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Title: Analysis of Laser Linewidth Measurements Based on Fabry Perot Interferometer System
Author(s): Adnan Hussein Ali, Sahib N. Abdul –Wahid, Hussein A. Mohammed
Pages: 1-4 Paper ID: 122306-8383-IJECS-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: The linewidth of a tunable laser source TLS with both narrow and wide modes settings are measured directly using scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer.. This system consists of a confocal resonator that contains two high reflectivity mirrors; by varying the resonator length by the piezoelectric transducer, the system acts as a very narrow band-pass filter. The operation of interferometer is controlled by a controller and the linewidth is measured using detection oscilloscope. With narrow mode setting, the linewidths are measured to be around 12 MHz, 14 MHz and 16.5 MHz for signal wavelengths of 1520 nm, 1540 nm and 1560 nm, respectively. While the linewidth is slightly fluctuated with the wide mode setting, and a value varies from 104 to 195 MHz are obtained.
Keywords: Fabry Perot Interferometer; Tunable laser source TLS; Laser linewidth
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 331 KB
Title: Smart Control Techniques based Economic Power Generation Scheduling
Author(s): Nadjamuddin Harun, Tajuddin Waris, Syafaruddin, Takashi Hiyama
Pages: 5-13 Paper ID: 122406-8585-IJECS-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: The study aims to gain the benefit of using fuzzy logic system for the economic the scheduling of power generation by means the minimum of the generation cost. The input pattern of the proposed fuzzy logic control is derived from LaGrange method. The fuzzification process ends up with single input and single output system that are valid for all variables. The initial condition of the case power system is analyzed using Newton-Raphson load flow method and the input-output characteristic equations determined by the Least Square method. The target of generation scheduling is all the thermal power plants connected in the South-Sulawesi interconnected system, Indonesia. The simulation results showed increasing in the operational cost efficiency from low to peak loading. In addition, the results related to operational cost and total cost efficiency using this smart control technique are averagely of 4,675.75 Rp/MWh and 23.4 %, respectively; that means better than the merit loading as the conventional technique used in the region.
Keywords: Smart control, fuzzy logic system, La Grange method, Newton-Raphson method, least-square method, economic scheduling.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 697 KB
Title: Adaptive Modulation Performance In Mimo-OSTBC Over Rayleigh Fading Channel
Author(s): R.O. Abolade, Z. K. Adeyemo
Pages: 21-25 Paper ID: 1217605-06-4848-IJECS-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: This paper presents the performance of adaptive modulation with multiple input multiple output orthogonal space time block coding MIMO-OSTBC over frequency selective Rayleigh fading channel using Bit Error Rate (BER) and spectral efficiency (SE) as performance measures. The increase in demand for communication networks has turned the spectrum into a precious resource, which leads to channel impairment that increases the BER and reduces the SE of the M-ary Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (M-QAM) transmitted signal. The channel model for OSTBC for 2x2, 3x3 and 4x4 transmit antenna is developed. The system model is formulated using the constellation sizes of 4-QAM, 16-QAM, 32-QAM and 64-QAM at different signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Simulation approach using randomly generated data is carried out to determine the performance of the system with MATLAB application package. The results show that SE and BER improve significantly as the SNR increases for all the antenna configurations.
Keywords: Bit Error Rate, Spectral Efficiency, Adaptive Modulation, Frequency Selective, Multiple input Multiple Output.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 336 KB
Title: Reliable Routing Algorithm on Wireless Sensor Network
Author(s): Jun-jun Liang, Zhen-Wu Yuna, Jian-Jun Lei, Gu-In Kwon
Pages: 26-31 Paper ID: 1211206-8585-IJECS-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: This paper provides a novel routing algorithm CLQR (Cumulative Link Quality Routing Algorithm) which leverages LQI to provide a better routing scheme. Unlike other schemes providing maximum link quality, CLQR does not use probe packets to measure the link quality. Instead it uses cumulative link quality as a metric to choose better routing path. Result of simulation shows that it can hold a high throughput and improve path efficiency. Moreover, CLQR can balance network load and extend network life time.
Keywords: Reliable transmission, LQI, Routing, sensor networks.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 336 KB
Title: Finding the Best Fit for Solar Radiation by statistical comparison between Linear Regression (LS) and Least Trimmed Squares (LTS) Regression Method
Author(s): Y.M. Irwan, I. Mohamed, A. G. Hussin, I.Safwati, N.Gomesh, M.Irwanto
Pages: 32-36 Paper ID: 1212306-4747-IJECS-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: The sources of green energy mainly in the area of solar technology have received much emphasis on the global market in terms of power generation. In Malaysia, the research on solar energy has taken a huge leap into power conservation. This paper presents an investigation on solar radiation accuracy in the northern part of Malaysia, the state of Perlis, by using the meteorological data obtain from several weather stations here. The analysis is done by using mathematical and statistical software to compare the air temperature and solar radiation for one complete year. Previous work has done on solar radiation estimation is between Hargreaves and linear regression. Thus paper considers the method of Least Trimmed Squares (LTS) regression in estimating solar radiation. The daily and monthly average data of solar radiation per minute is analyzed by using in Linear Regression (LS) and Least trimmed Squares (LTS) regression method for data comparison reason. Result shows that, by using the LTS method the coefficient of determination, R2 value is higher compare to the LS method by 7%, other result such as the mean, median and total for the produces similar data as the raw data from weather station. This shows that the LTS method can be used to estimate the solar radiation compare Linear Regression (LS) method. The reason is the LTS method is not easily influence by the outliers of data set. So it can be considered as the best fit for solar radiation model compare to the LS regression method.
Keywords: Photovoltaic, Solar radiation, Air Temperature, Linear regression model (LS), least Trimmed Squares (LTS) robust
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 420 KB
Title: Designing of an Efficient Light Sensor Circuit for Competent Solar Home Systems in Bangladesh
Author(s): Ahmad Jawad, Tawheed Hasan, Mohammod Ashraful Hoque, Ahammad
Pages: 37-41 Paper ID: 1212606-8585-IJECS-IJENS Published: December, 2012
Abstract: Stand-alone Solar Photovoltaic system is very popular in off-grid areas of Bangladesh. But recently the government is encouraging the use of solar electricity in urban areas too. Now-a-days people have to use solar systems to get electricity connection in newly completed buildings to meet certain percentage of their electricity demand. The solar electricity is stored in battery and then inverted to alternating current for use. These batteries can also be charged from the power line electricity. In this paper a light dependent switch is designed for the efficient use of solar systems. The light sensitive switch automatically charges the battery from power line after sunset, if the battery is not fully charged. The design of the switch and its analysis is presented using Yenka and Orcad Pspice package.
Keywords: Automatic Battery Charging, Automatic Switching, Grid Tied, Light Sensor Circuit, Solar Home System.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 775 KB
Title: Uniqueness in Kurdish Handwriting
Author(s): Bayan Omar Mohammed
Pages: 42-50 Paper ID: 1218206-7575-IJECS-IJENS Published: October, 2012
Abstract: Kurdish writing shows such an amazing fact which has been conducted through research in the domain of pattern recognition and computer vision. Later, there were a lot of different ways and methods which have been improved or implemented to progress an approach for writer identification. The thing that's very difficult to deal with in WI is that the handwriting of a person differs from one person to another and considering the human error it is impossible for one person to write the same thing over and over again where it has to be the exact writing. However this is considered individualistic where the consistent individual features are hidden in the handwriting. In the other hand in the alphabet of the western countries like English, Arabic, German, Korean and Kurdish have structural characteristics, but this kind of structural characteristics is considered a bit complex in Kurdish handwriting and it a very large set of characters. For that reason this study going to concentrate on the Kurdish Handwriting to extracting macro features for the Ward shape of the WI. The elicit of the macro features are being done thouroly where it is important to check and investigate granulary to legitimize the presence of solo features; thus the idea of implementing the Authorship Invariancess. Where the Authorship can be stated as a specific a mount of conservation solo features neglecting the transformation of the hand writing. Where the Authorship Invarianceness will be enhanced by decreasing the similarity error for intra-class [stated by the same writer]. With the increment of the similarity error for inter-class [ stated by different writer]. The solo performance is injected to the system by injecting different issues for the solo feature into standard performance or individual feature this is being achieved by take help of Invariant Discertization. Where the advantage of the Invariant Discertization is that it have the ability to enhance the identification level for each of the handwriting where we our main concentration is being on the Kurdish handwriting.
Keywords: Pattern recognition, unique representation, authorship invarianceness, real writer, Kurdish handwriting, discretization.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 538 KB
Title: Stabilizing Load Frequency of a Single Area Power System With Uncertain Parameters Through a Genetically Tuned PID Controller
Author(s): Alwadie, A.
Pages: 51-57 Paper ID: 1217706-4949-IJECS-IJENS Published: October, 2012
Abstract: This paper proposes a genetically tuned PID controller for the load frequency control of interconnected power systems. This work has large impact, especially, if one takes in considerations the nature of system parameter variations beside its uncertainty and the wide range of disturbances that the power system may face. The first step in the design procedure is to find out the appropriate PID parameters which are important to initiate the genetic search within a confident evolution environment. The industrially recognized Ziegler-Nichols methodology is first employed for this purpose. Secondly, different search criteria such as Integral of Time multiplied by Absolute Error (ITAE), Integral of Absolute Magnitude of the Error (IAE), Integral of the Square of the Error (ISE), and Mean of the Square of the Error (MSE) are implemented to ensure the robustness of the proposed controller. Several experiments are conducted along with a Genetic Algorithm (GA) in order to evaluate the best results in considering the search criteria. The Results of implementing the proposed GA-tuned PID controller show that ISE and MSE are the most efficient algorithms to tune the PID controller, especially, if one considers the power system parameters uncertainty. This was often neglected by many researchers until now.
Keywords: Load Frequency Control (LFC) - Single area power system - Interconnected power system - PID control - Parameter uncertainty - Genetic Algorithm - Global Optimization.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 436 KB