Title: Empirical and Experimental Study for Investigating Hydrodynamics of Paint Mixing Processes
Author(s): Majdi Salman, Jasem Tamimi, Maher Al-Jabari
Pages: 9-20 Paper ID: 201905-3737-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2020
Abstract: In this paper we propose a mixing algorithm for water-based paints. This mixing algorithm guarantees user to obtain a predefined paint color within a specific time. That means, the user determines the paint volume and color as inputs to the algorithm. then, the algorithm will specify the needed colors from red, green and blue paints to be mixed. Experimental process was done in one of the conventional mixing vessels, in which, the needed time for mixing and the time-varying color state of the mixture were determined. The color intensity of red, green and blue (RGB) distance between unmixed and mixed solution was used to specify the degree of homogeneity. This distance was obtained experimentally using a lab-made equipment. The color distance was then fitted to a suitable empirical profile. This profile helps to determine the equipment parameters such as the speed of mixing, bald shape and the required mixing time. These parameters play an important role for speed of convergence to obtain a steady homogeneous paint. The algorithm was applied in the MATLAB framework. For the lab equipment, we use Arduino Mega micro-controller for algorithm building and processing and high-resolution camera for paint image capturing. Furthermore, the developed system can be also used for experimental kinetic studies of various industrial and environmental problems.
Keywords: Paint mixing algorithm, paint homogeneity degree, tristimulus values, chromaticity space.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,123 KB
Title: Application of Hilbert-Huang Transform for Fault Condition Monitoring of Outer Race Bearing in Railway Bogie
Author(s): Agus Susanto, Budi Artono, Yunendar Handoko, Eko Novianto, Israel Martinez Ramires
Pages: 21-30 Paper ID: 201105-3737-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2020
Abstract: Railway axle bearing is one of the most critical railway elements, which fault out easily because the train travels with various speeds, dynamic loads, and various railway line tracks. Therefore, it is needed efficient non-destructive diagnostic methods to inspect the condition of railway axle bearings. In this work, railway axle-bearing monitoring was studied based on signal analysis. The vibration responses during the operation were analyzed using several signal transformations, combining, and comparing them to Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT). The results show that FFT provided similar features of the frequency spectrum for all cases, so that makes it difficult to distinguished roller-bearing fault conditions. EMD process separated complex signals into simple modes in the form of IMF components and each IMF contained a physical meaning of vibration due to operation. A combination of the EMD-FFT method could improve the FFT ability. Therefore, the drawback of FFT can be addressed. The STFT provided poor spectrum resolution which indicated by blurry and blocked spectrum. Bearing condition monitoring using STFT might result in misinterpretation. HHT spectra showed significant high time-frequency resolution, which makes it easy to identify the roller-bearing condition during operation. In the HHT spectrum, when the working test was using normal bearing, the energy appeared at the rotational frequency of the axle. When the working test was using fault bearing without the load, the frequency of the outer race fault appeared. The energy concentrates at the frequency of the outer race fault and its harmonic for case fault bearing with the load.
Keywords: Railway axle bearing; fault condition monitoring; vibration analyses, FFT, EMD-FFT, HHT, STFT.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,469 KB
Title: Predict the Rollover Phenomenon of the Vehicle When Steering
Author(s): Nguyen Tuan Anh
Pages: 31-40 Paper ID: 202205-1818-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2020
Abstract: When the vehicle steers at high speed, lateral instability may occur. In particular, the rollover phenomenon is extremely dangerous. This phenomenon occurs when the wheel separates from the road surface (the vertical force of the wheel equal "0"). It is difficult to predict when this problem will occur. This research focuses on establishing a function to represent the relationship between the vertical force and the displacement of the un-sprung mass respectively. The relationship is determined to be almost linear. The coefficients of the function have been set up to be optimized to give the best results. Therefore, the time when the vehicle is rollover can be predicted in advance. When the sprung mass is variable, the above function can still be used with tolerances that are quite small. The results of the research can be applied to actual rollover warning models.
Keywords: Dynamics vehicle, Rollover, Lateral instability, Vertical force, Displacement of the un-sprung mass
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 548 KB
Title: Experimental Investigation on a Simple Box-type Solar Rice Cooker
Author(s): Yogie P. Sibagariang, Esther S. M. Nababan, Himsar Ambarita
Pages: 41-46 Paper ID: 201005-7676-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2020
Abstract: In this study, a simple box-type solar rice cooker has been investigated experimentally. The dimension of absorber area is 0.835 m 0.835 m. The field tests are carried out in Medan city of Indonesia. The cooking divided into two different loads. The first is the vessel filled with 0.7 kg rice and 0.9 kg water and the second is 1 kg rice and 1.3 kg water. The tests are performed twice a day, by noon and afternoon. The results show that temperature maximum of the absorber plate can reach up to 140oC. The cooking time depend on the load of the vessel. In the first load the cooking time is about 2 h 30 min and in the second it is about 3 h 30 min. Thermal efficiency of the cooking process varies from 17.9% to 31.4%. During sunny days in Indonesia, it is possible to operate solar rice cooker twice a day.
Keywords: Rice Cooker; Solar Energy; Box-type; Solar Collector
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 712 KB
Title: Impacts of Disruptive Technology on Operational Process in an Advanced-Manufacturing Environment
Author(s): Salawu Ganiyat, Bright Glen, Onunka Chiemela
Pages: 47-57 Paper ID: 201203-2005-7474-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2020
Abstract: Industry 4.0 focuses on the proper application of emerging technologies as a disruptive tool to improve throughput in an advanced manufacturing environment. The implementation of disruptive technologies, such as the use of a manipulator as an automation tool in the manufacturing environment, has a great impact on its productivity level. This paper presents a study on the improved operational process of a manipulator during a pick and place task under standard operating conditions. The pick and place task were carried out and the manipulator motion was modified within a selected operational range. Various mathematical equations were developed and analysed to obtain the best set of parameters that can provide optimal throughput. The outcome was compared and simulated using MATLAB to obtain optimal results. With the set of operating parameters used in this study, an optimal throughput was obtained at an angle of placement of 88 degree. The results show that the speed of the robot that gave the highest throughput was 96m/secs. The research presents some effective operating parameters for the manipulator as a smart disruptive technology, which can adequately be implemented to improve the throughput rate during a pick and place task in an advanced manufacturing environment.
Keywords: Manufacturing; Motion Manipulation; Operational Variation; Throughput.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,107 KB
Title: Behavior-Based Control Performance for Robot Swarms based on Quorum Sensing
Author(s): Fredy H. Martínez S., Edwar Jacinto G., Holman Montiel A.
Pages: 58-65 Paper ID: 200205-7474-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2020
Abstract: Within the applications of robotics, the integration of autonomous systems in human environments is becoming more and more important. These environments are characterized by their high dynamics (the continuous change that prevents their previous mapping), being generally indoors (which limits the use of sensors such as GPS to support location processes) and the need to perform tasks with a high degree of reliability. In industrial environments, many of these tasks are assigned to groups of small robots, which unlike a single large robot demonstrate a very high degree of robustness. However, these schemes based on swarms of robots have complex motion control, which under some schemes translates into high costs in processing and communication. This article proposes a behavior-based motion control scheme. Specifically, we propose a control scheme based on bacterial Quorum Sensing (QS). Under this principle, we define swarm behavior from local readings that identify population density, as it happens with biological bacteria. This scheme is evaluated under different conditions to determine its performance to accomplish the task. Among the elements considered in the tests are an analysis of dependence on the environment, the robot population size and QS-based model parameters. The results corroborate that for this type of system it is possible to identify statistically the times of solution of tasks of the stochastic process.
Keywords: Autonomous systems, behavior-based control, local communication, mapping, motion, movement planning, quorum sensing, robotics, robustness, swarm.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,089 KB
Title: Evaluation of Wind Turbine Installation and Development at Sidrap Wind Farm, South Sulawesi, Indonesia
Author(s): Muhammad Khamim Asy’ari, Katherin Indriawati, Ronny Dwi Noriyati, and Ali Musyafa
Pages: 66-73 Paper ID: 201205-8383-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2020
Abstract: The growth of electricity demand in Indonesia is increasing every year in line with the growth of Indonesia's population. The government is trying to increase the capacity of electricity by 77.9 GW in 2016-2025. The portion of renewable energy is planned to reach 23% of the total national primary energy. The one of the government's real efforts to develop renewable energy is to build a Sindenreng Rappang (Sidrap) wind power plant. The Sidrap wind power plant is the first commercial scale wind power plant in Indonesia with a capacity of 75 MW. The fluctuating wind speed causes the power generated by wind power plant is also unstable at a certain value so it needs to be further analyzed through calculating the power uncertainty value of wind power plant. The calculation of power uncertainty uses the type-A and type-B measurement uncertainty methods. The data output after commissioning is obtained for 14 days at intervals of every 30 minutes. The resulting power production is in the range of values 0.125 - 32.64 MW. The uncertainty value of output power is 0.240 MW with an average value of 6.222 MW. The uncertainty value of daily output data is in the range 0.286 - 1.030 MW. The resulting uncertainty value of UA2 is 0.156 MW, the UB1 uncertainty value is 0.003 MW, so the combined uncertainty value UC is 0.286 MW. The uncertainty value expanded Uexp obtained at 0.566 MW. The power output of the Sidrap wind power plant is still not optimal, so a power optimization method is needed.
Keywords: After commissioning, electric power, uncertainty, Sidrap South Sulawesi wind power plant.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 583 KB
Title: Finite Element Based Design Approach for Piezoelectric Pressure Sensors for Accelerated Side Crash Detection and Improved Safety
Author(s): Venkateswarlu Gattineni, Venukumar Nathi
Pages: 74-83 Paper ID: 201605-8989-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2020
Abstract: A finite element analysis-based methodology using mock fluid and piezoelectric material modeling approach is presented here with the intent of quick detection of a side impact in a car, compared to traditional methods. The early detection facilitates early activation of occupant safety systems such as airbags, besides providing an opportunity to use an airbag of larger size. The study aims to propose a design approach for early detection of a side impact based on finite element methods. Compared to the frontal impact, the safety mechanisms to be devised for side-impact are more critical since the crumple zone or the number of parts available for energy absorption is limited. Hence use of advanced materials like piezoelectric crystals to detect pressure changes that arise due to an impact can predict the impact or collisions more quickly compared to traditional sensors, which try to detect the impact load and help the on-board control unit to decide on airbag deployment. Due to packaging, cost and sensitivity/range issues, the space and quantity of sensors to sense the collision or impact would be limited. Hence a careful study must be done using advanced computational methods and tools available to choose the optimum locations for deployment of sensors, besides finalization of the design of the sensors.
Keywords: Piezo electric; Occupant safety; Mockfluid, Pressure sensor; Crash; Side impact; Electric pulse
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,350 KB
Title: Evaluation of the Performance of a Deep Learning Neural Network when Controlling a Modular Chain-Type Robot
Author(s): Henry Hernández Martínez, Holman Montiel Ariza, Harvey Gómez Castillo
Pages: 84-90 Paper ID: 202905-8383-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2020
Abstract: Modular robots are structures made up of other robots or tools, allowing this type of robot to reconfigure itself and perform various types of tasks. There are several ways to control this type of robot, among them, the decentralized controller allows each robot module to control its own actuators in coordination with the other modules and thus generate different tasks. This type of controller is, however, subject to the morphology of the robot and the modules, i.e. when generating a motion, the flow of information may be interrupted, and the robot may fail. Some authors have tried to solve this problem, reducing the robot's speed, giving robustness to the controller, among others. However, this problem of controlling modular robots is a topic in study, therefore, in this article it is proposed a controller based on deep learning neural networks (DNN) so that a chain type modular robot generates movement schemes in a coordinated and controlled way.
Keywords: Deep learning, Artificial Neural Networks, Controller, Modular robots.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,149 KB
Title: Design and Development of a Vibration Monitoring For Wind Turbine System Reliability Evaluation Based of Internet of Things (IoT)
Author(s): Ali Musyafa, F.C.Aguisti, R. D. Noriyati, I.Abadi, H. Harsono, Muhammad Khamim Asy’ari
Pages: 96-105 Paper ID: 202305-7676-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2020
Abstract: The wind turbine installed in the wind farm produces a side mechanical effect in the form of vibrations, vibrations arising from gusts of wind hitting the blades. The vibrations that occur in the wind turbine will affect the performance of the wind turbine, especially the reliability of components and systems. Thus, this condition needs to be known early with monitoring techniques, so that the reliability of the wind turbine components can be known in real time. Monitoring activities are carried out by implementing cutting-edge monitoring technology using cyber physics systems and the internet of things. Data acquisition obtained then processed statistically with control chart tools. From the vibrations that arise, then it can be found the relationship between wind speed and vibration in three axes, especially related to changes in wind speed passing in position and after passing through the blade. At average wind speeds (2.0- 6.0) m / s for zone locations in East Java-Indonesia, generally the vibrations caused by wind turbines are considered normal, but for speeds> 6 m / s are considered chrysanthemums. From the lowest wind speed, the electrical power that can be captured by a wind turbine is 48 watts, the lowest wind and the largest power = 89 watts. In this situation, wind power losses will cause various vibrations and result in the system reliability experiencing a decrease rate up to the 55% reliability value limit. For the reliability value of components based on three-axis vibration sump, the time degradation is obtained after 39 days or 936 hours of operation. Implementation of a monitoring system that is built for (vibration, wind speed before blade and blade rotation speed) has a response time of 15 seconds for each data transmission that will arrive the monitoring system display.
Keywords: Wind turbine , Wind power, Vibration, Internet of things, reliability, Monitoring.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,398 KB
Title: Hydrodynamics Simulation of Different Impeller Geometries Applied to Non-Newtonian Fluids in A Stirred Tank Reactor
Author(s): Lilibeth Niño, Mariana Penuela, German Gelves
Pages: 106-118 Paper ID: 203005-7979-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2020
Abstract: In the present study bubble breakup and coalescence phenomena applied to non-newtonian fluids was simulated in order to characterize gas-liquid mass transfer in a 10 L bioreactor equipped with different impeller configurations. The k_L a mass transfer coefficient was estimated based on hydrodynamics simulation. Four geometries are proposed for analyzing flow pattern effect on gas liquid mass-transfer: Anchor Impeller (Radial Flow Pattern), Helical Impeller (axial upwards pumping), Interference Turbine (axial upwards and downwards pumping) and High Efficiency Turbine (axial downwards pumping). It was found that radial velocity flow patterns maximize k_L a as a consequence of its great capacity to break bubbles in Non-Newtonian fluids. The latter is confirmed by the highest k_L a values simulated using the Anchor Impeller. Also, it was found that pumping flow direction influences air dispersion: axial downwards pumping of High Efficiency Turbine generates better results in comparison to axial downwards pumping geometries (Helical Impeller). Motivated by results found on this work, the main criteria to design a device for improving of k_L a mass transfer in non-Newtonian applications are: (a) generating of radial, axial pumping down and shear velocities; (b) generating of small bubbles, and (c) generating of wall shear stress, lower than critical values reported according to references.
Keywords: Bioreactor Non-Newtonian Fluids Computational Fluid Dynamics.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,708 KB
Title: Experimental Study of the Influence of Tooth Profile Modification on Straight Bevel Gear Dynamic Tooth Strain
Author(s): Agus Sigit Pramono, Dwi Susanto, Yusuf Kaelani, Alief Wikarta
Pages: 119-127 Paper ID: 202605-7373-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2020
Abstract: For optimal dynamic performance, noise and vibration of gears pose a major challenge. The contact points of two gears in mesh do not follow the profile design due to certain problems, including tooth deflections, profile and assemble errors. Initial contact points occur earlier and finally with excessive load, where vibration tends to increase and failure then becomes premature. To resolve these circumstances, tooth profile modification presents the most effective method. Based on the experiences, modified tooth profile of straight bevel gear was studied in order to determine the tooth-root fillet strain. Moreover, two pairs of straight bevel gears were provided. The first relates to the standard involute profile, while the second is for the modified. Subsequently, a strain gauge was attached to the tooth-root fillet of pinion, while the slip ring was applied close to the pinion. This arrangement was to prevent the twisting of the cable connecting the Wheatstone bridge to the dynamic strainmeter responsible for shaft rotation. In addition, rotational speed and load were used as variables. The result showed the profile modification on straight bevel gear tends to significantly reduce the strain on the tooth-root fillet. This potentially decreased the strain between the range of 25 - 40 %, based on the magnitudes of rotational speeds and loads.
Keywords: straight bevel gear, profile modification, strain, experimental study.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 902 KB
Title: Optimization and Experimental Investigation of Savonius Wind Turbine Performance at Low Wind Speed Condition
Author(s): Sarah Ali Al-shammari, Sattar Aljabair, AbdulHassan A. Karamallah
Pages: 128-141 Paper ID: 200805-4343-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2020
Abstract: Many improvements have been researched for conventional Savonius wind turbines in the blade shape to amend the power efficiency. In the present study, the artificial neural network was used to predict the optimum blade shape design for an enhanced power coefficient value for Savonius wind turbine at low wind speed condition numerically with commercial code software ANSYS-CFX and MATLAB. The numerical and experimental work was done with a comparison between two models; conventional and an optimized blade shape. The simulations included the analysis of many models used to learn the artificial neural network to predict the optimum blade shape of Savonius wind turbine at a wind speed of (3 m/s) and a tip speed ratio (TSR) of (0.8). Two aspect ratios (1 and 0.77) were used depending on two and three blades numerically modelled at 3 m/s and TSR range (0.2-1.2) to select best performance model for manufacturing and experimental test. From the experimental work, the torque and power coefficient were calculated based on a range of wind speed of (2.5 - 4 m/s) and an angular velocity range of (130 - 280 RPM) based on the meteorological statistics in Baghdad. The numerical results were compared with the experimental ones obtained from the wind tunnel test. The results manifested that the best model is the modified with two blades with AR =1, and the enhancement ratio of power coefficient is 46% numerically and 31% experimentally.
Keywords: Savonius Wind Turbine, SWT, Optimization blade shape, CFX, Renewable Energy.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,662 KB
Title: Experimental Study on Kinematic Parameter and Undulating Pattern Influencing Thrust Performance of Biomimetic Underwater Undulating Driven Propulsor
Author(s): Van Hien Nguyen, Van Dong Nguyen, Van Tu Duong, Huy Hung Nguyen, Van Sy Le, Tan Tien Nguyen
Pages: 142-148 Paper ID: 202705-4646-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2020
Abstract: Recent state-of-art researches have revealed and developed various biomimetic mechanical fin. However, there is still a lot of work to do aiming to understand the effect of kinematic parameters and undulating patterns to the characteristic of the undulating fin on generated thrust. This paper aims to study factors influencing the thrust performance of a biomimetic underwater undulating fin driven propulsor inspired by gymnotiform fish species. The undulating robotic fin comprises of six-teen of fin-rays interconnected with a rubber membrane that could produce a thrust force by the propagation sinusoidal wave come along the mechanical fin. First, the kinematic parameter of the elongated undulating fin including the amplitude envelope, wavelength, and the oscillatory frequency was briefly summarized. A drag platform of this undulating robotic fin designed to study its various kinematic was then presented. Latter, the undulating fin with four patterns for cyclic motion in combination with the variable kinematic parameters has been investigated to understand the locomotion performance. Finally, the experimental results show that the thrust force gradually increases with the increase of amplitude envelope, oscillatory frequency, and the fact that the pattern with the amplitude envelope-liked stingray fish provides for the best performance on generated thrust.
Keywords: Undulating fin, biomimetic, underwater propulsion, bio-inspired robotic.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,339 KB
Title: Enhancement The Thermal Efficiency of The Horizontal Concrete Solar Collector by Using Several Operating Fluids
Author(s): Nawfel Muhammed Baqer Muhsin, Dr. Mohammed Hamed Alhamdo
Pages: 149-163 Paper ID: 203705-6161-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2020
Abstract: In this paper, the thermal efficiency for system horizontal solar concrete collector is studied. The experimental study consisted of model of horizontal concrete solar collector with area of 0.6m2. In addition, different operating fluids were used, this include water, propylene glycol solution and aluminum oxide. The tests were done at various at exposed heat flux values of 400W/m2, 700W/m2 and 1000W/m2 with three fluid inlet temperatures of 15, 20 and 25°C. Numerically model was represented in the Ansys Software 18-workbench with suitable boundary condition according to model. The model is designed to give the best efficiency at Reynold 900 due to higher than temp. The results show that, the error range is 8% which indicate good compatibility then between the experimental test and Numerical simulation. The model is also validated with previous work model and the results showed a good agreement with error less than 6%. The results proved that there is an increase that of thermal efficiency the HCSC by 21.31% which using aluminum oxide fluid compared to those in the solar collector used water and the volume fraction was 10 %.
Keywords: Ansys, HCSC ,Al2O3 ,Nano.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,821 KB
Title: A Computational Fluid Dynamics Study to Optimize the Orientation of the Syngas Injector for Reducing Environmental Pollution and Performance Improvement of a Bi Engine
Author(s): Hussein A. Mahmood, Ali O. Al-Sulttani, Osam H. Attia
Pages: 164-174 Paper ID: 200905-8383-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2020
Abstract: Several works have focused on turning petrol engines into bi-engines (syngas-petrol) to boost their fuel economy and restrict environmental pollution that related to engine emissions. However, most of these works do not consider making fuel and air mixture more homogeneous inside the engine. This abnormality can lead to larger emissions, increased consumption of fuel and knocking probably. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis was carried on the petrol engine (1.6 L) in bi-engine pattern (petrol-syngas engine) to improve the orientation of the syngas injector (position and angle).To enhance the homogeneity with the inlet manifold under single-point injection, nine different cases were made to study the impacts of places and angles of injector within the inlet manifold on the uniformity and propagation of the mixture under air fuel ratio (AFR) equal to 4.58. Afterward, the propagation, flow characteristics and uniformity of the mixture was tested in nine separate cases using CFD analysis program. Depending on the outcome of the numerical analysis it was observed that the highest uniformity index (UI) ratios were obtained for case 1.
Keywords: Homogeneity of the mixture; Gas injector orientation; Bi-engines; Computational fluid dynamics (CFD); Environment; Pollution.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,449 KB
Title: Modeling of Nonlinear 3-RRR Planar Parallel Manipulator: Kinematics and Dynamics Experimental Analysis
Author(s): Abdelrahman Sayed Sayed, Nada Ali Mohamed, Amr Abo Salem, Hossam Hassan Ammar
Pages: 175-185 Paper ID: 201505-4646 IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2020
Abstract: Parallel Manipulators (PMs) are gaining increasing importance, due to their superiority over serial manipulators in industry in terms of smaller workspace (WS), speed and precision. In this paper, the design, workspace analysis, modeling and control of a novel 3-RRR Planar Parallel Manipulator (PPM) are proposed. Because the kinematic constraint equations are complex due to the nonlinear behavior, non-conventional methods are used to model the system and control it. The Neuro- Fuzzy Inference System (NFIS) is used for forward kinematics modeling, while the Neural Networks (NN) and Adaptive Neuro- Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) are used for inverse kinematics modeling. Two metaheuristic optimization techniques, PSO and GA, were used for parameter tuning in the NFIS model. The results show that the used techniques were accurate in capturing the system dynamics. Thus, they enable precise and fast control using them, instead of using the coupled kinematical equations.
Keywords: Planar Parallel Manipulator (PPM), Kinematic and Dynamics analysis, Neural networks; ANFIS, Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,242 KB
Title: Performance Analysis and Optimization of Solar Powered Water Pumping System Compared To Convention Diesel for Irrigation Application in an Isolated Region, Egypt
Author(s): Marwa M. Ibrahim
Pages: 186-200 Paper ID: 202805-7373-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2020
Abstract: Due to lack of electricity, high diesel prices and CO2 emissions, solar power for water pumping is a good alternative and an appealing choice for conventional diesel-based pumping systems. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of solar water pumping systems from a technical and economic point of view; to estimate the optimal system size and compare it with conventional diesel pumping systems in order to fulfill water requirements for irrigation and livestock needs. The selected site is an isolated agriculture area located Fayoum City, Egypt with a maximum required power of 443 kW peak for 121 m3/hr supplies. This study investigates three systems: diesel system, off-grid PV/battery system and PV grid extension (on-grid) system. The proposed optimization sizing methodology is performed using HOMER 3.13.8 software package with least net present cost and cost of energy. The capacity for pumping power is also estimated. The results showed that net present cost of PV grid extension pumping system is equivalent to three times the off-grid PV battery system and four times the diesel system. The cost of electricity is 0.07 $/kWh for the PV grid extension system, though 0.332 $/kWh for the off-grid PV battery system as well as 0.434 $/kWh for the diesel system. For the amount of CO2; the PV grid extension system is six times smaller than diesel system. Moreover, it is found that the pumping power capacity is about 10 HP. Finally, the PV grid extension pumping system is the best solution for this case study with 0.05 cent per one meter cube of water price and 4–6 years for return on investment period.
Keywords: Irrigation; Water pumping; Diesel generator; Renewable Energy; Solar Energy; Simulation; Net present Cost; Cost of Energy.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,741 KB
Title: A Study on the Difference of Edge Design Shape and Corrosion Behavior for Low Carbon Steel Welded Joint Under Salt Fog Environment
Pages: 201-208 Paper ID: 204005-7373-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2020
Abstract: The aim of this work is to study the influence of the edge design joint of shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) on the corrosion behavior of low carbon steel. Four different edge shape design preparation; straight edge, single V, double V and single grove edge butt joint were selected from the industrial application. Corrosion behavior of the welds was evaluated by conducting salt fog test in 3.5 % sodium chloride (NaCl) solution at different exposed spraying time; 1 to 7 days with constant pH, flow rate, temperature and spray air pressure. The experimental set up was carried out in accordance to the ASTM B117-90 standard method of salt spray test. The corrosion rate was evaluated from weight loss measurements. Furthermore, an attempt was made to develop an empirical relationship to predict the effect of edge design preparation, chloride ion concentration and salt spray time on corrosion rate of low carbon steel welded joint. The corrosion morphology observation was carried out by SEM/ EDX and the corrosion products were analyzed by XRD analysis. The result show, the localized corrosion are found at HAZ area compare to others area and presence of γ-FeOOH, Fe3O4 and α-FeOOH for corrosion product. It found that the corrosion resistance of single v was better than other joints. From the results, it is evident that the joint design or geometric shape of weld has an important role in the welding process, when the preparation have angle value, the faults gets less due to increase of heat quantity in the weld region.
Keywords: edge design joint, salt spray test, corrosion.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,497 KB
Title: Self-Balancing Robotic Platform: A Case of Study of Using Modular Reconfigurable Systems in Educational Environments
Author(s): Fernando Martínez Santa, Holman Montiel Ariza, Fredy H. Martínez Sarmiento
Pages: 209-215 Paper ID: 203305-4747-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2020
Abstract: This article describes, the use of the Mindstorms NXT robotics platform as modular and re-configurable tool for building mechanical plants to be used as laboratories in the subjects of Robotics, Dynamic Systems and Control, by electronic and electrical engineering students in Universidad Distrital (Bogotá, Colombia). For this, a self-balancing Segway platform was selected as a case of study, it was built using the NXT and its mathematical model was found and represented as a transfer function, according with the built plant. A simple PID controller was obtaining by means of applying the Root Locus methodology, and finally it was turned into discrete and implemented on the NXT processor using a LabVIEW diagram block. The results show the effectiveness of the implemented control system and gives the description of other kinds of control methodologies, mechanical plants and subjects to be involved with this kind of modular and re-configurable systems.
Keywords: Mobile robots, Self-balancing platform, Modular systems, re-configurable systems, PID Controller, Didactic tools.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 932 KB
Title: Low REYNOLDS Number Effect on Steady Laminar Flow Around Two Circular Cylinders in In-Line Arrangement
Author(s): Olanrewaju M. Oyewola
Pages: 216-224 Paper ID: 204605-1919-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2020
Abstract: In this study, steady laminar flow past two identical circular cylinders in in-line arrangement is investigated numerically with aim of examine the effects of low Reynolds number (1 ≤ Re ≤ 40) and centre-to-centre distance between the cylinders on the flow field around them. For a given Reynolds number, it is observed that the mean drag coefficients of both cylinders are lower than that of an isolated single cylinder. In addition, the mean drag coefficient of the downstream cylinder is significantly less than that of the upstream cylinder. For a fixed small centre-to-centre distance of two diameters, a pair of symmetric vortices is formed within the gap between the cylinders and no vortices in the rear end of the downstream cylinder are observed for Re ≤ 10. However, for Re > 10, additional pair of symmetric vortices is observed behind the downstream cylinder. Also, for a fixed Reynolds number, the flow characteristics pattern in the gap is strongly influenced by centre-to-centre distance.
Keywords: Laminar flow, circular cylinder, drag coefficient, vortices
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,039 KB
Title: Physical, chemical and thermal characterization of a Colombian clay
Author(s): R.A. García-León, J. A. Gómez-Camperos, H. Y. Jaramillo
Pages: 225-234 Paper ID: 203905-4646-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2020
Abstract: Clays are used as raw materials of the ceramic industry for construction and other industries, which are poorly understood to the laboratory level. The purpose of this study was to obtain an optimal clay mixture for a company localized in Ocaña, Norte de Santander, Colombia. Initially, the physical characterization of five different types of soil formations was developed to determine the optimal clay mixture for the manufacture of masonry products for construction. The granulometry, hydrometry, and plasticity index results of the raw material, based on the Winkler diagram, were analyzed using ternary plots to select the m7 mixture. The behavior of the mixture m7 obtained by mixture statistical design was analyzed in all technological aspects considering ideal test conditions and thus obtain a graph of the behavior in cooking from the test of drying, water absorption, flexural strength, XRD, XRF, SEM-EDS, AFM, and thermogravimetry, and in this way control at this important stage process. The alumina, iron oxide, and silica oxide are the main compounds on the mixtures and, therefore, the high dependence of the cooking behavior due to chemical reactions of the clays and the processing during the stages of the production process.
Keywords: Clay; blocks; granulometry; hydrometry; mineralogy; optimization.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,159 KB
Title: Sliding Mode Based Virtual Sensor for Feedback Linearization in Delta Robots with Unknown Dynamic Model
Author(s): Iyad Hashlamon
Pages: 235-242 Paper ID: 205205-3434-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2020
Abstract: Delta robots are of nonlinear dynamics, therefore applying linear controllers to satisfy the required trajectory tracking is a challenge which becomes more significant when the robot model is unknown. This paper proposes a stable virtual sensor to be used for feedback linearization for delta robots with unknown dynamic model. The sensor design is based on the second order sliding mode observer. This sensor considers that only the inertia of the robot upper links with the motor inertia are known. As a measurement, only the active joints position angles are measured. The stability is proven using Lyapunov theory and explicit relations for the design parameters are obtained. To overcome the effect of the transient response of this sensor, an adaptive tuning gain with maximum value of unity is introduced in the feedback to improve the compensation performance. The results validate this sensor and prove its dramatic performance improvement in trajectory tracking when combined with the PD controller.
Keywords: Delta robot, sliding mode observer, disturbance estimation, adaptive control, virtual sensor.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,080 KB
Title: Examination of Flow and Heat Transfer Phenomena in Ducts with Dimples and Protrusions
Author(s): O. M. Oyewola, M. O. Petinrin, M. A. Gbolasere, T. T. Olugasa
Pages: 243-252 Paper ID: 205005-1717-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2020
Abstract: Dimples and protrusions create effective flow structure by improving fluid-surface interactions and fluid-mixing in ducts for thermal enhancement with minimal pressure losses. The experimental investigation of the effects of dimples and protrusions in the form of smooth surface duct, teardrop dimpled and teardrop protruded duct on flow and heat transfer characteristics were examined. Measurements of temperature, pressure drop and velocity were carried out in an experimental test rig and data collected were used to evaluate the heat transfer, flow friction, and the overall thermal performance of the three test ducts for the Reynolds number ranges from 30,000 to 57,000. The results show that with reference to the smooth duct, the Nusselt number of dimpled duct increases by 134.4% while those of protruded duct increases by 41.6%. Further, the heat transfer augmentation ranges from 1.53 to 4.76 and 1.07 to 2.32 for dimpled duct and protruded duct, respectively. In addition, the protruded duct demonstrated a higher friction factor in the range of 1.48 to 2.25 times that of the smooth duct, while dimpled duct friction factor increases in the range of 1.10 to 1.31. The overall result suggests that the dimpled duct have the best thermal-hydraulic performance as revealed by the performance evaluation criteria.
Keywords: Protrusions, dimples, thermal performance, friction factor, normalized Nusselt number.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 991 KB
Title: Development of LED SMART Street Light Monitoring System Based on Internet of Things (IoT)
Author(s): Fariz Ali, Lai Jia Huei, Ahmad Zaki Hj Shukor, Muhammad Herman Jamaluddin, Muhammad Fahmi Miskon, Mohd Shahrieel Mohd Aras
Pages: 253-269 Paper ID: 204705-8383-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2020
Abstract: The problem of the current street lighting system in Malaysia uses High-Pressure Sodium (HPS) light which contains hazardous materials and depending on timer controlling system that has the poor capability to adapt changes in ambient light, as well as technicians, have trouble identifying fault street lights. Thus, this project has proposed an excellent method for managing street lights using the Internet of Things (IoT) and a SMART streetlight through the implementation feedback control sensors. In order to interact with street lights, ZigBee and Wi-Fi are used in network infrastructure. This system can provide basic functionality while saving energy by either dimming or turning off the street lights. Two colour temperature of warm white and pure white chip on board (COB) LEDs will be used to represent a real street light. Light-dependent resistor (LDR) will use to detect the ambient light level and compared with a commercially available lux meter to determine the accuracy of the designed lux meter. A Doppler effect microwave sensor will be used to detect the movement on the road. When the microwave sensor detects motion, LEDs will light up. If there is no motion detected by doppler effect microwave sensor, the light will be dimmed to power save mode and reduce power wastage. By depending on the meteorological condition, the colour temperature of LEDs will change accordingly, which will give a better light penetration capability to drivers. In order to provide SMART features to the street light, the artificial intelligence approach is implemented into the system. Artificial intelligence fuzzy logic will be used as a feedback control system. Last but not least, Google Firebase will be used in setting up IoT. Google Firebase cloud services such as Google Cloud Firestore and Google Realtime Database is used for real-time database and web monitoring.
Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT); ZigBee; Google Firebase; Smart Street Light.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 991 KB
Title: General Coordination and Task Allocation of a Group of Robots Using Bacterial Behavior
Author(s): Fredy H. Martínez S., Holman Montiel A., Harvey Gómez C.
Pages: 270-275 Paper ID: 204805-7171-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2020
Abstract: In the case of development of complex tasks by groups of autonomous robots requires a strategy that allows assigning each of the robots the development of sections of the task quickly, efficiently, and optimally according to the possibilities of each robot in the system. The failure of this process inevitably leads to fail in the development of the task or perform it at a very high cost. In real applications, the robots are exposed to many constraints by the environment, particularly in terms of communication between agents and tracking their exact position through odometry and models. These restrictions are particularly important to ensure the coordination of a group of robots. In this article, we propose a task assignment strategy for a group of robots that seeks to imitate some characteristics observed in bacterial communities to overcome problems such as global communication of system agents and functional variations in robot performance. The strategy makes a segmentation in regions of interest of navigation environment with robots restricted to this region until they autonomously decide who develops the task. We formulate and detail the scheme, and propose it for use in general tasks of autonomous navigation. The proposal includes the modeling of the system from a hybrid system, details of its structure, and performance considerations.
Keywords: Bacterial behavior, multi-robot system, quorum sensing, task allocation.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 779 KB