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Title: Methodology and Design of an Adaptive Overcurrent Protection for Distribution Systems with DG
Author(s): Andrés Felipe Contreras, Gustavo A. Ramos, Mario A. Ríos
Pages: 1-10 Paper ID: 1214304-05-8585-IJECS-IJENS Published: October, 2012
Abstract: In this paper we present the design of an Adaptive overcurrent protection for Distribution Power Systems with penetration of Distributed Generation, based in a proposed methodology. The methodology takes into account typical protection schemes, normative, general protection requirements, protections coordination and distributed generation impact to protection system, and its applicable to planning systems or for existing systems initially without DG.  This work apply a part of IEEE 13 nodes Radial Distribution test Feeder, to study the impact of Distributed Generation to the protection system, apply and prove the proposed design methodology.
Keywords: Adaptive overcurrent protection,  Distributed Generation impact,  protection coordination, relay reconfiguration
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 819 KB
Title: FPGA-Based Global Positioning System
Author(s): Radi H.R., Vivian L.W.B., M.N.Shah Zainudin., M.Muzafar Ismail
Pages: 11-14 Paper ID: 1210404-05-8383-IJECS-IJENS Published: October, 2012
Abstract: Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space based global navigation satellite system. It provides time and location information to users anywhere on earth. Nowadays, GPS is very useful for civil application and there is feasibility of enhancement for current tracking system. Hence, an offline tracking system is designed as the first phase of future online GPS. This paper presents the implementing of GPS on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The objective is to implement FPGA-based offline tracking system by parsing the GPS data using Verilog Hardware Description Language (Verilog HDL). The program is tested and simulated by using HDL compiler; Altera’s Quartus® II Web Edition and Modelsim-Altera Starter Edition. The GPS data is then manipulated and implemented into FPGA board according to the required specification before they are finally filtered and manipulated to display on Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) module.
Keywords: GPS, FPGA, Verilog HDL, tracking system
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 318 KB
Title: Life Cycle Assessment of Grid Tied SHSs in Bangladesh with Respect to Conventional Sources
Author(s): Dilara Ireen Swarna, Ahmad Jawad, Ahammad
Pages: 15-19 Paper ID: 123205-7474-IJECS-IJENS Published: October, 2012
Abstract: In this work life cycle assessment of grid-tied solar PV (Photo Voltaic) systems is studied to test their feasibility in regions of Bangladesh, where grid is not sufficient enough to fulfil the demand of mass people. Economic performance of renewable power sources and non – renewable fuel supplied generators (nine Walton generators powered by petrol and one Walton generator powered by diesel) are investigated and compared in terms of net present value analysis. The analysis suggests that grid-tied PV systems are better both economically and environmentally from the context of a developing country like Bangladesh. Moreover, the results establish the finding that the choice between renewable or traditional power sources from an economic point of view depends on the load demand of the customers and the power rating of the generators.
Keywords: Grid tied, LCC, ALCC, Solar PV, conventional sources
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 465 KB
Title: Using Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) to Evaluate the Vulnerabilities with ICT Assets Disposal Policies
Author(s): Ezer Osei Yeboah-Boateng
Pages: 20-31 Paper ID: 124705-8686-IJECS-IJENS Published: October, 2012
Abstract: This paper evaluates the possible vulnerabilities of ICT assets disposal policies and the associated impact that can affect the SMEs. A poorly implemented policy or unenforced policy is “potentially the weakest link” in the cyber-security chain. Do SMEs have an idea of vulnerabilities or threats due to assets disposal?
In the event of breaches, the SMEs pay for the cost of notifying the concerned stakeholders, compensate affected parties, invest in improved mitigation technologies and also may be subjected to unwarranted public scrutiny. ICT assets at the end-of-useful life span usually have data left on the hard disk drives or storage media, which is a source of data confidentiality vulnerability.  SMEs were surveyed in developing economies on their assets disposal policies. The perceived correlations were analyzed using fuzzy cognitive maps (FCMs) to ascertain if any cyber-security vulnerabilities inherent in a particular policy have implications on others. The study endeavored to show that, SMEs ought to have appropriate assets disposal policies in place.  Then, these policies ought to be signed off by all stakeholders as a matter of responsibility.  By employing the FCM approach with fuzzy matrix operations, the results indicate positive correlations exist amongst the policy constructs. Thus, vulnerabilities with one policy have implications on others.
Keywords: Fuzzy Cognitive Maps, Vulnerabilities, ICT Assets Policies, Data Confidentiality, Risks, Threats
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 617 KB
Title: Concurrent Programming in Windows Vista
Author(s): Hadeel Tariq Al-Rayes
Pages: 32-37 Paper ID: 121405-9696-IJECS-IJENS Published: October, 2012
Abstract: In general, writing concurrent programs is extremely difficult because the multiplicity of possible interleaving of operations among threads means that program execution is non-deterministic. For this reason, program bugs may be difficult to reproduce. Furthermore, the complexity introduced by multiple threads and their potential interactions makes programs much more difficult to analyze and reason about. Fortunately, many concurrent programs including most GUI applications follow stylized design patterns that control the underlying complexity.   There are many features related to concurrent programming used in Windows operating system. This paper will illustrate the main features that used in Window Vista specifically. Concurrent programming concepts in Windows Vista differs from that used in the earliest releases of Windows operating system, this paper will explain these differences.
Keywords: Concurrent programming, Operating Systems, Threads, Windows Vista, Windows 7
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 328 KB
Title: Sensorless Speed and Position Control with DTFC of Induction Motor using Four Switch Three Phase Inverter and Adaptive Flux Observer
Author(s): M. K. Metwally
Pages: 38-45 Paper ID: 124605-0707-IJECS-IJENS Published: October, 2012
Abstract: This paper presents sensor-less speed control of induction motor (IM) using four switch three phase inverter (FSTPI) with direct torque and flux control (DTFC). The proposed sensor-less DTFC system consists of an adaptive observer of rotor flux to accurately estimate stator resistance and speed simultaneously, without affecting drive performances. The switching technique for DTFC of IM using FSTPI in low power application is based on the principle of similarity between FSTPI and SSTPI (six switch three phase inverter), where the αβ plan is divided into 6 sectors and the formation of the voltage space vector is done in the same way as for SSTPI by using effective (mean) vectors. This approach allows using the well-known established switching table of SSTPI for FSTPI. The simulation results indicates that the sensor-less speed control of FSTPI fed IM with DTFC and adaptive observer provides accurate estimate, good trajectory tracking with different dynamics performance.
Keywords: Induction motor, Four switch three phase inverter (FSTPI), Six switch three phase inverter (SSTPI), Direct torque and flux control (DTFC), Sensorless control, Adaptive flux observer
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 1447 KB
Title: Studying Main Differences between Android & Linux Operating Systems
Author(s): Hadeel Tariq Al-Rayes
Pages: 46-49 Paper ID: 128005-4747-IJECS-IJENS Published: October, 2012
Abstract: Any IT professional knows that Android, smart phone operating system, was derived from Linux , there are arguments for each side, naturally. The biggest for Android being Linux is, of course, the fact that the kernel for the Linux operating system and the Android operating system are very nearly one and the same. Not completely the same, but Android's kernel is directly derived from Linux. Where things get ambiguous, though, is above the kernel layer. Take one look at the application and interfaces layers and you will see clear differences between the two operating systems, so, this study will try to remove the ambiguous about the main differences between the pre-specified systems.
Keywords: Android, Kernel, Linux, Operating Systems
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 309 KB
Title: Face Recognition using Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA)
Author(s): M.N.Shah Zainudin., Radi H.R., S.Muniroh Abdullah., Rosman Abd. Rahim., M.Muzafar Ismail., M.Idzdihar Idris., H.A.Sulaiman., Jaafar A.
Pages: 50-55 Paper ID: 1214404-05-3737-IJECS-IJENS Published: October, 2012
Abstract: Image Recognition is one of the computer vision applications in recent years. Commercially, security and law applications require the use of face recognition technology. Human face can be regarded as the most obvious human identifier. Apparently the face is the most visible part of human anatomy and serves as the first distinguishing factor of a human being. It helps a person to distinguish an individual from one to another. Each individual has his own uniqueness and this could be one of the most transparent and unique feature of a human being. Face recognition involves comparing an image with a database of stored faces in order to identify the individual in that input image. The images can be analyzed and faces can then be identified, before they can be recognized.  There are different methods of face recognition which involve a series of steps that serve to capturing, analyzing and comparing a face to a database of stored images. This project covered comparative study of image recognition between Linear Discriminant analysis (LDA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). In this study, the result of PCA and LDA will be analyzed in term of its accuracy, percentage of correct recognition, time execution and database used.
Keywords: PCA, LDA, feature extraction
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences |412 KB
Title: The Design and Implementation of VGA Controller on FPGA
Author(s): Radi H.R., Caleb W.W.K., M.N.Shah Zainudin., M.Muzafar Ismail
Pages: 56-60 Paper ID: 1210504-05-9090-IJECS-IJENS Published: October, 2012
Abstract: Industrial production machines of today must be highly flexible in order to competitively account for dynamic and unforeseen changes in the product demands. Field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) are especially suited to fulfill these requirements; FPGAs are very powerful, relatively inexpensive, and adaptable, since their configuration is specified in an abstract hardware description language. Thus, in order to design and implement VGA Controller on FPGA, Verilog Hardware Description Language (Verilog HDL) is used. Verilog HDL is used to describe and program the gates and counters in FPGA blocks in order to construct an internal logic circuit in FPGA. The main purpose of this project is to design and implement VGA Controller on FPGA. Therefore, the block diagram for VGA Controller is designed and the VGA Controller program is written based on the block diagram using Verilog HDL. Also, functions required for VGA Controller are included in the Verilog code and test bench is created to test the functions written to ensure the FPGA VGA Controller works correctly and accurately without errors. Finally, the completed program is implemented on FPGAs chip of Altera DE2-115 Development and Educational Board.
Keywords: Altera DE2-115 Development and Educational Board, block diagram, Field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), Verilog Hardware Description Language (Verilog HDL), VGA Controller
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 466 KB
Title: Clustering K-Means Optimization with Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm
Author(s): Yandra Arkeman, Nursinta A.Wahanani,  Aziz Kustiyo
Pages: 61-66 Paper ID: 129705-6363-IJECS-IJENS Published: October, 2012
Abstract: K-Means is one of the partitioned clustering techniques where each cluster is represented by its mean values. A problem in this technique is that the iterative optimal procedure cannot guarantee the convergence to a global optimum, since it depends on the initial points. Multi-objective genetic algorithm with Pareto rank approach can be used to increase the K-means performance. This approach yields a set of solution that consists of several fronts based on their ranks. The first Pareto front consists of non-dominated solution; in this research it consists of a pair of values where the distance between points in a cluster is minimum, and the inter-cluster distance between clusters is maximum. The minimum Davies-Bouldin validity index and suitable cluster number are used to find out the optimal solution. The aim of this research is to compare two techniques, i.e. K-means and K-means with multi-objective genetic algorithm with non-dominated pareto rank for Iris data. K-means for Iris data yields an index of 0.20. K-means multi-objective genetic algorithm with population size of 50 and 200 generation yields an optimum index of 0.18 for the cluster number of 3. K-means for Wine data yields an index of 0.08. K-means multi-objective genetic algorithm with population size of 50 and 100 generations. Smaller index indicates that K-means multi-objective genetic algorithm has  better solution compared to that of K-mean.
Keywords: K-Means, multi objective genetic algorithm, Non dominated sorting, Pareto ranking
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 673 KB
Title: A Categorization Technique for Resolving Information System Failures Reasons
Author(s): Sherif Mohamed Zahran, Galal Hassan Galal-Edeen
Pages: 67-77 Paper ID: 1212105-9393-IJECS-IJENS Published: October, 2012
Abstract: Detecting and resolving failures in information system (IS) projects is highly desirable process.  Being able to do so depends on the proper identification of underlying reasons for failures; which are often difficult to accurately identify. One of the fundamental enablers of this identification is suitable categorization of the related reasons. This paper will concentrate on developing a categorization technique for IS projects failure reasons, identifying some of these categories, and providing a simple justification for reasons behind this failure.  IS projects failure reasons categories are based on the underlying IS elements such as IS components, IS lifecycle, project environment, scope, budget, requirements and its technical and managerial issues. IS project may have failure reasons belong to more than one category at the same time and this may affect its importance and priority for resolving. This research covers most of IS failure reasons categorization to provide a valuable hierarchy to navigate through these reasons and their categories. This categorization is used in highlighting unknown, unexpected or unpredictable failures reasons during IS projects failure identification and analysis processes. The proposed technique of reasons categorization is experimentally used on a set of IS projects and its results are over expected. It discovers reasons that are extremely hidden and never expected to be directly or even indirectly related to IS failures.
Keywords: Context Modeling, Failure Analysis, Information System, Information architecture, Information Management, IS Failure Reasons Categorization, Project Management, Risk Analysis, Software Engineering
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 971 KB
Title: Assessment of Software Interfaces using a Usability Evaluation Based Software Model
Author(s): Saad Masood Butt, Wan Fatimah Wan Ahmad
Pages: 78-83 Paper ID: 1216805-7373-IJECS-IJENS Published: October, 2012
Abstract: The usability evaluation of the software interfaces is one of the prominent concepts in Human Computer Interaction (HCI). In order to increase the usability, the design of software interfaces becomes an important task for HCI experts. This paper describes a new HCI based software development approach called the Usability Evaluation based  Model (UEM).  The UEM consists of five processes that help Software Engineers work with HCI experts from the beginning until the deployment of the software. However, this model not only bridges the gap between the SE and HCI experts, but it also links the AI experts to make the development process more intelligent. One of the processes in the UEM is the Cognitive Analysis of the Software Interfaces (CASI). CASI is an expert system that helps designers and software developers to evaluate software prototypes in an intelligent way based on user perception and evaluation rules. This paper also presents a case study on the development of the university online classroom booking system. The system was built using the UEM. The results mentioned in this paper show that with the help of the UEM, more usability problems in the software interfaces can be detected. Hence, enhancing the usability of the software interfaces by an automated UEM is feasible.
Keywords: Cognitive Science, Software Interface, Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Expert System, Usability Evaluation, Usability Engineering, User Interface, Interaction User Prototyping, Human Computer Interaction, Cognitive Analysis of Software Interface
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 472 KB
Title: Simulation of Combined Photovoltaic, Thermal & Biogas Hybrid System
Author(s): Hafiz Tehzib ul hasan, M. Zeeshan Rashid, Jan M. Keerio, Bilal Asad
Pages: 84-89 Paper ID: 1217505-7676-IJECS-IJENS Published: October, 2012
Abstract: The main problem today is the shortage of energy and environmental pollution. These problems can be avoided by employing renewable energy schemes. The most common renewable energy resources include Wind Energy, Tide Energy, Solar Energy, Hydrogen Energy, Bio Energy, Terrestrial Heat Energy and Thermal Energy and so on. Pakistan is affluent in almost all these resources especially in Thermal Energy and Solar Energy. The areas in Pakistan like Sindh, Baluchistan and South Punjab possess the weather conditions to be very friendly for these utilities of Renewable Energy resources. Thermal Panels along with Solar Panels can be used to utilize Solar Energy in these areas. The electrical energy can be extracted from solar energy directly by means of Photovoltaic cells but thermal energy is first converted to heat energy and this heat energy in turn is used to drive Turbine to get the electrical energy. If both these technologies are combined to work together, the solar energy can be absorbed by solar panel more efficiently. The research work demonstrates how these schemes can be combined together to achieve the desired goal. Furthermore, working of photovoltaic/thermal panels depend solely on weather conditions, so a biogas generator is used along with photovoltaic/thermal panels in order to maintain constant power.
Keywords: Renewable Energy, Distributed Power system, Biogas Generator, Modeling and Simulation
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 323 KB