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Author(s): Antonio Domingos Dias Ferreira, Fernando B. Mainier
Pages: 1-5 Paper ID:150705-6868-IJCEE-IJENS Published: October, 2015
Abstract:Modern societies have demonstrated a great deal of concern with the improvement of social, economic and environmental indicators targeted to the top of the premises of sustainability. Civil engineering construction is constantly cited as one of the largest promoters of strong environmental impacts, ranging from the great use of natural resources (water, energy and materials) at the stages of construction, use and maintenance, and encompassing the problems related to the issue of disposal of materials during the demolition or disassembly at the end of the useful life of buildings. This work deals with the sustainable environmental management related to the construction industry, using a methodology known as life cycle assessment (LCA) and its respective tools, which aim to optimise various aspects, from the extraction of raw materials to the final disposal of waste generated on construction. The methodology presented here is complex and this paper aims to provide an initial contact back to the civil construction segment, demonstrating that its application becomes instrumental in the direction of more sustainable buildings.
Keywords: Building materials, construction industry, environmental, life cycle assessment, sustainability.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 361 KB
Author(s): A. Mousa, M. Djoudi
Pages: 6-11 Paper ID:152605-4747-IJCEE-IJENS Published: October, 2015
Abstract:A finite element solution is presented to the problem of natural vibration of circular cylindrical shell with oblique end by using a new strain based triangular cylindrical finite element. The new proposed triangular element is based on assumed strains and has only five necessary degrees of freedom at each corner node. The displacement fields of the element satisfy the exact requirement of rigid body displacement. The efficiency of the developed element is first tested by applying it to the calculation of natural frequencies of simple shell problem. The developed element is further applied to analyze the problem of natural vibrations of a cylindrical shell with oblique end. Two geometric cases are considered. The first case involves a shell with a lower perpendicular end and an upper oblique end and both ends have clamped supports. The second case involves a shell with both ends oblique and clamped. Finally, results from a parametric study for both cases are presented.
Keywords: Strain based shell element, finite element, vibration analysis, cylindrical shell.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 683 KB
Author(s): Miranda, Ana Clara Meirelles, Soares, Carlos Alberto Pereira, Chinelli, Christine Kowal
Pages: 12-18 Paper ID:151005-2929-IJCEE-IJENS Published: October, 2015
Abstract:This article proposes a comparative analysis between the theoretic support of the process of sustainable building design and the way of working from the Rio de Janeiro’s architects. Aims to identify specificities in the design process of sustainable buildings, if compared to traditional designs, serving of supporting to professionals who also wish to modify their design process.
Keywords: Sustainable buildings; design process; Sustainable design; Process of architectural design.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 260 KB
Author(s): Hermes Carvalho, Gilson Queiroz, Ricardo Hallal Fakury
Pages: 19-23 Paper ID:151605-4747-IJCEE-IJENS Published: October, 2015
Abstract:Static and dynamic effects to power transmission towers structures can be evaluated by methodologies available in codes, which suggest the use of linear static analysis. By using numerical simulations, it is possible to observe the strong influence of the geometric nonlinear behavior of transmission cables. The dynamic effects also have strong influence, with the possibility of resonance between the cables and the structure, but up to the moment, the existent analysis procedures have not been completely validated on experimental basis. In order to validate a complete methodology of analysis, experimental procedures are proposed for a suspension tower of a 138kV transmission line in use. A tridimensional anemometer was installed on this structure in order to measure the values and directions of wind speeds. Simultaneous strain values will be collected on the main elements of the tower through optical extensometers. Optical sensor technology with Fiber Bragg Gratings will be used, due to the characteristic of immunity to the electromagnetic field occasioned by high electric currents. The strings swing angle will be evaluated through a high-resolution camera and a tridimensional accelerometer. With this instrumentation, it is possible to create a complete database that correlates wind speeds with the responses of the structural set.
Keywords: Monitoring of Transmission Lines, Optical Sensors, Fiber Bragg Grating.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 260 KB
Author(s): A. Mousa, M. Djoudi
Pages: 24-28 Paper ID:153305-4747-IJCEE-IJENS Published: October, 2015
Abstract:A spherical triangular finite element based on shallow shell formation is developed in this paper for linear and geometrically nonlinear analysis of spherical shells. The developed element is rectangular in-plane and has only five essential degrees of freedom at each corner node. The displacement fields of the element satisfy the exact requirement of rigid body modes. The efficiency of the element is demonstrated by applying it to the linear and geometrically nonlinear analysis of spherical shell structures. Results obtained by the present element are compared with those available in the literature. These comparisons show that efficient convergence characteristic and accurate results can be obtained by using the present element.
Keywords: Linear, non-linear, shallow shell, spherical shell.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 569 KB
Author(s): Antonio Domingos Dias Ferreira, Fernando B. Mainier, Carlos Alberto Pereira Soares
Pages: 29-33 Paper ID:150805-1717-IJCEE-IJENS Published: October, 2015
Abstract:In recent years, Brazil has increased its participation in the globalized world, becoming a standout in the world economic and political scenario. In the economic field, Brazil is today the seventh largest economy in the world, and there are projections that it will occupy fifth place by 2030. In the political field, Brazil is no longer a peripheral nation and has assumed a central role, along with more developed countries and the emerging countries known as BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa). Despite its relative success in the areas of economics and politics, however, in the social field, there is a housing deficit of about 5.24 million houses. Given this fact, the Brazilian Federal Government has implemented the construction of social interest and low cost housing for residents through a programmer called “Minha Casa” (My House) e “Minha Vida” (My Life). Although low cost is associated with such projects, one should not ignore the aspect of environmental comfort; the projects are directly associated with a better quality of life for permanent occupants. The purpose of this study is to show the importance of placing value on the question of the environmental comfort of these popular houses, without necessarily having large additions in terms of cost. The study hopes to demonstrate that the failure to evaluate these aspects and to link them with the housing environment may lead to greater difficulties in the social and environmental development of the permanent residents of these houses.
Keywords: Comfort, construction industry, environmental, popular houses, quality of life, sustainability.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 569 KB
Author(s): Filipe Siqueira Toscano Prestes, Geraldino da Silva Lopes, Iran Carlos Caria Sacramento
Pages: 34-38 Paper ID:154405-6363-IJCEE-IJENS Published: October, 2015
Abstract:The historical analysis of geographical spaces conducted through geotechnologies, figure as an important method for representation and measurements of characteristic features of an area and their temporal changes, being used to generate data that can solve various situations, preventing environmental impacts and adding information about these factors. It is defined as geotechnology all the ensemble of scientific methods and techniques for the geographical representation. These applications comes from advances in information technology that enable dynamic and significant improvements for management, planning, scientific research, production and reproduction of knowledge in a new bases for spatial aspects, in particular, the human interaction with the environment. This new approach marks a turning point in the use of maps and the emphasis on the physical description of the geographical space Therefore, this article aims to present the potential of the geospatial technology, as seen in a case study, in the city of Salvador, Brazil, during the years of 1976, 1992, until the current year of 2015.
Keywords: Environmental impacts, geospatial data, geotechnology, land-use and occupancy, study area.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 519 KB
Author(s): Y. M. Mahrous, Abdullah S. Al-Ghamdi, A. M. M. Elfeki
Pages: 39-47 Paper ID:155705-2828-IJCEE-IJENS Published: October, 2015
Abstract:Chlorination is one of the frequently used water disinfection methods in water distribution system. It has been successfully used to inactivate harmful micro-organisms and prevent the regrowth or recontamination of pathogens that might be present. However, maintaining residual chlorine besides keeping it below a certain level is essential because of concerns about formation of carcinogenic disinfection by-products within the distribution system. The stochastic two-state random walk model is employed to solve the advection-reaction transport equation and predicts how the concentration of dissolved chlorine varies in time and space in a water distribution network. Linear non-equilibrium particle transfer from water bulk phase (State 1) to pipe wall phase (State 2) is handled using a two-state Markov-chain process with absorbing state. The model was successful when applied to a single pipe. In the current study, New Haven’s network at Connecticut has been utilized for testing of the model for a complete network. The model shows a good agreement when compared with sampling results available in the literature and other models. The merit of using the two-state random walk technique in a Monte Carlo framework is the ability to estimate the uncertainty in the chlorine concentration along the pipe segments since the variability and fluctuation in the concentration is relatively high in water distribution network.
Keywords: Chlorine decay, Markov-chain, Random walk, pipes, stochastic method, Transport equation, and Water distribution system.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 962 KB