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Title: Microwave Absorption Analysis on Recycled Glass Doped with Ferum (II, III) Oxide (Fe2O3)
Author(s): M. F. Che Mansor, E. M. Cheng, Z. Zakaria, M. F. Abdul Malek, A. Chik, M. A. Rojan, L. Zahid, S. Abu Bakar, N. F. Mohd Nasir, S. F. Khor, and H. G. Beh
Pages: 1-13 Paper ID: 152704-1505-8383-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2015
Abstract: Composite consisting of recycled glass and Ferum (II, III) Oxide were prepared through a heating process in 1100°C for 4 hours. The prepared composite of recycled glass which is presented in cullet powder and Ferum (II, III) Oxide is an innovation in improving the absorption of microwave signal. Cullet has been found to possess a significant propensity for absorption microwave. In this research, the microwave absorbability of various ratios of cullet powder to Ferum (II, III) Oxide in the composite was investigated. Reflection coefficient (Г) and transmission coefficient (T) are used to determine the absorbability of microwave in range of absorption coefficient of 1.2 GHz to 3.0 GHz. The results show that cullet powder containing Ferum (II, III) Oxide absorbed microwave efficiently from 2.5 GHz to 3.0 GHz. The comparison among the composite in different ratio of Ferum (II, III) Oxide is conducted to determine the best optimum of ratio in microwave absorption.
Keywords: Recycled glass, Ferum (II, III) Oxide, S-parameter, microwave absorption.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,749 KB
Title: Establishing Empirical Relationships to Estimate Porosity & Hardness of HVOF Sprayed WC-Co-Cr Coatings
Author(s): M. S. Sampath Kumar, K. P. Arulshri, C. Thirumoorthy
Pages: 14-27 Paper ID: 150905-7676-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2015
Abstract: High Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF) sprayed cermet coatings are extensively used in harsh environments to protect components from wear and corrosion due to their superior characteristics like low porosity and higher hardness. However, these coating characteristics depends upon HVOF spray parameters such as oxygen flow rate, fuel flow rate, powder feed rate, carrier gas flow rate and spray distance. This investigation presents the use of statistical techniques such as Design of Experiments (DoE), analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression analysis to develop empirical relationships to predict porosity and hardness of HVOF sprayed WC-Co-Cr coatings. Porosity was determined using image analysis software by adopting ASTM B 276 standard. Microhardness was measured using Vickers microhardness tester. The developed empirical relationships can be effectively used to predict porosity and hardness of HVOF sprayed WC-Co-Cr coatings at 95% confidence level. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to identify the optimum HVOF spray parameters to attain maximum hardness and minimum porosity in WC -Co-Cr coatings.
Keywords: Optimisation, Response Surface Methodology, WC-Co-Cr coatings, Porosity, Hardness
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,479 KB
Title: Experimental and Numerical Prediction of Springback in U-bending Process
Author(s): N. Fouda, R. El-Bana, M. Samuel
Pages: 28-38 Paper ID: 151405-7979-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2015
Abstract: One of the most sensitive features of sheet metal forming processes is the elastic recovery during unloading, called springback, which leads to some geometric changes in the product. In this paper springback dependence on the mechanical properties of different materials and tools geometry has been examined numerically and experimentally in sheet metal U- bending test. The computer code MARC was usedto simulate the U- bending process under plane straincondition. AComparison between the experimental and the finite element simulation results also performed. A complete knowledge of the springbackphenomenon and its dependence on material and processvariables is strongly required in order to develop effective real time process control systems.
Keywords: U-bending,springback, FEM, numerical simulation.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 700 KB
Title: An Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) of Inconel 718 using Copper Tungsten Electrode with Higher Peak Current and Pulse Duration
Author(s): S. Ahmad, M. A. Lajis
Pages: 39-47 Paper ID: 150505-8383-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2015
Abstract: In this experimental work, the performance of electrical discharge machining of Inconel 718 by using copper tungsten (CuW) electrode by employing high peak current, Ip and pulse on-time (pulse duration), ton were studied. Among the responses investigated are Material removal rate (MRR), Electrode wear rate (EWR), and Surface roughness (Ra). The study had shown that the highest MRR of 28.37mm3/min was obtained at the highest peak current and the longest pulse duration of 40 A and 400 µs respectively. Otherwise, machining at the lowest peak current with longest pulse duration results the lowest EWR with value -0.005mm3/min. The negative value for EWR indicated that, the electrode deposited after EDM machining is greater than before machining due to the surface modification effect occurred at the surface of the electrode. The lowest Ra value was achieved 8.62µm at the lowest peak current and highest pulse duration used of 20A and 400µs respectively. It would be recommended that the optimum cutting condition in EDM of Inconel 718 by using CuW electrode could be performed by a combination of the highest peak current and pulse on-time at 40A and 400µs, respectively.
Keywords: Electrical discharge machining (EDM); Inconel 718; Copper tungsten; Material removal rate (MRR), Electrode wear rate (EWR), Surface roughness (Ra).
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 965 KB
Title: Erosion-Corrosion Behavior of Nano-Structured Pure Copper under Different Flowing Velocities
Pages: 48-52 Paper ID: 150305-8989-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2015
Abstract: In this paper, Erosion–Corrosion (E-C) behaviors of the Nano-Structured pure copper were investigated using a slurry pot rig by weight-loss measurements. The Nano-structured pure copper samples were produced by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) process and the hardness of the material was measured. The E-C testing parameters included the slurry flow velocity, sand concentration, and impact angle. The values of flowing velocities were 1.4m/s, 2.7m/s, 3.8m/s. 4.5m/s, and 5.4m/s. The impacting angles ranging from 30o to 60o and sand concentration percentages were 0wt%, 10wt%, 20wt%, and 30wt% The results showed that, with the increase of slurry flow velocity and sand concentration, the E–C rate of the Nano-structured pure copper increases. However, the E–C rate of the material in sea water sand slurry decreases with increasing impact angle. The maximum value of weight loss per unit area for Nano-structured pure copper occurred at an impact angle of 45o.
Keywords: Erosion-corrosion, ECAP, Nano-structured copper, Slurry pot.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 719 KB
Title: Prediction and Optimization Of Tool Wear On A22E (Bimetal Bearing Material) Using RSM and Genetic Algorithm
Author(s): R. Babu, D. S. Robinson Smart, G. Mahesh, M. Shanmugam
Pages: 53-65 Paper ID: 150405-2727-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2015
Abstract: Tool wear is an important criterion in hard finish facing operation, which increases the temperature on the work piece, vibration, cutting force and decreases the surface roughness. In this present study, spindle speed, feed rate, depth of cut and end relief angle are taken as an input parameters. Experiment is conducted on A22E Bimetal bearing material using M42 HSS tool material in finish hard facing and tool wear was measured using tool maker’s microscope. Design of Experiments (DoE) methodology is used to conduct the experiment. Response Surface Methodology is used to predict the tool wear. The second order mathematical model in terms of machining parameters was developed. The direct and interaction effect of the machining parameters with tool wear were analyzed, which helped to select process parameter in order to reduce tool wear which ensures quality of the facing operation.
Keywords: Spindle speed, Feed rate, Depth of cut, End Relief angle, Tool wear, Response Surface Methodology (RSM), Genetic Algorithm (GA).
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 2,807 KB
Title: Modeling and Simulation of Gripping System for Multi Vacuum Manifold
Author(s): Taufik Roni Sahroni
Pages: 66-70 Paper ID: 152505-6868-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2015
Abstract: This paper presents the modeling and simulation of gripping system for multi vacuum manifold in semiconductor industry. The objective of this study is to design the new gripping system for multi vacuum manifold using modeling and simulation. The parameter of air flow in manifold system was the main factor that influences the performance of multi vacuum manifold. In addition, the pressure drop, type of flow involved, and improper design also influenced the flow efficiency in manifold system. The modeling of multi vacuum manifold was carried out the design parameters involved such as various sizes of inlet, number of inlet used and the distance between the inlets used. The simulation focuses the dynamic pressure and mass flow rates of the multi vacuum manifold. The result shows the design with 8 inlets, 7.5 mm diameter, and 15 mm distances between inlets were selected in gripping system performance. In conclusion, the new gripping system for multi vacuum manifold was proposed.
Keywords: Modeling, simulation, gripping system, multi vacuum manifold.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 459 KB
Title: Sound Absorption Analysis on Micro-Perforated Panel Sound Absorber with Multiple Size Air Cavities
Author(s): Wei-Hong Tan, M. Afendi, R. Ahmad, R. Daud, M. Shukry, E.M. Cheng
Pages: 71-76 Paper ID: 142405-1505-6868-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2015
Abstract: Micro-perforated panel (MPP) sound absorber has been widely used for the noise reduction and is considered a promising alternative to the traditional porous materials. The acoustic performance of MPP sound absorber depends on 4 major design parameters, such as perforation diameter, air cavity depth, distance between perforations, and thickness of MPP. In this experimental study, analysis of sound absorption coefficient of the MPP sound absorber with multiple size air cavities was conducted. There are 4 groups multiple size of air cavity to be investigated. Results show the first and second major peaks of sound absorption coefficient curve are changing inversely when D2 is getting higher. The frequency band of the major peaks will shift as changing the D2. This phenomenon also had been observed by others research as the air cavity becomes deeper, the peak value is getting higher and it will shift to the lower frequency band.
Keywords: Micro-perforated panel (MPP), sound absorption, sound absorber, and air cavity.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 964 KB
Title: Design and Analysis of State Feedback Controller for System of Type 1
Author(s): Noaman Mehmood, Saqib Zafar, Saad Hasan Malik, Sajid Hussain
Pages: 77-82 Paper ID: 153205-7979-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2015
Abstract: Control system has played very vital role in the field of engineering. A control problem involves modelling of a physical system using the basic knowledge of physics etc. and then designing a controller according to desired design specifications. In this paper state space model of the type 1 system was derived. Then dynamic characteristics of the system were analyzed and a state feedback controller was designed for the system using Linear Quadratic Controller LQR method. The designed LQR system was simulated to check the responses of states and output of the system. Then effects of weighting matrices Q and R were observed.
Keywords: Linear Quadratic Controller, Modelling, State Space, Weighting matrices.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 409 KB
Title: The Model Development of Gas Diffusion Layer for PEM Fuel Cell
Author(s): Dahiyah Mohd Fadzillah, Chin Lee Nee, Masli Irwan Rosli
Pages: 83-89 Paper ID: 156204-1505-7878-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2015
Abstract: Gas diffusion layer (GDL) is a crucial component of a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) that participates in the transport of reactant gases and removes water from the system. In this research, a two dimensional (2D) model was developed and simulated to determine the effects of porosity and thickness of GDL on PEMFC performance by using MATLAB. The GDL model presented the contour profiles illustrating the distribution of oxygen mass fraction in the cathode GDL. The model also well agreed with experimental results available in literature. In the simulation of GDL model, higher-porosity GDL showed higher cell performance because of the numerous void spaces that enhanced the diffusion of oxygen to the catalyst layer. Simulation results further showed that a thicker GDL produced a lower-performance cell fuel. All these factors contributed to the lower oxygen concentration near the catalyst layer and GDL interface and thus the lower cell performance. Through the GDL model, the optimum porosity and thickness of GDL were found to be 0.8 and 130 µm, respectively.
Keywords: GDL; PEMFC; MATLAB; porosity; thickness
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 638 KB
Title: Inflation of Environmental – Friendly Machining Parameters on Aluminium 6063 In Its Annealed and Unannealed form
Author(s): K. Logesh, D. Surryaprakash, N. Dilip Raja, M. Rajesh Kumar
Pages: 90-99 Paper ID: 158702-1505-9494-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2015
Abstract: The cost of using coolant in machining industry world-wide is very high. It costs multi-billion Dollars for coolant acquisition and disposition in developed countries. Further the chemicals substances in coolant are very harmful to environment and workers in machine shop. Future trend is inexorably use of dry machining. This project applied the designs of experiments (DOE) approach to optimize parameters of a computer numerical control (CNC) in end milling for Aluminum 6063 alloy and its annealed form under dry machining. The work piece employed was in the form of rectangular block of 100 mm length, 100 mm breadth and 25 mm depth. For various combination of cutting speed, depth of cut and feed rate, the material was milled. The groove difference (i.e., dimensional accuracy of groove width) and the roughness average at the bottom plane of the inside groove (i.e., the plane of end milling) were deliberate. Based on a Taguchi orthogonal array table the Planning of experiments are done. By adapting the method using analysis of variance (ANOVA) to identify the influential factors on the CNC End milling process is formulated. And applying regression analysis a mathematical predictive model for predictions of the groove difference and the roughness average has been developed in terms of cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut. Additionally, the annealed form of Aluminum 6063 is machined and optimized in similar way to give better prospective about the project. The feed rate is found to be the most significant factor affecting the groove difference and the roughness average in end milling process for Aluminum 6063.
Keywords: Environmental– Friendly Machining, DOE, ANOVA and End milling Process.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 718 KB
Title: Eccentric Crushing Behavior of High Strength Steel Tubes
Author(s): M. A Ismail, A. E Ismail
Pages: 100-104 Paper ID: 151604-1505-8787-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2015
Abstract: This paper described numerically the crushing responses of empty- and hybrid-tubes subjected to eccentric compressice loading using ANSYS finite element program. From the previous works, tremendous amount of works available in discussing the axial crushing of empty tubes under compression. However, lack of works related to the crashworthiness behaviour of tube under eccentric. Therefore, the eccentric compressive loading on the empty- and hybrid-tubes were focused and emphasized. The steel tube was wraped with glass-fiber reinforced with epoxy resin and their orientations were [+/- 300]. It was found that when the tubes were compressed eccentrically, the capability of mechanical energy absorption reduced depending on the contact areas with the tubes.
Keywords: ---
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 570 KB
Title: Application of Response Surface Methodology for predicting Weld Distortion and % of Dilution in Gas Metal Arc Welding of SS409M
Author(s): T. S. Praveen, K. Manonmani
Pages: 105-113 Paper ID: 156105-8484-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2015
Abstract: Response surface methodology (RSM) is a mathematical tool used to find and represent the cause and effect relationship between responses and input variables. An experimental regression equation was developed by using RSM. In the present work, the effect of wire feed (f), welding speed (s) and torch angle (θ) on weld distortion and % of dilution were investigated in 4mm SS409M steel plates by Gas Metal Arc Welding process (GMAW). The main objective of the study is to find the minimum bowing distortion and finding the range % of dilution to obtain quality weld. It is observed that GMAW process parameters have considerable influence on welding distortion and % of dilution. Design Expert software is used as optimizing tool.
Keywords: SS409M, Gas Metal Arc Welding process, RSM, Mathematical models, Central composite design, Wire feed, Welding speed, Torch angle, Distortion and % of dilution.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 698 KB
Title: Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of the Flow Field of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells
Author(s): N. H. Maslan, M. I. Rosli, C. W. Goh, M. S. Masdar
Pages: 114-125 Paper ID: 151505-7373-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2015
Abstract: Direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is a technology that converts the chemical energy of methanol to electrical energy. Experiments on DMFC performance are costly and time consuming. Thus, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of DMFC were carried out in this study. The flow fields of parallel, serpentine, and zigzag were investigated to visualize the distributions of velocity, pressure, and methanol mole fraction at the anode and to study the DMFC performance. DMFC CFD simulations were conducted using ESI CFD-ACE+ software package that includes CFD-GEOM, CFD-ACE-GUI, and CFD-VIEW. The simulations were then validated by comparing the power density curve obtained from a literature review. Physical parameters and dimensions of the model were also determined based on a literature review. Results show that the flow field channels exhibited uniform distributions of velocity and methanol mole fraction, as well as high pressure drop and improved DMFC performance. The flow field channels with widths of 1.0, 1.5, and 2 mm were also investigated. The obtained results indicate that the serpentine flow field with a flow channel width of 2 mm showed the best performance of DMFC based on the distributions of velocity, pressure, and methanol mole fraction.
Keywords: Direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC); flow field; methanol mole fraction; velocity; pressure.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,426 KB