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Author(s): J. V. C. de Lima1, B. A. Vieira, L. Nogueira, A. D. Monteiro
Pages: 1-7 Paper ID:180704-9292-IJCEE-IJENS Published: August, 2018
Abstract:-- Due to the expansion and evolution of the construction industry, it is notable the search for investments that associate quality and economy in the materials and services in a work. In this sense, it is verified that the great majority of the buildings present conventional structural constructive systems, mainly due to the ease of execution. However, structural masonry is a growing alternative system because it is a system that optimizes execution time and reduces material waste, reducing operating costs. In this context, this study aims to investigate, through a comparative analysis, the conventional and structural masonry systems, in terms of cost-benefit, aiming to identify a method that presents, for the same purpose, substantial advantages. In order to achieve the proposed objective, the study of the construction of a model school was used as the object of study, where the projects and memorials were then available at the electronic address of the National Education Development Fund (FNDE). A budget analysis was carried out considering the two construction systems for the same building, with spreadsheets containing the costs of the inputs based on SINAPI (National System of Costs Survey and Civil Construction Indices). The results show that, for the same project, the structural masonry system generates a cost 1.76% lower than the conventional system, and in only one follow - superstructure - the structural masonry costs surpass the conventional one.
Keywords: Conventional Constructive System. Structural Masonry. Cost benefit.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 183 KB
Author(s): Atea.K.A.AL mabrok, Wan Zuhairi Wan Yaacob, Abdulrahim Samsudin, Jasni Yaakub
Pages: 8-16 Paper ID:182603-1804-9494-IJCEE-IJENS Published: August, 2018
Abstract:-- The most prominent threats to the main water resource in north east Kelantan is the intrusion of salt water, especially in the second aquifer and part of the third aquifer. The main purpose of this work was to evaluate the salt water intrusion into the first aquifer. It was investigated using physical and chemical characteristics of ground water, which revealed that. A range of pH from 1.65 ̶ 8.81, electrical conductivity (EC) 2 ̶ 1094 µs/cm, salinity 0.02 ̶ 0.149, and total dissolved solids 1 ̶ 671 mg/l. A range of calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), chloride (Cl) and sulfate (SO4) 1.4 ̶ 194.26, 2.86 ̶ 62.4, 2.91 ̶ 54.79 and 0.74 ̶ 64.12 mg/L respectively. The values of Na, Ca, SO4, Cl and EC were decrease gradually from the sea towards inland. A variation in the ground water levels between the wet and dry seasons, which was in rang of 0.42 ̶ 3.7 m. Moreover, the freshwater/saltwater interface was located on the shoreline in the dry season and retreated in the wet season. In general, the intrusion of salt water was detected in the first coastal aquifer; however, it has a limited effect. The ground water in this aquifer is fresh (except the two wells 20 and 32) that considered as salty due to the high average of chloride, salinity, total dissolved solids, and electrical conductivity.
Keywords: Salt water intrusion; First aquifer; Bachok, Kelantan.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,337 KB