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Title: Analysis Of Reaction Diffusion Problems Using Differential Quadrature Method
Author(s): Mohamed Salah, R. M. Amer, M. S. Matbuly
Pages: 1-6 Paper ID: 130106-9494-IJET-IJENS Published: December, 2013

Abstract: In this paper, a hybrid technique of differential quadrature method and Runge-Kutta fourth order method is employed to analyze reaction-diffusion problems. The obtained results are compared with the available analytical ones. Further, a parametric study is introduced to investigate the influence of reaction and diffusion characteristics on behavior of the obtained results.

Keywords: Reaction-diffusion, Differential Quadrature, Runge-Kutta.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 851 KB
Title: Methodologies on Scientific Researches: An Overview and Future Direction
Author(s): Nan Ying
Pages: 7-28 Paper ID: 130806-7171-IJET-IJENS Published: December, 2013

Abstract: In allusion to the history and actuality of human scientific researches, this paper systematically summarized the methodologies of scientifically exploratory researches and the obtained scientific achievements, as well as detailedly presented the shortcomings of scientific researches and the future direction of scientific research. Firstly, human ancestors and humans did inexhaustible explorations in the multidimensional physical entironments of the day, where they existed and developed. The obtained gigantic achievements could sustain human ancestors and humans to unceasingly withstand exhaustless crucifixions, then exist and evolve into the modern humans. However, there are still some shortcomings in scientific researches, which are presented as follows: ?Human scientific researches just come down to the skin-deep phenomena of universal substances and their motions, and scientific achievements make up of tremendous, temporarily efficacious and experiential knowledge base, most of which are going to lapse and invalidate along with the changes of multidimensional astrospace environments. Until now humans all along get about in the labyrinth: ?Forevermore ceaselessly repeat ?Find new unknown phenomena ? Select exploratory objects from the unknown substances and their characteristics ? By using all possible methodologies of scientific explorations and researches, inexhaustibly explore unknown phenomena ? Obtain new discoveries, new concepts and new momentous breakthrough theory, which are egregious and stupendous ? Chronically, extensively and practically proof-test and applied in engineering ? Find new unknown phenomena ? …??. ?There are some man-made factors in scientific researches, and scientific research methodologies with human features are formed, that is, all considered factors are just the one which can be suppositional, apprehensible and measurable by all possible technological means and equipments; Synchronously, the primary, lesser and potty factors are considered, the absolutely neglectable and wondrously jerkwater factors are ignored. Finally, this paper suggests: The future direction of scientific research is to search out the most original fundus of universe substances and then freely use all substance in the whole universe; The future methodology of scientific researches are the systematically inverse design of universe substance, based on the tremendous knowledge base which are chronically obtained and accumulated by humans, as well as the numerical universal calculation algorithm for universe substances and their running. This is the methodology of scientific researches for humans to full out achieve the final research purpose by paying out the minimum expenses.

Keywords: Methodology of scientific researches, exploration and new discovery, shortcomings in scientific researches, future direction of sciences, inverse design of substance.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 1,146 KB
Title: "Structural and Mechanical Characteristics of Al -Pb Alloys produced by chill-Block melt spinning"
Author(s): Mustafa Kamal, Abu-Bakr El-Bediwi, Samira El-Mohamady Fouda
Pages: 29-38 Paper ID:131206-8989-IJET-IJENS Published: December, 2013

Abstract: Al-Pb monoetectic alloys with different compositions were rapidly solidified from melt using chill-block melt –spin technique. The rapidly solidified ribbons were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The results showed that the structures of all melt-spun ribbons were completely composed two distinct phases of aluminium rich phase and lead rich phase. Additionally, Elastic moduli, Internal friction , thermal diffusivity and hardness measurements of melt-spun ribbons were examined by using Dynamic resonance method and Vickers indentor for one applied load of 10 grams of force for 5 seconds .The results also show that this material is very sensitive to the compositions.

Keywords: Elastic Moduli – Internal friction , Thermal diffusivity , hardness measurements , monotectic alloys , XRD , Dynamic resonance method , melt-spin technique – Shear Stress .
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 726 KB
Title: A Novel Structure for Ultra Broadband Broadside-Coupled Impedance Transformer
Author(s): Ahmed Sayed, Haythem H. Abdullah
Pages: 39-41 Paper ID:132606-7575-IJET-IJENS Published: December, 2013

Abstract: This paper presents a novel structure for ultra broadband 4:1 broadside-coupled PCB impedance transformer. Analysis, simulations and measurements of the developed transformer are given and discussed. Three prototypes of the proposed structure are implemented (Trafo I, Trafo II and Trafo III) at resonant frequencies 2.3, 1.3 and 0.85 GHz, respectively with fractional bandwidth (FBW) of greater than 400 %. The implemented transformers show an ultra broadband performance with a transmission loss of less than – 1 dB and return loss of at least – 10 dB in the desired bandwidth. In a comparison, simulations and measurements are found very close to each other. To the knowledge of the authors, the achieved performance of the designed transformers has been never obtained in the literature.

Keywords: Broadband, impedance transformer, PCB, broadside-coupled.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 506 KB
Title: Impact of Changeover time on productivity: A case study
Author(s): Rubayet Karim
Pages: 42-48 Paper ID:132906-8484-IJET-IJENS Published: December, 2013

Abstract: For developing countries such as Bangladesh, reaching international markets is a great challenge. It is vital to understand what it takes for a small enterprise to survive in a global economy. To gain profit from scarce time and to increase productivity as well as to minimize waste it is necessary to adopt new manufacturing concepts like lean manufacturing philosophy. This paper addresses the application of lean manufacturing concepts to the mass production sector with a focus on sewing section of the studied garments industry. The objective of this research work is to investigate how lean manufacturing tools can be adopted to the discrete manufacturing system and to evaluate their benefit on a specific application instance. In this concern changeover time analysis has been done in this research work. The basic idea behind the lean manufacturing concept is to eliminate waste. Waste is defined as anything that does not add value to the end product from the customer’s perspective. The goal of lean manufacturing is to assist manufacturers to improve their company’s operational efficiency and become more competitive through the implementation of various lean tools and techniques in various sectors of the continuous production process. This research paper tries to extract the common scenario of readymade garments (RMG) sector of Bangladesh by depicting the existing condition of sewing section. However, this paper proposes some guidelines for the studied garments industry to improve the performance of the sewing section.

Keywords: Changeover time, Lean Manufacturing, RMG, Productivity, Waste.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 359 KB
Title: Particular Review on SODAR and LIDAR Measurements of Bora Wind in Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Author(s): Elvir Zlomušica
Pages: 49-57 Paper ID:133206-5656-IJET-IJENS Published: December, 2013

Abstract: Recently, Bosnia and Herzegovina has been falling behind the countries of SE Europe in all segments of power industry. Besides other energy resources (coal and water are the most significant), huge potential lies in renewable energy sources, primarily wind, small hydropower, sun and biomass. Unfortunately, these potentials are not used sufficiently. This paper discusses basic characteristics of the wind energy in Bosnia and Herzegovina, with a specific emphasis on estimation of the wind potential on the complex terrains and under diverse conditions of the Bora wind, as well as the discussion on presented results of the research on wind characteristics by using specialized equipment (SODAR and LIDAR) at the locality of Podvelezje (Mostar). Availability of LIDAR obtained data was considerable better as compared to SODAR ones. Results for wind direction correspond relatively well. The increase of wind speed with height is very small, which can be caused by the complexity of the wind conditions. That was the very first handling of this equipment under local conditions in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Presented results of the measurements are significantly useful, although they have certain imperfections. Additionally, it gives a brief reference to the complexity of the wind potential research under complex conditions of wind type in Bosnia and Herzegovina, giving in this way a contribution to a more realistic estimation of economically feasible potential, which will consequently help to create required strategic documents in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Keywords: Wind energy, SODAR, LIDAR, Bora wind, Mostar, Bosnia.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 993 KB
Title: Treatment of Wastewater Contaminated with Fe(II) by Adsorption onto Saudi Activated Bentonite
Author(s): S. S. Al-Shahrani
Pages: 58-68 Paper ID:134006-7272-IJET-IJENS Published: December, 2013

Abstract: The adsorption of Fe(II)) from wastewater using Saudi activated bentonite was studied in a batch adsorption system. This study investigates the removal characteristics of Fe(II)) ions from wastewater under various operating variables such as shaking time, solution pH, clay amount, initial metal concentration and counter ions. The results showed that the sorption of Fe(II) ions on Saudi activated bentonite was fast and the equilibrium was achieved after only 20 min. The sorption data showed that solution pH was the most important parameter in controlling Fe(II)) adsorption onto bentonite. They also showed that increasing the initial Fe(II) concentration decreased Fe(II) removal percentage due to the saturation of clay with Fe(II) ions. Furthermore, the adsorption of Fe(II)) ions increased with increasing in solution pH. Increasing solution pH more than 3 causes precipitation rather than adsorption. The adsorption isotherm data were well fitted with the linearized Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin–Radushkevich (D–R) models. The maximum adsorption (qmax) for Fe(II) on Saudi activated bentonite equals 7.09 mg/g. The value of the mean free energy determined with the D-R equation showed that adsorption process is chemisorptions. Fe(II)) adsorption onto Saudi activated bentonite was well represented by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Saudi activated bentonite can be considered as a promising adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater. Furthermore, Saudi activated bentonite as a cost effective adsorbent is recommended to be an alternate to commercially available activated carbon.

Keywords: Removal of Fe(II), Saudi activated bentonite, adsorption of Fe(II), heavy metals removal, adsorption isotherm, adsorption kinetic.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 681 KB
Title: A Preliminary Study to Evaluate Mishrif Carbonate Reservoir of Nasiriya Oil Field
Author(s): Jreou, Ghazwan N. S.
Pages: 69-82 Paper ID:136305-0808-IJET-IJENS Published: December, 2013

Abstract: Oil and gas field development becomes the main purpose of the E and P companies to increase the field productivity and reservoir pressure maintenance through their strategy plans and technical innovation, In addition to the discovery and exploitation jobs for new production areas. The present work categorises under the development reservoir studies headlines, which concerning with Mishrif oil reservoir of Nasiriya oil field. It presents a preliminary field development point of view for the present and near future to increase the oil and gas production from the field. A simulation study was carried out by developing a 3 D fluid flow model to simulate the concerning reservoir under solution gas drive with a moderate bottom water drive. The necessary petrophysical and PVT information data for the building model acquired from the available field reports and literatures of wells ( NS1 – NS5). Good response and results were obtained from the model through a matching phase. The calculated OOIP was 4355 MMSTB through initialization, while the dynamic stage of simulation has been pointed well results about OWC and wells production matching according to the available data. This was covered the period from 2009 to 2013, while the prediction period extended from 2013 to 2020. The obtained results indicate very well production capacity of the field can be continue up to 2020 with 50 000 STB/D within 15 drilled wells, more field development plans can be applied in future to increase its production and pressure maintenance.

Keywords: Reservoir development, simulation study, increasing production, Mishrif, Nasiriya oil field.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 1,335 KB
Title: Performance Improvement of Cu2O/TiO2 Heterojunction Solar Cell by Employing Polymer Electrolytes
Author(s): Sahrul Saehana, Muslimin
Pages: 83-86 Paper ID:132006-7474-IJET-IJENS Published: December, 2013

Abstract: We report performance improvement of Cu2O/TiO2 heterojunction solar cells by employing polymer electrolyte which containing Li+ ion. Cu2O were deposited on a TiO2 film using the electrochemical deposition (ECD) method. Based on the SEM result, the particles of Cu2O seemed to penetrate the space between TiO2 particles and were deposited close to the TiO2/indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate interface. The film was confirmed to be a Cu2O/TiO2 composite by XRD, SEM and EDX measurements. We assumed that polymer electrolyte, containing Li+ ion, improving electronic transport by diffusing to TiO2 conduction band. Moreover, the counter electrode was formed by evaporating Al for I–V characterization, and the fabricated cell showed improving of photovoltaic properties.

Keywords: Polymer electrolyte, Cu2O/TiO2, heterojunction solar cells, electrochemical deposition.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 542 KB
Title: A Comparative Study of Anoxic Limestone Drain and Open Limestone Channel for Acidic Raw Water Treatment
Author(s): Faradiella Mohd Kusin, Azmi Aris, Amiza Shayeeda Ahmad Misbah
Pages: 87-92 Paper ID:133906-8686-IJET-IJENS Published: December, 2013

Abstract: This study presents the performance of an anoxic limestone drain in comparison to an open limestone channel for treating acidic water. The anoxic limestone drain was designed to enhance limestone dissolution and alkalinity generation thus minimizing the potential of armouring which may decrease the rate of acid neutralization. Actual raw water from two different locations within Sg. Bekok catchment that is highly acidic with low pH value (~ pH 2.5) was used in the experiment. The anoxic limestone drain was found to perform better than the open limestone channel with respect to pH increase, acidicy decrease and alkality production. Iron was removed at relatively higher rate in open limestone channel but resulted in the armouring of limestone surfaces thus limiting further generation of alkalinity.

Keywords: Acidic water; Anoxic limestone drain; Alkalinity production; Open limestone channel.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 200 KB
Title: Full Characterization of Strength Properties of Schizolobium amazonicum Wood for Timber Structures
Author(s): Diego Henrique de Almeida, Raquel Schmitt Cavalheiro, Ricardo de Mello Scaliante, André Luis Christoforo, Carlito Calil Junior, Francisco Antonio Rocco Lahr
Pages: 93-96 Paper ID:135006-8484-IJET-IJENS Published: December, 2013

Abstract: Schizolobium amazonicum is a wood species whose growth results in small amount of defects, a good feature for its possible use as structural elements. So it is important to be aware of their strength properties. The aim of this research is the full characterization of Schizolobium amazonicum Wood aiming its employ in timber structures. Specimens were obtained using material came from Certified Area of Amazon Brazilian Forest, Pará State, Brazil. Tests were carried out with samples in standard conditions of moisture content (12%), according to Brazilian Normative Code ABNT NBR 7190: 1997. The following properties were determined: strength in compression and tension parallel to the grain; compression and tension perpendicular to the grain; embedment parallel and perpendicular to the grain; strength in shear parallel to the grain and specific gravity. It was possible to conclude that Schizolobium amazonicum can be considered as a C20 class Wood (dicotyledonous) and used for structural purposes.

Keywords: Full characterization; timber structures; Schizolobium amazonicum Wood.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 451 KB
Title: Pilot study: Biomechanical Assessment of the Plantar Pressure Distribution in Healthy Subjects Using the Pressure Platform EcoWalk
Author(s): Martha Zequera, Oscar Perdomo, Carlos Wilches, Pedro Vizcaya
Pages: 97-101 Paper ID:136406-7575-IJET-IJENS Published: December, 2013

Abstract: Plantar pressure provides useful information to assess the feet's condition. These systems have emerged as popular tools in clinical environment. These systems present errors and no compensation information is presented by the manufacturer, leading to uncertainty in the measurements. Ten healthy subjects, 5 females and 5 males, were recruited. Lateral load distribution, antero-posterior load distribution, average pressure, contact area, force, and peak pressures in 12 plantar regions were recorded. The aims of this study were to assess repeatability of the EcoWalk system and identify the range of pressure values observed in the normal foot. The coefficient of repeatability was less than 4\% for all parameters considered. The peak pressure was found to be repeatable when it was analyzed by region.

Keywords: Pressure sensors, contact area, peak pressures, stability, repeatability.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 596 KB
Title: The Structural and Electrical Properties of LiNi0.5Mg0.5VO4 Annealed at 450 oC and 550 oC
Author(s): A. F. M. Fadzil, S. I. Y. Saaid, A. Sanusi, M. Mohamad, N. N. N. Ebrhiam
Pages: 102-107 Paper ID:134506-1919-IJET-IJENS Published: December, 2013

Abstract: In this work, cathode material LiNi0.5Mg0.5VO4 was synthesized in a pure state by organic synthetic procedure known as sol-gel method. Tartaric acid was used as the complexing agent. The precursor sample was sent for Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) as to determine the optimum temperature for annealing process. The annealing temperature was then defined at 450 oC and 550 oC for 5 hours. The structural properties of the compound were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) using X’PERT PRO MRD XL analytical. It shows that both samples produced crystallinity phases but LiNi0.5Mg0.5VO4 annealed at 450 oC shows more crystalline with sharp peaks. The electrochemical characterization was carried out by Solartron Impedance Spectroscopy measuring bulk resistance (RB) and electrical conductivity of LiNi0.5Mg0.5VO4 at various temperature of 25 oC, 35 oC, 45 oC, 55 oC and 65 oC. It was found that the bulk resistance (RB) is proportional with temperature for both annealling temperature of 450 oC and 550 oC. However the conductivity is inversely proportional with temperature for both anealling temperature of 450 oC and 550 oC. At room temperature (25 oC) the conductivity of LiNi0.5Mg0.5VO4 annealed at 450 oC was 1.58 x 10-4 S cm-1while LiNi0.5Mg0.5VO4 annealed at 550 oC was 1.40 x 10-4 S cm-.1 This shows that LiNi0.5Mg0.5VO4 annealed at 450 oC has greater electrical properties.

Keywords: LiNi0.5Mg0.5VO4, Li-ion battery, cathode material, annealing temperature .
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 772 KB
Title: Impact of Dehydrated Jackfruit in the Acceptance of a Probiotic Fermented Milk
Author(s): Rafael Araújo Costa, Mariane Sampaio da Silveira de Souza, Tamires Cruz Santos Silva2; Tatiana Pacheco Nunes, Antonio Martins de Oliveira Júnior, Ana Carolina Sampaio Doria Chaves
Pages: 108-112 Paper ID:135606-9191-IJET-IJENS Published: December, 2013

Abstract: This research was conducted to study the impact of the addition of dehydrated jackfruit in a probiotic fermented milk. To add value to jackfruit it was dehydrated and cut (into two different forms), subsequently it was added in stirred probiotic fermented milk. The dehydration process occurred as follows: initially the fruit was sanitized, peeled and the bulbs were submitted to an osmotic dehydration, in a solution of 40 % of sucrose and 0.3 % of citric acid at 100°C for 10 minutes. Then they were dried in a convective dryer at 60°C for 6 hours. Two formulations of stirred probiotic fermented milk with dried jackfruit were developed: Formulation A with dehydrated jackfruit cut into cubes of 0.5 cm and Formulation B with dehydrated jackfruit crushed (almost disintegrated). For the milk fermentation at 43°C was used tree lactic acid bacteria: Streptococcus thermophilus, Bifidobacterium animalis and Lactobacillus acidophilus. The fermentation was ended when the product reach the pH 4.6, than it was cooled and the gel was broken and mixed with 15 % of dehydrated jackfruit (w/w). To evaluate the hygienic-sanitary conditions of the stirred fermented milk, the enumeration of yeasts and molds, total coliforms and fecal coliforms were performed before the sensorial evaluation. All counts were below the maximum allowed by the Brazilian legislation. The counts of Bifidobacterium animalis was 109 CFU/g so this product can have a claim functional food as probiotic. In the sensory evaluation, both formulations showed a high level of acceptation, once 82 % of the panelists liked the Formulation B (scored the product between grade 9 and 6) and 98% liked the Formulation A. There was significant difference (p < 0.05) in overall acceptation and formulation A was preferred. In the sensorial evaluation the attributes scored were: sweet taste, jackfruit flavor, texture and the overall acceptability. It was also analyzed the purchase intention using a three-point hedonic scale, 78 % of the panelists said that they definitely would buy the Formulation A and 48 % the Formulation B. These results indicate that jackfruit could be successfully incorporated into different products in the food industry.

Keywords: Jackfruit, dehydration, fermented milks, probiotics, sensory evaluation.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 235 KB