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Title: A Constrained Evolving Classifier for Gearbox Health Monitoring
Author(s): Venkata Modi, Wilson Wang
Pages: 1-7 Paper ID: 180301-5959-IJMME-IJENS Published: February, 2018
Abstract: The fault diagnostics in gearboxes is of great importance to rotating machinery. In this paper, a constrained evolving classifier is developed for real-time gear system health monitoring. A evolving reasoning is based on neurofuzzy (NF) paradigm for pattern classification. The partition of the output space is constrained to gear health patterns to prevent possible misleading diagnostic results. The inputs of the features are from the energy, amplitude, and phase domains, respectively. An online parallel recursive training methods is proposed to improve the classifier’s adaptive capability to accommodate different gearbox conditions, as well as to improve training convergence. The effectiveness of this new constrained evolving classifier is tested experimentally under different gear conditions.
Keywords: Evolving systems, neurofuzzy scheme, constrained output space, gearboxes, fault diagnosis, system training.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 451 KB
Title: Effect of Winglet Vortex Generators Orientation on Heat Transfer Enhancement
Author(s): Khudheyer S. Mushatet, Iltifat lazim edan
Pages: 8-24 Paper ID: 181201-7575-IJMME-IJENS Published: February, 2018
Abstract: experimental; and numerical investigation of three dimensional turbulent flow and heat transfer; inside a rectangular channel equipped with array of winglet vortex generators. Three pairs array of winglet vortex generators of different geometrical configuration as rectangular , triangular , semi circle and parabolic are considered. The array of winglet vortex generators is formed and distributed on the bottom hot surface with a facility for changing the angle of attack from (0° to 60°). ANSYS Fluent C ode (15.0) based on a fi nite volume method is used to obtain the numerical results while a k- turbulence model is used to model the tur bulent .The Reynolds number range is from 10000 to 50,000 under a constant heat flux boundary condition.. Two cases of winglet vortex generators array are included. The first case is anti stream common flow up. The second case is the combined anti and with stream common flow up. The two cases are tested for different values of angle of attack, the stream wise and span wise position between the vortex and Reynolds number. The obtained results show that the suggested arrangement of common ;flow up (anti and with stream) for vortex generator offers superior in heat transfer enhancement and overall thermal performance rated by 240% and 170% respectively. In addition, A signification increase in heat transfer enhancement , and overall thermal performance is found as the angle of attack and the positions between vortex generator increases .
Keywords: winglet vortex generators, turbulent channel flow, CFD.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 821 KB
Title: Experimental Investigation of Mixed Convection Heat Transfer in a Vertical and Horizontal Annulus with Rotating Inner Cylinder
Author(s): Akeel Abdulallah Mohammed, Ayad Tareq Mustafa, Huda Ali Ibrahim
Pages: 25-32 Paper ID: 182501-3939-IJMME-IJENS Published: February, 2018
Abstract: An experimental study for heat transfer process by mixed convection in the entrance region of annulus with uniformly heated stationary outer cylinder and rotating inner shaft has been carried out. The present study aimed to investigate the local and average heat transfer along the axial distance of outer cylinder in horizontal and vertical positions. The experimental setup consists of an annulus with a radius ratio of 0.37 and outer cylinder with a heated length of 1.12m. The experimental investigation was achieved within Reynolds number ranges from 1000 to 2400 and Taylor number values of 0, 158933, 225269, and 506856. Moreover, the Richardson number ranges between 1.09 (mixed convection) to 0.104 (forced convection) in vertical position, and between 1.05 (mixed convection) to 0.113 (forced convection) in horizontal position. The results showed that the local Nusselt number values increase when the heat flux, Reynolds number and Taylor number increase. It is found that the values of local Nusselt number converge with each other down stream. Two empirical relationships have been deduced for the average Nusselt number as a function of Taylor number (Ta) and Richardson number (Ri) for vertical and horizontal positions.
Keywords: Annulus; convection heat transfer; rotating inner cylinder; experimental investigation; heat flux
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,125 KB
Title: Effect of Optimum Arrangement of Conical Turbulators with Twisted Tape on Heat Transfer Enhancement in a Heated Tube
Author(s): Khudheyer S. Mushatet, Baydaa A. Hussein
Pages: 33-49 Paper ID: 182001-9494-IJMME-IJENS Published: February, 2018
Abstract: In this paper, an experimental and numerical investigation has been conducted to predict the intensification of forced convection in a heated tube coupled with combined conical turbulators and twisted tape .Different arrangements of conical nozzle turbulators has been tested with different twist ratio as 3.0,5.0 and 7.0 respectively. The characteristics of complex turbulent flow and heat transfer augmentation is studied for Reynolds number variety of 15000 to 65000.The experimental results are obtained by constructing a test rig with sensors while the theoretical by using a numerical simulation based on a Fluent code .The obtained results show that the compound diverge conical turbulators with twisted tape has a superiority over those of the converge and converge-diverge arrangements. It is found that optimum enhancement in heat transfer is up to 237% for the diverge arrangement.
Keywords: Heat transfer, conical turbulators, twisted tape.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 986 KB
Title: Efficient Object Isolation in Complex Environment Using Manipulation Primitive on a Vision Based Mobile 6DOF Robotic Arm
Author(s): Quah Jit Shen, Muhammad Fahmi, khalil azha mohd annuar
Pages: 50-56 Paper ID: 171106-1801-8282-IJMME-IJENS Published: February, 2018
Abstract: This paper explores the idea of manipulation aided-perception in the context of isolating an object of interest from other small objects of varying degree of clusterization in order to obtain high quality training images. The robot utilizes a novel algorithm to plot out the position for each noise objects and its destined position as well as its trajectory and then utilizes manipulation primitives (pushing motion) to move said object along the planned trajectory. The method was demonstrated using V-rep simulation software which simulated a Kuka YouBot fitted with a camera on the gripper. We evaluated our approach by simulating the robot manipulators in an experiment which successfully isolate the object of interest from noise objects with at a rate of 77.46% at an average of 0.56 manipulations per object compared to others at 1.76 manipulations subsequently speeding up the time taken for manipulation from 12.58 minutes to 2.6 minutes however suffers from a tradeoff in terms of accuracy when comparing the similar works to our proposed method.
Keywords: Trajectory Generation, Sorting, Object Manipulation, Object Isolation
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 783 KB
Title: Cfd Simulations of Thermal Performance of Bare and Finned Tube Heat Exchangers Used as a Surpercharging Air Cooler for Marine Engine
Author(s): JIHANI Youssef, ADHAM Adam, MABSATE El Mostafa
Pages: 57-63 Paper ID: 182201-7373-IJMME-IJENS Published: February, 2018
Abstract: In this article, a numerical study of the hydrodynamic and thermal behavior of a supercharging air cooler of a marine engine with bare bank tube configuration is presented. The CFD simulation of the air cooler with its actual configuration (bare tube bank configuration) is implemented with relatively small dimensions compared to the actual dimensions while keeping the same ratio of the diameter and pitches tubes of the validation models. A comparison of the efficiency of this cooler with another of the same dimension and using plain finned tube configuration towards heat exchange coefficient and pressure drop is then carried out. The resolution of the conservation equations is ensured by the ANSYS Fluent simulation code. The results obtained show that the heat exchange coefficient and the pressure variation are greater for plain finned tube configuration and the efficiency index goes up with appending the fins.
Keywords: component; CFD; Fin-tube heat exchanger; configuration of heat exchanger; Airside thermal characteristics.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,020 KB
Title: Experimental Investigation of Composite Materials Subjected to Torsional Stresses at High Shear Strain Rate
Author(s): Fadhel Abbas Abdullah, Waad Adnan Khalaf
Pages: 64-75 Paper ID: 183101-2929-IJMME-IJENS Published: February, 2018
Abstract: This study focused on the dynamic behavior of pure epoxy, random-fiber-glass-epoxy, and woven-kevlar-fiber-epoxy at five angle of twist (4 ̊, 6 ̊, 8 ̊, 10 ̊ and 12 ̊ ) by using torsional-Split-Hopkinson-Bar (TSHB). A new mechanism of the clamp system is used in this work for the pressure on the lower ends of the clamp arms, which introducing a major simplification to (TSHP) design requirements The samples of composites were prepared by three volume fraction (25, 40 and 55%). The results indicated that maximum shear strain, and shear stress increased with increasing the shear strain rate for all types of these samples. The maximum shear-strain, shear-stress, and shear-strain-rate are observed in the 55% volume fraction of woven kevlar fiber-epoxy composite. When the angle of twist increased from 4 ̊ to 12 ̊, the shear-strain, shear-stress, and shear-strain-rate for 55% volume fraction of woven kevlar fiber-epoxy composite are increased by 4.9%, 5.8% and 6.7%, respectively. The composite samples with 55% volume fraction (random fiber glass and woven kevlar fiber) give shear-strain, shear-stress, and shear-strain-rate greater than samples with 25 and 40% volume fraction.
Keywords: Hopkinson bar, high shear strain rate, composite materials.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,432 KB
Title: The Mechanical Properties of Functionalised MWCNT Infused Epoxy Resin: A Theoretical and Experimental Study
Author(s): Mohammed Al-Bahrani, Zoltan J Gombos, Alistair Cree
Pages: 76-86 Paper ID: 183801-5353-IJMME-IJENS Published: February, 2018
Abstract: Carbon nanotubes are considered to be one of the strongest and stiffest engineering materials available, possessing a calculated tensile strength of σTS ≈ 11- 200 GPa and Young’s modulus E >1.4 TPa. In the context of manufactured engineering composites, epoxy resin is commonly used as a matrix material for many aerospace and oil field, and other, industrial applications. This paper reports the initial findings of a study, which considered the effects of small additions of two types of multi-wall carbon nanotubes, nickel coated MWCNTs (Ni-MWCNTs) & carboxyl acid surface activated MWCNTs (COOH-MWCNTs) on the mechanical properties of an epoxy resin matrix. To successfully incorporate these particles into the matrix materials, with good dispersive properties, standard mixing techniques using an ultrasonic bath were used during the manufacture of appropriate specimens for testing. The tensile strength properties of these specimens, as well as the microstructure, were then evaluated and studied. Scanning Electronic Microscope (SEM) was used to visualise the degree of dispersion of the MWCNT’s in the matrix material. The results obtained indicated that the mechanical properties of epoxy resin can be improved by the addition of the both type of MWCNT’s. In particular, the addition of Ni-MWCNT’s increased the tensile strength by approximately 19% and the tensile modulus by 28%. While for COOH-MWCNTs the increase was 20.6% for tensile and 27.5% for the modulus. It is suggested that these improvements, seen with the MWCNT’s particles, were due to an increase in the degree of interfacial bonding between MWCNT and epoxy, so leading to the improved mechanical properties of the nanocomposite observed. Theoretical modelling, using ANSYS finite element analysis, also showed good correlation with the experimental results obtained.
Keywords: Ni-MWCNTs, COOH-MWCNTs, Epoxy resin, ANSYS
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 974 KB
Title: Experimental Study of Effect of Nanoparticles Addition on Combustion Phasing In Diesel Engine
Author(s): Abdulkhodor Kathum Nassir, Haroun A. K. Shahad
Pages: 87-97 Paper ID: 181301-7676-IJMME-IJENS Published: February, 2018
Abstract: This experimental work aims to examine the effect of nanoparticles added to diesel fuel on combustion phasing. Nano fuels is prepared by adding Al2O3 or TiO2, both with particle size less 45nm to diesel fuel. Four doses for each one namely (25, 50, 100 and 150) ppm are prepared. These nanoparticles are blended with diesel fuel in varying volume fraction by the means of an electrical mixer and an ultrasonicator. Physicochemical properties of Nano fuels are measured and compared with neat diesel. Their stability characteristics were analyzed under static conditions. The Nano fuels are (DF+Al2O3) and (DF+TiO2). The study shows that the addition of nanoparticles to diesel fuel improves in physical properties such as cetane number where it increases from 51.6 to 54.3 for Al2O3 at 150ppm. Also Comparisons of fuel properties without and with nanoparticles additives (Al2O3 and TiO2) are presented. The influence of nanoparticles addition is very clear on the delay period and the heat release fractioning (premix and diffusion). The results show that the delay period decreased with increasing of nanoparticles addition. The maximum reduction is with 25ppm TiO2 is around (0.55CA) at full load. The reduction in the delay period means reducing the heat release in the premix stage of combustion and increasing the heat release in the diffusion stage combustion. The heat released decreased in premix combustion stage with both nanoparticles particularly in 25ppm as compared to pure diesel. Also the heat release decreased in diffusion combustion with both of them as compared to pure diesel. The reduction in premix fraction with Nano fuels(DF+Al2O3) and (DF+TiO2) is (0.3367%) and(4.125%) respectively for 25ppm at 25% load, while the increasing in diffusion fraction for Al2O3 and TiO2 for 25ppm and 25% load is(0.1422%) and(1.742%) respectively.
Keywords: Delay period, Premix, Diffusion, Nano fuel.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 866 KB
Title: Improving Heat Transfer by Employing Fin Array of Various Innovative Shapes in Natural Convection
Author(s): M. J. ALshukri, N. A. Madlool, Nasr A. Jabbar
Pages: 98-105 Paper ID: 182601-4747-IJMME-IJENS Published: February, 2018
Abstract: This study is a numerical study. It investigates the steady state flow of fluid by natural convection in three dimensions as well as the transfer of heat for a set of innovative shapes of fin array. This study utilized four different shapes of fin array as well as the absence of fins. The different forms are as follows: straight, vertical (sine wave along y-axis), horizontal (sine wave along z-axis) and sweep (sine wave along both y and z axis). We examined the following parameters of the fin: geometrical dimension and thermal properties. In the steady state thermal analysis, an analysis of the differences in temperature regarding the distance at which heat flow takes place through the fin is carried out using CFX Ansys 15. The result shows that the sine wave along z-axis increases the transfer of heat more than the fin array of other shapes. Nusselt number increased as a result of the increasing heat flux which is exerted on the base as a boundary condition.
Keywords: Heat transfer; fin array; natural convection; CFX.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,613 KB
Title: Effects of Equivalence Ratio on Performance and Emissions of Diesel Engine with Hydrogen and Water Injection System at Variable Injection Timing
Author(s): R. Adnan, Z. Sabri Adlan, F. A. Munir, T. M. Indra, H. H. Masjuki
Pages: 106-111 Paper ID: 182801-3737-IJMME-IJENS Published: February, 2018
Abstract: This paper aims to develop a comprehensive development and research for performance and emissions of diesel engine fueled with hydrogen and water at variable injection timing. Experiments have been conducted to compare the performance and emissions between diesel alone, diesel with hydrogen and hydrogen-diesel and water injection pressure. addition of hydrogen into diesel engine resulted in higher pressure which lead to huge indicated work. Furthermore, injecting water into diesel engine with hydrogen mixture indicated a desirable outcome. Existence of water in combustion slightly decreased the amount of emissions but opposite in term of performance. The fact is water injection exist in combustion will absorb a portion of heat release which will result low in combustion process thus lead to low in performance production otherwise production of NOx emission is low. In conclusion, humidification in combustion engine is a great idea toward a high performance and low in emissions production compared to diesel alone operation which leads to a green technology production.
Keywords: Air Fuel Ratio, Hydrogen Fuel, Diesel Engine.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 357 KB