IJENS Publisher Indexed In SCOPUS


Title: The Architecture of Dynamic Hybrid Fuzzy Logic Control of Traffic Light Network with Accident Detection / Action System
Author(s): Abdulrahman Alkandari, Imad Fakhri Al-Shaikhli
Pages: 1-4 Paper ID:141002-7575-IJET-IJENS Published: April, 2014
Abstract: With the number of vehicle increasing, urban traffic congestion became more serious. This paper focused on the architecture layer of the proposed dynamic hybrid fuzzy logic control system, which divided into three main parts: The proposed algorithm (Dynamic Webster with dynamic Cycle Time), Accident Detection System using fuzzy logic theory and Action System depending on Detection System. It covered in depth the hierarchical architecture of the system. The Architecture layer discussed the layout of the system in consideration namely the hardware and infrastructure for the system. The paper mainly focused on explaining the infrastructure of the system and how the components interact with each other. The paper ended with a proposed flow traffic controller phase flow.
Keywords: Intelligent traffic control system, Traffic light system Architecture, Fuzzy Logic with Accident Detection.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 582 KB
Title: Effect of In- Addition and Structural Transformation on the Physical Behavior of Bi- 44.5 wt% Pb Rapidly Quenched Ribbons from Melt
Author(s): Mustafa Kamal, Abu-Bakr El-Bediwi, Jamal Khalil Majeed
Pages: 5-15 Paper ID:141702-6565-IJET-IJENS Published: April, 2014
Abstract: This paper presents experimental results and theoretical considerations to evaluate the effect of indium additions on the solidification behavior of Bismuth-Lead eutectic alloys used as coolant in some nuclear reactors. Structural modifications, electrical, thermal and mechanical properties improvements on chill-block melt spinning of melt-quenched ribbons of the bismuth-lead eutectic containing indium are described and discussed.
Keywords: Melt-spin technique, X-ray diffraction, Lattice distortions, Resistivity, Elastic moduli, specific heat, Melting temperature and internal friction.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 1,035 KB
Title: Evaluation of the spatial distribution of shared electrical generators and their environmental effects: Case Study in Baghdad-Iraq
Author(s): Ali A Al-Waeely, Salah D. Salman, Wasan K. Abdol-Reza, Miqdam T Chaichan, Hussain A. Kazem, Hakim S. Sultan Al-Jibori
Pages: 16-23 Paper ID:142102-8484-IJET-IJENS Published: April, 2014
Abstract: Air pollution is considered to be the dangerous type of pollution, due to its direct effects on human’s life. Vehicles combustion and exhausts cause increments in the lead, sulfur and carbon monoxide concentrations. These gases affect human health and environment sector which clarified by increasing respiratory system diseases and anemia pulmonary tuberculosis. It also affects animals and plants in addition to buildings. Iraq has suffered for decades from lack in electricity. Iraqi people compensated this lack by using a private household generator or a shared generator operating at a neighborhood level. The increased number of shared generators, with its high generating capacity, in addition to using engines which are not designed for this purpose, have generated an extreme environmental problems. In this study, Al-Sader City (which is a largest city in Baghdad-Iraq and considered one of the highest population densities) was chosen as a case study to evaluate the efficiency of spatial distribution of the electrical generator and their environmental effects on this city as an example for all Iraq.
Keywords: Air pollution, Al-Sader City, Questionnaire, sample and shared Electrical generators.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 663 KB
Title: Assessing Central Cracks and Interconnect Reliability in Flipchips
Author(s): Juma Mary Atieno, Zhang Xuliang
Pages: 24-31 Paper ID:142502-6868-IJET-IJENS Published: April, 2014
Abstract: One of the most common forms of failures observed in brittle thin films subjected to stress is cracking. The crack growth rate depends on intrinsic film properties, stress and some environmental factors. we investigate central crack on different material planes. The planes are made from silicon, copper, aluminum, polyamide and silicon nitride. Each plane is 1.0m x 0.4m and has a crack length of 0.04m. Because of symmetry only 0.5m and o.2m of the plate is used. They are subjected to a normal stress of 100MPa. A two dimensional (2D) Finite Element Analysis (FEA) model is developed and ANSYS software is used to calculate the MODE I Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) on each material plane. Silicon had a SIF of 21.562, aluminum 23.838, copper 23.383, polyamide 24.948 and silicon nitride 22.371. From the results, silicon had the lowest MODE I SIF while polyamide had the highest.
Keywords: ANSYS, Flipchip, Interconnect, Stress Intensity Factor (SIF).
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 1,095 KB
Title: Exploration Electromagnetic Noise Reduction for IC Electric Field Measurement and Prediction in GTEM Cell
Author(s): King Lee Chua, Mohd Zarar Mohd Jenu, Man On Wong, See Hour Ying
Pages: 32-38 Paper ID:143502-2727-IJET-IJENS Published: April, 2014
Abstract: In IEC 61967 standards, there is often interest to evaluate electromagnetic emission of integrated circuits (ICs) by mounting IC test board on TEM/GTEM cell wall. The method is able to separate the desired emission measurement to be influenced by unintentional interference. However, this method has limited test device rotation in horizontal position as well as neglecting vertical polarization which is also a significant source of emission. Basically, the electromagnetic emission of a device is contributed by both the horizontal and vertical polarizations. The limitation can be overcome with three dimensional views as termed to be three orthogonal rotations in Gigahertz Transverse Electromagnetic Mode (GTEM). When conduct emission measurement by placing the whole test device in the GTEM cell, it is important to ensure that unwanted disruption from supporting components on the test board and its interface cable will not interfere with the measurement. Therefore, in this paper, we present numerous experimental works to tackle these crucial matters in order to emphasize the technique to quantify IC electromagnetic emission performed inside a GTEM cell. This is achieved with application of basic electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) measurement approaches such as shielding, grounding and suppression using ferromagnetic material. Following that, dipole moments model is established to achieve far electric field approximation and verification with semi-anechoic chamber (SAC) measurement. The results show strong evidence that the effectiveness of the new proposed technique for IC emission measurement in GTEM cell. The obtained results are then processed further using conventional algorithm for correlation with field measurement in semi anechoic chamber.
Keywords: Electromagnetic noise, integrated circuit, electromagnetic radiation, GTEM cell, SAC.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 1,102 KB
Title: A Study of Temperature Effects on Car Coated Substrate in Laser Paint Removal
Author(s): Mohammad Khairul Azhar Abdul Razab, Mohamad Suhaimi Jaafar, Azhar Abdul Rahman
Pages: 39-48 Paper ID:145802-3737-IJET-IJENS Published: April, 2014
Abstract: Cynosure Cynergy Pulse Nd:YAG laser was used to remove the painted material of 54 car coated substrate samples A, B and C by manipulating the laser fluence energy (F), pulse width (PW), repetition rate (RR) and beam size (BS). Alicona IFM G4 was used to analyze irradiated crater depths and obtained the optical surface micrograph which provides a pattern of graphical illustration of the removal process. Average temperature (?TAV) of car metal substrate was determined during the laser paint removal process by using TC 6621 thermocouple. The maximum ?TAV (0C) reached were 30.36 and 34.89 with BS 3 mm and 5 mm for sample A, 30.25 and 32.6 with BS 3 mm and 5 mm for sample B whereas 28.16 and 33.15 with BS 3 mm and 5 mm for sample C.
Keywords: Laser paint removal, Average temperature, Nd:YAG laser, Alicona IFM G4, Car coated substrate.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 820 KB
Title: Study of contamination by benzene due diesel and gasoline leaks at a gas station in Natal / Brazil
Author(s): Adriana Margarida Zanbotto Ramalho, Hércules Lisboa de Aquino Sobrinho, Raoni Batista dos Anjos, Tereza Neuma de Castro Dantas, Djalma Ribeiro da Silva
Pages: 49-54 Paper ID:146202-7878-IJET-IJENS Published: April, 2014
Abstract: People around the world living with contaminated areas without knowing its existence and the serious risks that cause to health. Efficient Research and monitoring methods that help identify and delineate the contamination is the important step to managing these areas. This research describes an investigation of a gas station area in order to confirm benzene contamination as a result of diesel and gasoline Light Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (LNAPLs) in saturated and unsaturated soil zones. Initially, it was conducted a data collection of the area and a soil gas survey. After that, monitoring wells were installed and soil and water were sampled for benzene chromatographic analysis. The results of these two procedures were associated, as well as the type of LNAPL. The results showed that both unsaturated and saturated soil zones were contaminated, with a maximum benzene concentration of 80.49 mg/kg and 2,791.774 µg/L, respectively. The values found were much higher than those permitted by Brazilian Legislation.
Keywords: Benzene plume; Light Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid; gas station; diesel; gasoline.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 944 KB
Title: Optimal Management of Commodity and Product Flows From the Supplier to the Consumer on a System Approach
Author(s): Kalimoldayev M. N., NaizabayevaL., Mustafin S. A.
Pages: 55-59 Paper ID:146801-1402-9494-IJET-IJENS Published: April, 2014
Abstract: This paper shows results of development of one of the key modules,Requisition Log, which allows to automate receipt of the orders from clients and processing thereof. The follows tools have been used: Enterprise Architect Unified Modeling Language (eaUML) for logical development of logistical applications, toolboxes of MS SQL Server in design of the physical database, the Visual Studio environment to create the clients application.
Keywords: Database Management System, Logistical rules, Microsoft SQL Server, Unified Modeling Language.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 470 KB
Title: Effect of PVC Resin and its Additives on the Decomposition Temperature of a Chemical Blowing Agent (Azobisformamide)
Author(s): Abdelmalek DOUIBI, Linda GOUISSEM, Melia GUESSOUM, Djafer BENACHOUR
Pages: 60-64 Paper ID:147302-6565-IJET-IJENS Published: April, 2014
Abstract: In this study, Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) has been carried out for the prediction of the processability of foamed rigid PVC compound. The effect of usual additives on Decomposition Temperature (Td) of the ABFA and their interactions were examined. It was observed that the addition of kickers (thermal stabilizers) to the ABFA will result in a lower Td. Moreover, it was noticed that kickers based on lead metals showed the most activating effect on the Td. However, PVC resin showed an inhibiting action on the Td. Finally, when both kickers and PVC resin were employed together, the former exhibited a predominant action at low heating rate, while the later showed a predominant action at high heating rate.
Keywords: Poly (vinyl chloride), chemical blowing agent, azobisformamide, decomposition temperature, kicker, Additives, activation, inhibition, differential thermal analysis and heating rate.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 451 KB
Title: Design and Analysis on Interference Fit in the Hardwood Dowel-glued Joint by Finite Element Method
Author(s): Yiren Wang, Shih-Hao Lee
Pages: 65-68 Paper ID:148102-7575-IJET-IJENS Published: April, 2014
Abstract: The wood dowel is often used in connection of furniture members due to its convenience. However, it is common to see the wood dowel unfastened in the furniture joint. In order to reinforce traditional dowel-glued joint, a research was undertaken to investigate the feasibility of design and analysis of interference fit in the dowel-glued joint by the finite element method (FEM). Since the joint consisted of the dowel and board member, many factors might influence strength of the joint. The ring angle and board type, two of most concerned factors, would be the examined in this study. On the based of this research it was found that design and analysis of interference fit in the dowel-glued joint by FEM was allowed and the withdrawal strength of wood dowel was significantly influenced by the ring angle and board type. These results would benefit performance evaluation and development of dowel-glued joint design and serve as a reference for practitioners.
Keywords: Finite element method, furniture, interference fit, ring angle, wood dowel-glued joint.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 458 KB
Title: Optimization of p-type Screen Printed Interdigitated Back Contact Silicon Solar Cell with Aluminum Back Surface Field
Author(s): Mohd K. Mat Desa, Mohd Y. Sulaiman, Kamaruzzaman Sopian, Suhaila Sepeai, Ayu Wazira Azhari, Saleem H. Zaidi
Pages: 69-80 Paper ID:148002-9292-IJET-IJENS Published: April, 2014
Abstract: Interdigitated Back Contact (IBC) solar cell has been routinely fabricated with efficiencies exceeding 20 %. However, due to the requirements of high- resolution alignment and multiple patterning layers, the IBC manufacturing costs are still high. In contrast, screen printed IBC solar cell is based on inexpensive processes utilizing conventional solar cell equipment. Although the screen printed IBC solar cell is easier to fabricate; however its efficiency is poor. In this paper, the performance constraints on screen printed IBC solar cell based on conventional aluminum metallic diffusion paste were investigated. Two-dimensional modeling was carried out using technology computer aided design (TCAD) tool of the commercial software from SILVACO. Critical process and device parameters impacting IBC solar cell performance including fabrication, configuration and material properties. With suitable starting material, device configuration, and fabrication process, solar cell efficiency as high as 19% has been predicted. Higher efficiency is achievable with boron doping, however, aluminum metallic paste is chosen due to the fabrication simplification which will lead to inexpensive manufacturing.
Keywords: IBC, Interdigitated back contact, Silicon solar cell, Two-dimension solar cell model.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 1,070 KB
Title: Enterprise Content Management Systems-use Supports Standardized Business Processes
Author(s): Noreen Izza Arshad, Simon K. Milton, Rachelle Bosua
Pages: 81-87 Paper ID:145602-9191-IJET-IJENS Published: April, 2014
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to explore and provide guidance to practitioners on how they can possibly use Enterprise Content Management Systems (ECMS) to support their highly standardized business processes. Case studies were conducted in two types of organizations that emphasized standardized business processes namely an auto finance company and a retail chain store. It was learnt that organizations main objective in using ECMS is to support their daily businesses and work practices. However, it appears that ECMS-use is also influence by other factors such as the workplace environment and often influenced by management decisions. Therefore, based on the data gathered, this study explored and understand how ECMS is being used from the perspective of organizational business processes, work practices, other organizational structures and the work environment (that include management, users and others). Putting all these factors into account, it was found that organizations that are highly integrated can benefit from these types of technology when using ECMS for: (1) sharing standardized information (e.g. policies), building application that support standardized processes (e.g. approval and purchasing processes) and (3) decision making that can be applied throughout the company. These findings benefits business and IT managers in such that there is a guide for organizations that are highly standardized to support employees in achieving their intended ECMS-use, to understand reasons for ECMS failures and underutilization and to exploit technologies investments.
Keywords: Enterprise Content Management System (ECMS), content management, business processes.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 243 KB
Title: Investigations on the Utilization of Ethanol-Unleaded Gasoline Blends on SI Engine Performance and Exhaust Gas Emission
Author(s): A. Y. F. Bokhary, Majed Alhazmy, Nafis Ahmad, Abdulrahman Albahkali
Pages: 88-96 Paper ID:143202-8585-IJET-IJENS Published: April, 2014
Abstract: Due to depletion of conventional fuels and an increase in exhaust emissions at an alarming rate, it is essential to develop an engine which can work on non-conventional fuels and reduce emissions to a greater extent. The present study aims to explore the effects of using ethanol- unleaded gasoline fuel blends on engine performance and exhaust gas emissions in a spark ignition engine. A four-stroke, single cylinder German CT 300 VCR SI engine was used for conducting this study. The ethanol was blended with unleaded gasoline with different percentages of fuel at full throttle opening position and variable engine speed ranging from 1100 - 2000 rpm with an increment of 300 rpm. The engine performance and exhaust gas emissions were evaluated at various engine operating conditions using an engine dynamometer setup. The results showed that blending of unleaded gasoline with ethanol increases the brake torque, brake power, brake mean effective pressure, volumetric and brake thermal efficiencies and reduce the brake specific fuel consumption. Also the results showed that when ethanol is added, the carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission concentrations in the engine exhaust decrease, while the nitric oxide (NO) concentration increases. The oxygen (O2) concentration also shows an increasing trend with ethanol substitution. The maximum percentage of ethanol substitution was 15%.
Keywords: SI Engine, Oxygenated Fuel, Engine Performance and Emissions.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 722 KB
Title: Biosystems Engineering: Unification or Redomaining?
Author(s): Rubens Nunes, Carlos E. Viegas
Pages: 97-101 Paper ID:148402-9393-IJET-IJENS Published: April, 2014
Abstract: Concepts arising from philosophy of science and technology can fruitfully help to identify the emergence of a new technologic domain, such as Biosystems Engineering. The contributions of Arthur [1] and Dosi [2], largely inspired in Kuhn’s scientific progress model, stress three basic elements shared by science and technology: the organization of scientific and technological domains, the concept of scientific or technological paradigm and the corresponding community of practitioners. We try to identify some attributes of new technological domains in the infant Biosystems Engineering. Is there any deep novelty here, a new paradigm, or is it just a new bottle for old wine? Do old problems deserve new approaches? Or traditional approaches are just grouped in a new way
Keywords: Biosystems Engineering, Social Studies of Technology, Innovation.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 205 KB
Title: Spectrophotometric determination of Micro amount of Cobalt (II) by Using (Antipyriyl azo 1-Nitroso-2-naphthol) as New reagent in raw Milk
Author(s): Shaimaa. H. Mallah, Hussain. J. Mohammed
Pages: 102-111 Paper ID:149501-1402-6969-IJET-IJENS Published: April, 2014
Abstract: A new , simple , sensitive and rapid spectrophotometric method is proposed for the determination of trace amount of cobalt (II) . The method is based on the formation of a 2:1 complex with 3-(4'- antipyriyl azo) 1- nitroso-2-naphthol (APAN) as a new reagent is developed . The complex has a maximum absorption at 432 nm and emax of 3.3 X 104 L. mol-1. cm-1 . A linear correlation (0.1 – 2.5 µg. ml-1) was found between absorbance at ?max and concentration . The accuracy and reproducibility of the determination method for various known amounts of cobalt (II) were tested . The results obtained are both precise (RSD was better than 0.60 % ) and accurate (relative error was better than 0.2 % ) . The effect of diverse ions on the determination of cobalt (II) to investigate the selectivity of the method were also studied . The stability constant of the product was 1.0 X 108 L. mol-1 . The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of synthetic mixtures and raw milk without any preliminary concentration or separation.
Keywords: Cobalt (II) determination , spectrophotometry , antipyriyl azo 1-nitroso-2-naphthol , milk raw .
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 691 KB
Title: Exploration of Bitumen (Natural Asphalt) using a Combination of Apparent Resistivity Method and Exploration Drilling in Saleh-Abad Area, Ilam Province Iran
Author(s): Payam Salimi,Asghar Teymoorian Motlagh, Kamran Rahimi Bisetooni
Pages: 112-117 Paper ID:1410702-3939-IJET-IJENS Published: April, 2014
Abstract: Bitumen is a hydrocarbon material that accumulates near the earth's surface in the form of asphalt springs or in other forms under the act of hydrostatic pressures of oil reservoirs, it will form bitumen mines after undergoing polymerization process. This mineral (organic) matter is in close relationship to oil reservoirs present in the area, i.e. when oil moves or migrates from one place to another place some part of it will be separated and will remain in the form of streaks, lenses and etc. In this work, the exploration of bitumen resources in Saleh-Abad area, Ilam is carried out using geoelectrical data that were gathered in two-dimensional form, exploration drilling data and also geological data. Today the best method for underground studies and mineral explorations is geophysical studies and drilling exploration wells meanwhile. One of the best data acquisition methods in the Geoelectricity is two-dimensional data acquisition or in other words electrical imaging in two dimensions. Tomography or electrical apparent resistivity tomography is a geophysical technique that investigates underground structures in two or three dimensions. The advantage of ERT method in comparison with other traditional and routine methods is that it investigates the changes of electrical apparent resistivity either laterally (constant spacing traversing or CST) or vertically (vertical electrical sounding, VES) in space. Geophysical data acquisition of the mentioned mine was done using dipole-dipole array in two profiles upon which some points were proposed for exploration drilling. Exploration drilling was done in powder method on the geophysical profiles in six 15-meter bores which proved the high precision of apparent resistivity method for bitumen exploration. Interpretation and modeling of two profiles was carried out using RES2DINV and modeling of drilling Logs was done using LOGPLOT that both had a good conformity with geological data and surface outcrops.
Keywords: Bitumen; Geoelectrics; Two-dimensional; Dipole-dipole; Exploration drilling; Modeling.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 757 KB
Title: Safe Distance to Extremely Low Frequency Radiation Associated with Power Transmission Lines Located in Ota, Southwest, Nigeria
Author(s): Usikalu M. R, Olawole C. O, Ikeh I. T
Pages: 118-121 Paper ID:1411202-3535 IJET-IJENS Published: April, 2014
Abstract: The study investigates the level of extremely low frequency radiation from power line and to determine safe distance for dwellings and human activities. The study was bored out of the fact that people built houses and shops under power lines with the opinion that the place is free. The measurement were carried out during normal daily human activity 8:00 am to 4:00 pm between February and May, 2013 when the lines are supplying electricity in all locations with power lines in Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria. Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) associated with transmission power lines in some locations in Ota, Nigeria were measured using an ELF Detection meter manufactured by Action Electronics, USA. The lowest average ELF measured was 1.15 mG obtained at 200 ft (61 m) away from the transmission lines and the highest was 50 mG measured at the base of the power transmission line. It was observed that the ELF field decays rapidly with distance from source or hot spots. The study hereby suggests that erection of houses or human activities is not safe at any distance less than 200 ft (61 m) to power transmission lines. There is need for awareness on the need to avoid undue exposure to ELF radiation and strict adherence to standard regulation/policy to keep certain distance off from the power transmission lines in order to reduce the ELF exposure incurred and to avoid health challenges that can result from exposure to ELF radiation.
Keywords: ELF radiation, transmission power lines, resident, safe distance, Ota.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 402 KB