynamic Walking Exercises with the Nao Robotic Platform
Author(s): Fredy H. Martínez S., Fernando Martínez S., Edwar Jacinto G.
Pages: 85-91 Paper ID: 202006-1414-IJMME-IJENS Published: December, 2020
Abstract: In assistive robotics, the robotic platforms must have certain morphological and functional characteristics that allow a greater and better human-machine integration. Among these characteristics is the capacity for bipedal movement, under the principle that human environments are designed to facilitate such a locomotion scheme. One of the most popular bipedal robotic platforms is the Nao robot from Softbank group. This article presents a dynamic bipedal walking scheme that makes use of a model based on the inverted pendulum as a design point, using the Zero Moment Point (ZMP) as a control strategy. As part of the feedback scheme, the strategy proposes the estimation of the center of mass of the robot. This strategy was evaluated on a Nao V5 robot, and it was possible to verify its operation in real-time. This work is a continuation of the group’s research on control schemes for bipedal platforms and consolidates the previous results of the scheme proposed on a much more complex commercial plant.
Keywords: Assistive robotics, bipedal walking, center of mass, human-machine integration, nao robot, zero moment point.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 758 KB
Title: Backstepping based Saturated Sliding Mode Joints Controller for Humanoid Walking Gait
Author(s): Xuan Tien Nguyen, Tri Duc Tran, Huy Hung Nguyen, Nhut Phuong Tong, Thanh Phuong Nguyen, Tan Tien Nguyen
Pages: 97-103 Paper ID: 202406-5959-IJMME-IJENS Published: December, 2020
Abstract: Development of a joint controller for humanoid robot is a challenging task since the dynamic system of the humanoid robot has nonlinearity characteristic and is extremely vulnerable to disturbance. This paper presents a robust back-stepping sliding mode controller to track the pre-computed joint trajectories in a commercial humanoid robot known as UXA-90. The proposed controller utilizes the back-stepping technique to decompose the dynamic equation of UXA-90 into reduced order systems which is asymptotically stable, then the control law for back-stepping SMC is chosen to guarantee that the system’s states are driven to the sliding manifold and stay there for all future time. Furthermore, the control law utilizes saturation function instead of sign function to reduce the chattering effect. Finally, some simulation results are carried out through MATLAB to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed controller in comparison to the previous controller.
Keywords: Sliding mode controller, biped walking, back-stepping, humanoid robot.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,718 KB
Title: Indoor Virtual Path Tracking for Mobile Robot using Sensor Fusion by Extended Kalman Filter
Author(s): Van Tu Duong, Duc Tai Nguyen, Quang Linh Luu, Trong Trung Nguyen, Huy Hung Nguyen, and Tan Tien Nguyen
Pages: 104-110 Paper ID: 202606-1717-IJMME-IJENS Published: December, 2020
Abstract: This paper presents the development of multi-sensor data fusion using extended Kalman filter (EKF) for virtual path tracking of two wheels differential drive mobile robot. First, a tracking controller based kinematic model is constructed by a quadratic curve tracking algorithm and a model reference adaptive control approach. Then, a sensor fusion data based on EKF is developed to complement the strength of dead-reckoning and Ultrawide-band localization method. Later, the proposed tracking controller and pose estimator are validated through experiment on a hardware-custom developed from a Pioneer DX3 mobile robot. The experiment results have revealed that the proposed controller can drive the mobile robot to obtain well-tracking the desired reference points as well as the proposed pose estimator can provide a high accuracy.
Keywords: Mobile robot, fusion date, EKF, tracking controller.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 832 KB
Title: Numerical Simulation of the aeroplane Wing Thermal Anti-icing System
Author(s): Ahmed Hassaani, Ahmed F. Elsayed, Essam E. Khalil
Pages: 111-121 Paper ID: 202706-4545-IJMME-IJENS Published: December, 2020
Abstract: There has always been an ongoing effort to improve aircraft anti-icing systems. Aircraft Icing poses a dangerous to the performance and safety, so it has a great concern for the airplane manufacturing and Airliners. The geometry of anti-icing system consists of a piccolo tube inside a swept wing with three rows of round jets based on NACA 23012 airfoil. Commercial ANSYS CFD software is used to solve a compressible internal airflow, an external cold airflow and the thermal conduction in the solid skin. By modeling only the effects of conductive, viscous and convective heat transfer in a dry atmosphere the complexity of this procedure conjugate heat transfer is reduced. A three dimensional Navier-Stokes computer code is used to simulate the jet flow impinging with circular configuration and heat transfer. The flow field of all turbulent regions was modeled by using the two-equation k ω Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence model. This research work assures that CFD is capable for modeling the aerodynamics and heat transfer of an anti-icing system applied to a partial wing segment at different external flow parameters.
Keywords: Computational fluid dynamics, wing anti-icing, conjugate heat transfer, thermal anti-icing, bleed air.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,427 KB
Title: The Effect of Silicon Content on Austempered ASTM A48 Structure and Mechanical Characteristics
Author(s): Ganwarich Pluphrach, Sombat Teekasap, Kanviroon Pluphrach
Pages: 122-131 Paper ID: 203106-8585-IJMME-IJENS Published: December, 2020
Abstract: In this study, Si content's effect on the structure and mechanical characteristics of as-cast and austempered gray cast iron ASTM A48 were examined. Five Si concentrations (approximately 2.05, 2.06, 2.08, 2.10, and 2.12 Si wt%) were developed and tested. The results showed that adding Si over this range to as-cast ASTM A48 increased graphite (its phase fraction increased 7.75 to 8.08%). They regressed mechanical behavior characteristics (tensile strength decreased from 275 to 270, 268, 265 MPa, with a minimum of 258 MPa, respectively, and hardness reduced from 241 to 200 HB). In contrast, impact strength was increased from 4.0 to 5.8 J. Electron backscatter diffraction, performed in association with scanning electron microscopy, allowed imagery of the selected alloy format (Route 1) to achieve and was used to develop phase maps, inverse pole figure maps for graphite. It was found that mechanical behavior characteristics of as-cast and austempered ASTM A48 results were well correlated with the directly proportional %Si.
Keywords: Silicon alloying, as-cast and austempered ASTM A48, structure, mechanical behavior characteristics
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,618 KB
Title: Comparison of Gasoline RON 90 and 92 with Addition 50% Bioethanol as Fuel on Spark Ignition Engine Performance
Author(s): Cahyo S. Wibowo, Muchalis Masuku, Nico I. Setiady, Ahmad Hamzah, Idwandi Fedori, Nur Allif Fathurrahman, Riesta Anggarani, Maymuchar, Bambang Sugiarto
Pages: 132-138 Paper ID: 203306-9494-IJMME-IJENS Published: December, 2020
Abstract: The main problem with motorcycle vehicle is the emission. One of the solutions to solve this problem is by using renewable energy that produces a clean emission such as bioethanol. Bioethanol is a biofuel obtained through a plant fermentation process. The ignition timing and injection duration could change better combustion for increasing the performance engine. The present experimental study aims at investigating the performance of gasoline with RON 90 and 92 with the addition of 50% bioethanol after changes in the ignition timing and injection duration. The result shows that the addition of bioethanol increases the research octane number of gasoline by 17 % on RON 90 and 15.8 % on RON 92. Changing the ignition timing and injection duration affect engine performance. Power and Torque value have an increase by the increasing of Ignition Timing. The highest torque and power are produced by Gasoline RON 92 with 50% bioethanol. Specific fuel Consumption also experiences a decrease by the addition of bioethanol.
Keywords: Bioethanol, Ignition Timing, Injection Duration, RON, Performance
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 953 KB
Title: Hydrogen Fuel as a Sustainable Solution for Future Engine and Turbine Technology to Overcome Energy Crisis and Environmental Problems
Author(s): Achmad Praptijanto, Yanuandri Putrasari, Kadek Heri Sanjaya, Ridwan Arief Subekti, Dalmasius Ganjar Subagio, Widodo Budi Santoso
Pages: 139-153 Paper ID: 204206-8787-IJMME-IJENS Published: December, 2020
Abstract: In the group of alternative fuels, hydrogen has the greatest possibility can be used as fuel and energy carrier. The application of hydrogen as fuel for engines and turbine is advantageous because hydrogen is renewable, nontoxic, and odorless; in addition, it emits less pollution and has a wide flammability range. Some of the targets of hydrogen use in engines and turbine are to decrease emissions and enhance efficiency. In the compression ignition engines, hydrogen is commonly used as a pilot fuel, but in the turbine could be the main fuel. For diesel engine, the easiest and most famous method is the fumigation technique in which hydrogen is supplied into the intake manifold and diesel is injected directly into the cylinder. Meanwhile, for gas turbine two routes were applied to use hydrogen. One was to develop further the water- or steam-injected diffusion burners, the other was to redesign the dry low emission burners to burn hydrogen. This work presents a comprehensive review of some topics related to engines and turbine fueled with hydrogen as a sustainable solution to overcome energy crisis and environmental problems. Previous research on diesel converted dual fuel engines and gas turbine on the utilization of hydrogen as fuel, as well as experiments and numerical studies of combustion characteristics, is extensively reviewed. This work is arranged historically to provide insights into how previous studies have laid the basis for consecutive studies, including the current research. Moreover, the review is comprehensive so that the current research can be accordingly managed to contribute to the knowledge source, including justifying the area and purpose of the present study.
Keywords: dual fuel engines, hydrogen fuel, turbine combustion, alternative fuel, renewable fuel, environment problems.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,186 KB
Title: Investigating the Accuracy of Quadratic Programming Method in Satisfying the Thrusters Constraints in the Thrust Allocation Element
Author(s): Mohsen Mahdaviniaki, S. Hossein Mousavizadegan
Pages: 154-169 Paper ID: 203506-4949-IJMME-IJENS Published: December, 2020
Abstract: The dynamic positioning systems are regarded as the most important, complex, and accurate position maintaining systems for vessels. These systems include different parts which one of them is the thrust allocation element. This element determines the magnitude and direction of the force that each thruster must exert on the vessel in each environmental condition, such that the vessel’s position or trajectory is maintained. It is important to satisfy constrains to have a reliable DP system in designing and optimizing the thrust allocation elements. The quadratic programming is used in optimizing of a thrust allocation for a ship by considering the power consumption as the objective function and the limitations of thrust generation and rotation angle of each thruster. The results show that the power consumption can be optimize while producing the required forces and moments and satisfied the limitation for the rotation angle and thrust of thrusters.
Keywords: dynamic positioning system; thrust allocation; quadratic programming method; thrusters constraints.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,106 KB