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Title: QuasiPAS Model Using The Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Positive Root of j2(x) and j3(x)
Author(s): A. A. Bachtiar, N. Marina, R. Rusin
Pages: 1-2 Paper ID: 112704-05-8989-IJET-IJENS Published: October, 2011
Abstract: QuasiPAS flow was invented by Bachtiar and James (BJ 2011). They modified Pekeris, Accad and Skholler PAS dynamo in order to get a new flow which can be fully planarized. BJ evaluated three types of quasiPAS flows: basic, partly-planarized and fully planarized. They used the first three positive roots of spherical Bessel function order two. They found nine new dynamos, unfortunately none of them is a planar velocity dynamos. In this paper, we revisited one of their flows, which is the unplanarized quasiPAS, using the fourth, fifth and sixth positive roots of spherical Bessel function order two. We found no new dynamo, but we predict that higher resolutions are needed in order to get more conclusive results.
Keywords: ---
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science| 526 KB
Title: Numerical Study of MHD Free Convection Flow and Mass Transfer Over a Stretching Sheet Considering Dufour & Soret Effects in the Presence of Magnetic Field
Author(s): M. U. Ahammad, Md. Shirazul Hoque Mollah
Pages: 3-8 Paper ID: 112803-05-7474-IJET-IJENS Published: October, 2011
Abstract: In the present approach, a two-dimensional steady MHD free convection flow and mass transfer over a stretching sheet has been analyzed numerically including the Dufour and Soret effects with a magnetic field. The governing differential equations of the problem have been transformed into a system of non-dimensional differential equations, which are then solved numerically using a sixth-order Runge-Kutta integration scheme with Nachtsheim-Swigert shooting method. The dimensionless velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are displayed graphically showing the effects for the different values of the involved parameters of the problem. Moreover, the effects of So and Du on the local skin-friction coefficient (Cf), local Nusselt number (Nu) and local Sherwood number (Sh) are also shown in tabular form. The investigated results showed that the flow field is notably influenced by the considering parameters.
Keywords: MHD, Convection, Flow and mass transfer, Dufour effect, Soret effect, Magnetic field.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science| 359 KB
Title: Validating the Accuracy of Heat Source Model via Temperature Histories and Temperature Field in Bead-on-plate Welding
Author(s): Djarot B. Darmadi
Pages: 9-17 Paper ID: 111505-6868-IJET-IJENS Published: October, 2011
Abstract: Welding process generally is modeled as a moving heat source over a solid. This paper used Goldak’s ellipsoidal moving heat source model. Goldak has proposed a volumetric heat source model according to the mathematical expressions: . For a known heat input value, crucial parameters of the Goldak’s heat source model are rx, ry and rz. Using rx, ry and rz equal to 5mm, 2mm and 3mm respectively; a well match temperature histories with experimental result at observed positions and weld pool shape can be obtained.
Keywords: Goldak’s heat source models, temperature history, temperature field.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science| 1,630 KB
Title: Comparative Studies on Some Starchy Adsorbents for the Uptake of Water from Ethanol – Water Mixtures.
Author(s): Okewale, A .O., Etuk, B. R., Igbokwe, P. K.
Pages: 18-27 Paper ID: 110305-8383-IJET-IJENS Published: October, 2011
Abstract: In this work a comparative study on the uptake of water from ethanol – water mixture using starchy adsorbents was undertaken. These include modified starch (MSAD), Cassava shreds (ABAD), Cassava pellet (CPAD), and Cassava starch (CSAD). The thermodynamic results were obtained at 30oC, 40oC, 50oC, and 55oC. The effect of process parameters – temperature, particle size and type of adsorbent were investigated. Using a Graeco – Latin square plan of experiment, it was seen that temperature had the most significant effect on the uptake of water from ethanol – water mixtures studied. The kinetic data were presented by means of an uptake rate curve which showed the influence of the mean particle size on the adsorption (uptake of water). The results obtained showed that the adsorption rates were strongly dependent on the particle size of the adsorbents studied. An increase in mean particle sizes favoured a decrease in the uptake of water by the various starchy adsorbents studied. Statistical analysis of the results performed using ANOVA showed that temperature has a significant effect on the uptake of water from ethanol – water mixtures at 0.05 confidence interval of significance. Modified starch showed the best result in all the adsorbents studied.
Keywords: Ethanol, Starch - based adsorbents, Adsorption, Analysis of Variance.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science| 391 KB
Title: A Methodology for Obtaining Diffusion Coefficients in a three-Phase Ternary Couple : InAs/nickel
Author(s): Sutopo
Pages: 28-33 Paper ID: 111805-6969-IJET-IJENS Published: October, 2011
Abstract: A methodology was presented for determining the interdiffusion coefficients of phases formed in a ternary diffusion couple using the measured growth rates and the concentration profiles across the couple. Using this methodology the interdiffusion coefficients of theT-Ni3InAs phase were obtained from several INAs/nickel couples. Assuming the cross-intrinsic diffusion coefficients to be negligible, relationships between intrinsic diffusion coefficients were derived and values were obtained for the three intrinsic diffusion coefficients of the T-phase. The intrinsic diffusivity for nickel was the largest and that for arsenic the smallest. These data rationalized in terms of the structure of the T-phase.
Keywords: Coefficient interdiffusion; Diffusion couples; Intrinsic diffusion; Ni3InAs.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science| 338 KB
Title: Nano-Clay Particle as Textile Coating
Author(s): A. Ghosh
Pages: 34-36 Paper ID: 112005-3636-IJET-IJENS Published: October, 2011
Abstract: Clay particle is commonly any of group of important hydrous aluminum silicates with a layer (sheet) structure and very small size, as for example montmorillonite, which are often organically modified to render them organophilic and to enable their dispersion into a polymer. The result of such dispersion is a Nano composite comprised of nanoscale clay particles and a surrounding polymer. Important clay particles are Kaolinite, Illite, Bentonite, Chlorite and Montmorillonite. The most used clay particle in textile coating is Montmorillonite: Chemically (Na, Ca) (Al, Mg)6(Si4O10)3(OH) 6-nH2O, Hydrated Sodium Calcium Aluminum Magnesium Silicate Hydroxide. The aim of this study is to focus on functional properties of nanoclay coated textiles. Nanoclay particle can play an important role in flame retardant textile (cotton or polyester) coating. They can be acted as carriers for drugs, fragrances or other active agents and enable the controlled release of the incorporated species (bacteria, biocidal) which could find applications in skin care products. Recently, clays have become more important for various aspects of environmental science and remediation. Clay particle may absorb various pollutants including organic compounds (such as atrazine, trifluraline, parathion and malathion) and inorganic trace metals (such as copper, zinc, cadmium and mercury) from soils and groundwater which are mostly health hazards. As it is biodegradable and generated from purely nature occurring resources, has very less effect on the environment and human being.
Keywords: Nanoclay, coating, montmorillonite, functional, environment.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science| 255 KB
Title: Combining Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process and GIS to Select the Best Location for a Wastewater Lift Station in El-Mahalla El-Kubra, North Egypt
Author(s): E. H. Ibrahim, S. E. Mohamed, A. A. Atwan
Pages: 37-43 Paper ID: 112205-8383-IJET-IJENS Published: October, 2011
Abstract: Determining the best location is a complex process that faces the Decision makers. In El-Mahalla El-Kubra, Egypt this problem exists in selecting the best location for wastewater lift station of an under-construction industrial sewage system. The site selection problem comes with criteria that determine the best location. Dealing with real life situation and experts' judgments involves uncertainty. To solve this problem, we designed a model containing Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) technique that is Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) with fuzzy theory to handle the uncertainty situations and Geographical Information System (GIS) to determine the best location. An application adopting the FAHP idea was developed to calculate weights of the criteria of the site. The GIS was used to overlay and generate criteria maps and suitability map. The study ends with an assessment of proposed sites to the generated suitability map.
Keywords: Geographical information system (GIS), multi-criteria decision making (MCDM), and fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP).
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science| 1,002 KB
Title: The potential of Lawin Tuff for Generating a Portland fly ash Cement to be Used in Oil Well Cementing
Author(s): Wong Han Sze, Askury Abd Kadir
Pages: 44-47 Paper ID: 113205-8484-IJET-IJENS Published: October, 2011
Abstract: This paper is about doing research using tuff in Lawin, Grik, Perak to generate Portland Fly Ash cement to be used in oil well cementing. Several tests are carried out according to API standard to determine the best proportion of tuff used to mix with Portland cement and generate best results. Results indicate it will increase the long term compressive strength, reduce fluid loss, good resistance to sulphate attack, less CO2 emission, Less permeable and more environmental friendly compare to coal fly ash. Future cement production should focus on Green Cement which is less hazardous.
Keywords: Tuff, fly ash, cement.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science| 345 KB
Title: Rutting Evaluation of Dense Graded Hot Mix Asphalt Mixture
Author(s): J. Ahmad, M. Y. Abdul Rahman, M. R. Hainin
Pages: 48-52 Paper ID: 113305-0909-IJET-IJENS Published: October, 2011
Abstract: Rutting is one of the common pavement distresses which led to lower riding comfort for road users and high maintenance costs. One of the widely used tests is the simulation test using the wheel tracking device. In this study, efforts have been made to evaluate rutting of dense graded hot mix asphalt (HMA) using the dynamic modulus Simple Performance test (SPT). Granite aggregates from Klang Valley located in the central region of Peninsular Malaysia were used to produce the HMA mixtures with two different types of aggregate gradation designed using Superpave and Marshall mix design method. The rut evaluation was selected from SPT dynamic modulus test conducted at 40°C, 45°C and 50°C and 5 Hz, 2 Hz, 1 Hz and 0.5 Hz loading frequencies. Results from the study indicated that a correlation was found between the rut stiffness factor from SPT dynamic modulus test when tested at 5 Hz loading frequencies with temperature of 40°C, 45°C and 50°C and the rut depth from Wessex wheel tracking test.
Keywords: Hot mix asphalt; rutting; simple performance test; wheel tracking test.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science| 529 KB
Title: Hazards of Heavy Metal Contamination on the Groundwater Around a Municipal Dumpsite in Lagos, Southwestern Nigeria
Author(s): Laniyan, T. A, Kehinde Phillips, O. O, Elesha, L
Pages: 53-60 Paper ID: 112105-7474-IJET-IJENS Published: October, 2011
Abstract: The presence of heavy metals in water is widespread, affecting hundreds of cities. In high dosages, these heavy metals are highly toxic to human, even deadly. The study was therefore aimed at evaluating the geochemical implication of Heavy metals on the groundwater surrounding a municipal solid waste dumpsite at Olusosun, waste disposal site Lagos. Twenty groundwater samples and a leachate were investigated around the dump site and the samples were acidified with two drops of concentrated nitric acid before it was sent for analysis at the Acme Laboratory Canada. The results revealed dominance of Pb, Fe and, Mn when compared with WHO and SON standard, while all the metals were found high in the leachates. Contamination assessment revealed Fe and Pb to be extremely contaminated in the groundwater, while geoaccumulation factor showed that farther away from the dumpsite contamination reduces. Pb, Mn, Fe are found to be from anthropogenic source and correlated significantly Pb-Cd (0.84), Mn-Pb (0.90), Fe-Cd (0.76) with each other. Thus, Pb, Fe and Mn if not checked could lead to major health problems like tooth discoloration, low mental development and kidney problems on the public.
Keywords: Municipal solid waste, dumpsite, environmental pollution contamination.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science| 710 KB
Title: Scalar Wavelet packet based multi-user Cognitive Radio Transceiver
Author(s): ManjuMathew, A. B. Premkumar, C. T. Lau
Pages: 61-67 Paper ID: 115805-7474-IJET-IJENS Published: October, 2011
Abstract: A multi-user Cognitive Radio (CR) network resolves the problem of spectrum under utilization and enables the deployment of new wireless applications in the fast growing wireless communication area. Hence a multi-user CR network using scalar wavelets is considered in this paper for evaluating the performance characteristics. Both mathematical and experimental analysis of the proposed system are given in detail. Spectrum efficiency, sidelobe suppression, error performance and complexity analysis of the system are analyzed.
Keywords: Wavelet Transform, spectrum sensing, carrier allocation, reconfigurability.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science| 595 KB
Title: Coating on Viscose - Poor Wet Strength of Viscose can be Improved by the Application of Chemical Finishes like Water Repellent and Soil Release Finishes.
Author(s): A. Ghosh
Pages: 68-73 Paper ID: 116705-8484-IJET-IJENS Published: October, 2011
Abstract: Cotton as a dominating natural fibre imparts a major contribution in the whole textile market including natural and artificial fibres. The demand of this cellulosic fibre is increasing rapidly day by day, on the other hand supply cannot fulfill its demand, and as a result price goes higher in world market. Viscose as cellulosic origin, the cheapest of all cellulosic fibres could be the best alternative. Viscose fibre exhibits some similar properties compared to cotton except its poor wet strength. In this research work different chemical finishes were applied to improve the wet strength of viscose fabric. For this purpose water repellent and soil release finishes were applied. Both water repellent and soil release finishes helped in reducing the molecular barrier around the individual fibres that lowered the surface tension of the fibre. It reduces the absorbency of viscose fibre hence leads to higher wet strength. Water repellent finish was applied alone as well as in combination with soil release finish. It was seen that viscose fibre exhibited better wet strength after applying water repellent and soil release finishes on it. This improved property of viscose could replace the cotton fibre in certain applications like bed linen.
Keywords: Cotton, cellulose, viscose, wet strength, water repellent, soil release.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science| 498 KB
Title: Production of Biopolymer from Acetobacter xylinum Using Different Fermentation Methods
Author(s): Norhayati Pa’e, Khairul A. Zahan, Ida I. Muhamad
Pages: 74-79 Paper ID: 116901-05-3434-IJET-IJENS Published: October, 2011
Abstract: Researchers all over the world have been studying microbial cellulose - which is a biopolymer - for more than a century as it is receiving great attention for its wide applications. Many researches have been carrying out in order to find better methods of microbial production at a large scale. Using Rotary Discs Reactor (RDR) is one of the alternatives to produce higher yield of microbial cellulose. This study has been done to compare production of microbial cellulose using RDR with the traditional static fermentation method. A series of fermentation in static culture and RDR were run at room temperature with pH ranging from 4 to 6. Results showed that fermentation carried out using RDR gave 86.78% higher production of microbial cellulose than that from static fermentation. In this study, RDR fermentation with speed rotation of 7 rpm gave the highest resultant wet weight which was 139.78 grams. It was also found that too high rotational speed in RDR caused decrease in microbial cellulose production as it affects stability of the culture. It can be concluded that fermentation using RDR can give higher yield because of better oxygen supply where the A. xylinum cultures were in direct contact with air by the rotation of discs. Furthermore, the RDR provided larger surface area for the microorganisms attachment compared to the static fermentation.
Keywords: Microbial cellulose, rotary disc reactor, static fermentation, dissolved oxygen, A. xylinum.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science| 356 KB
Title: Tomographic Image Reconstruction from a Sparse Projection Data Using Sinogram Interpolation
Author(s): Catur Edi Widodo, Kus Kusminarto, Gede Bayu Suparta
Pages: 80-83 Paper ID: 116905-7474-IJET-IJENS Published: October, 2011
Abstract: In this paper we propose a new approach of tomographic image reconstruction using sinogram interpolation for a sparse projection data. In this term, sinogram interpolation is a process of converting a sampled projection to a higher sampling rate projection. By using interpolation, we construct a new projections within the range of set of projection, then we apply a filtered backprojection reconstruction to get the tomographic image. This proposed approach reconstruction is applied to simulated half full angle projection data of the Shepp-Logan phantom with sparse angular sampling. The result are better than those given by filtered backprojection reconstruction without sinogram interpolation.
Keywords: Tomography, projection, sinogram, interpolation, backprojection.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science| 519 KB
Title: Early Warning System in Agroindustry: a Chaos Theory Based Analysis
Author(s): Pudji Astuti, Eriyatno, Yandra Arkeman, Muslimin Nasution
Pages: 84-88 Paper ID: 110605-8686-IJET-IJENS Published: October, 2011
Abstract: Chaos could occur anytime in agriculture sector, and that some occurences will be predictable and some will not, so it needs early warning system that could detect early chaotic conditions and take action for crisis recovery.This research was aimed to design early warning system for tapioca agroindustry with the chaos existence test. The methodology in this research we investigate the existence of chaos in agroindustry. Such an investigation is necessary to use appropriate and correct methods for further analysis, as linear system techniques will not be usefull. If a system exhibits chaos, decision making should consider the system characterization parameters from a chaos theory perspective. In this paper two models from the existing literature are reported. Of this models, the chaos existence test is further exploration to get crisis signal analysis. A tapioca smal scale industry example is used and the resulting behavior is characterized. At certain input values the behavior of the material supply system exhibits chaos. Lyapunov exponent value for the raw material supply was 0.15656 bits/week. These properties indicate that the raw material supplies could not be predicted in the long term. Raw material supply could be predicted within a period of 1/0,15 656 = 6,34942 approximately in 6 weeks. And status alert will be presented, wich is “Supply of Raw Materials have the potential Chaos”. The alert shows that tapioca industry had no strong position on integration into the upstream raw material supply sources. The recommended strategy was the strengthening of the upstream sectors This information is useful for further analysis for prediction and control.
Keywords: Early Warning system, chaos theory, agroindustry.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science| 556 KB