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Title: Image Based Modeling Technique for Pavement Distress Surveys: a Specific Application to Rutting
Author(s): L. Inzerillo, G. Di Mino, S. Bressi, F. Di Paola, S. Noto
Pages: 1-9 Paper ID:161604-7979-IJET-IJENS Published:August, 2016
Abstract: Image-based modeling (IBM) is a well-known technique to obtain high quality 3D models based on multi view images. IBM started being used in several applications such as inspection, identification of objects and visualization, due to the user-friendly approach, the low cost and highly automated technique. This paper focuses on the investigation of the potential application of IBM in the diagnosis of road pavement distresses and in particular rutting. Indeed, the evaluation of the rutting distress is a fundamental step to define the whole state of a pavement as demonstrated by the calculation of Present Serviceability Index (PSI). Currently, the permanent deformation is measured monitoring visually the rut depth with the approximations that this procedure involves. Nevertheless, the exact measure of the rut depth is necessary to evaluate precisely the cause and the severity of this distress and be effective in the maintenance and rehabilitation of the pavement structure. The objective of this study is to apply the IBM technique on a laboratory rutted sample, in order to verify the accuracy of the method in determining the rut depth. To achieve this, a comparison has been made between the 3D model obtained with IBM and the one obtained with blue led 3D scan (Artec Spider) of the same rutted asphalt concrete. The metric accuracy of the model is then defined and its validity is assessed, in terms of distress diagnosis. Using the IBM it is possible to obtain three-dimensional digital models with accuracy higher than with the traditional monitoring. Therefore, the higher control on the distresses may lead to an improvement of the road pavement management, which addresses the challenge to improve the overall quality of the transportation system.
Keywords: Accuracy, distress, Image-based modeling, rutting, survey.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 824 KB
Title: Multi-Objective Optimization of Joint Strength of Dissimilar Aluminum Alloys Formed by Friction Stir Welding Using Taguchi-Grey Relation Analysis
Author(s): Mohammed Yunus, Mohammad S. Alsoufi
Pages: 10-17 Paper ID:162304-7575-IJET-IJENS Published:August, 2016
Abstract: Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid state joining process which eliminates the drawbacks of conventional fusion welding and hence associated pollution. The present study is intended to improve the process parameters of Friction Stir Welding (FSW) for joining two dissimilar aluminum alloys (AA7075 and AA6061). Multi-objective optimization of control factors (thickness of plate, axial load, tool rotational speed, welding speed and tilt angle) was carried out using a hybrid Taguchi-Grey approach to evaluate the quality characteristics such as tensile strength, impact strength and percentage of tensile elongation. The experiment was carried out by using Taguchi based mix level design L18 orthogonal array. The Grey grade corresponding to each quality characteristic is determined so that their influence can be properly explained. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is also used to ascertain the effect of each parameter on output characteristics of FSW process. The conduction of confirmation tests verified the optimal conditions.
Keywords: Orthogonal Tables (OA), Taguchi Method, Grey Relational Analysis (GRA), Aluminum Alloys, Yield Strength, Impact Strength, Multi-Response Optimization, FSW, ANOVA, Verification Tests.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 757 KB
Title: Combining Energy Storage Systems and New Energy Allocation Strategy Based on the Bin Packing Algorithms for QoS in EAAS Concept in Smart Grids
Author(s): N. Benjamin SENDAMA, Aawatif HAYAR
Pages: 18-25 Paper ID:162904-6868 IJET-IJENS Published:August, 2016
Abstract: Nowadays concerns about climate change and greenhouse effect are increasingly heard around the world. Alternative energy sources to fossil energies show themselves one of the ideal solutions to these issues. However, the use of green energies (solar, wind …) is hardly a perfect solution if it is not done in an intelligent way. Furthermore, environmental pollution is not the only solicitude which requires a better energy management. The betterment of our daily well-being implies a greedy energy consumption. This drives up the price of energy, hence the necessity of seeking an effective way to optimize the daily use of energy. To deal with this, the work presented in this paper introduces a new energy management strategy based on two things: the use of both energy storage means as backup when energy lacks, and the bin packing algorithm as an energy allocation strategy. To foreground the contribution of our solution, elaborated simulations were conducted based on measurements made on several households located in Casablanca, Morocco.
Keywords: Energy as a service; photovoltaics; energy storage systems; bin packing; microgrid.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 722 KB
Title: Substrate Effects on Laminated Glass Window
Author(s): Kook Chan Ahn
Pages: 26-31 Paper ID:163404-7878-IJET-IJENS Published:August, 2016
Abstract: Substrate effects on impact behavior of laminated systems under small mass impact are studied by the coded simulation program. An effective and simple approach connected with a higher-order theory and a generalized power law for layered systems is conducted to analyses substrate effects on laminated glass window. The mechanical properties of the films and substrates are fixed and changed, respectively, and five combinations of substrates and films, namely, ae (=Es/Ef)=0.2, 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 are considered. Impact responses in small ratio (ae =0.2 and 0.5) are more sensitive than those of large ratio (ae =2 and 5) laminated glass windows. And we can see that unlike results of static analysis, impact responses between interface and impacted surface in case of small ratio are subjected to more failure risk than those of laminated glass windows with large ratio in the same film thickness.
Keywords: Substrate effect, Laminated glass window, Impacted surface, Power law
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 759 KB
Title: Temperature Effect on the I-V Characteristics of the MOSFET Transistor
Author(s): Ouassila Benzaoui, Cherifa Azizi
Pages: 32-36 Paper ID:163304-9292-IJET-IJENS Published:August, 2016
Abstract: MOSFET Transistor occupies a fundamental place among all the components produced in micro-electronics. It was the subject of many studies and research to exploit its interesting and promising characteristics. Owing to the fact that the semiconductors are very sensitive to the temperature, it is paramount to understand the phenomena that it involves. The aim of this contribution is the study of the temperature effect on the static I-V characteristics of the MOSFET. The study enables us to calculate the drain current as a function of bias in both linear and saturated modes using a numerical simulation program; one could notice that the MOS transistor characteristics are very sensitive to the temperature. The inversion charge via the threshold voltage and the charge carrier mobility are the two principal influenced parameters. It was noted that the increase in the temperature induces a drop of the threshold voltage and carrier mobility. An immediate consequence of this reduction is the decrease in the drain current. One can thus conclude that the temperature influences the performances of the device; the lower the temperature, the better is the reliability of the device under operation.
Keywords: MOSFET; Temperature; Mobility; Performances.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 349 KB
Title: Assessing of Thermal Conductivity, Physical and Mechanical Properties of Building Insulation Materials Prepared From Waste Materials and Gypsum
Author(s): Janan H. Saadie
Pages: 37-42 Paper ID:164804-5959-IJET-IJENS Published:August, 2016
Abstract: In this work, thermal insulation, physical and mechanical properties are investigated to develop samples with lightweight from waste materials and gypsum. This technique is proposed to improve building insulation by utilizing sawdust, polyethylene and waste paper separately added to gypsum in different added ratio of 6%, 12% and 24% respectively. Samples for these combinations are prepared in order to perform and evaluate the mentioned properties. Experiments results have shown a discrepancy in the behaviors of the prepared samples. It is found, for samples of sawdust and waste paper, that the thermal conductivity decrease with increasing of added ratio while their water absorption content level is high which makes them unsuitable to be used in humid environments. Also, it is observed from the results of compression strength test that failures are obtained for all samples with added ratio greater 24% due to problem of brittle behavior. In general, as a comparison among the tests results of the three samples, it can be concluded that polyethylene added sample provides the suitable thermal insulation, physical and mechanical properties for different environment conditions. The results obtained show the feasibility of the proposed technique which may find a wide range of applications such as an insulator in civil engineering and cooling systems.
Keywords: Saw-dust, polyethylene, waste paper, building insulation, thermal conductivity, Compressive strength.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 253 KB