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Author(s): Shamshinar Salehuddin, Nur Liza Rahim, Norlia Mohamad Ibrahim
Pages: 1-7 Paper ID: 132106-8484-IJCEE-IJENS Published: December, 2013
Abstract:The world nowadays requires more tall buildings to overcome limited land space and creating high esthetic value. However, these high rise buildings require high frame structure stability for safety and design purposes. This research focused on non linear geometric analysis to be compared to previous studies on linear analysis. The linear analysis did not consider deformed configuration which can be considered as least accurate. On top of this, several designers did not incorporate the wind load which could lead to sway effect to tall buildings. In this study, a six storey 2-D steel frame structure with twenty four meter height has been selected to be idealized as tall building model. The model was analyzed by using SAP2000 structural analysis software with the consideration of geometric non linear effect. At the same time, several factors including the use of bracing and varying distributed loads on beam’s element were also applied to study the sway and stability of the building. In addition, several cases including placing a fully bracing, bracing at half height of the building and alternate bracing were also studied. This study showed that a steel frame with the consideration of wind load produce greater sway value as compared to the steel frame without wind load. The sway prediction by using linear analysis was found to be less compared to the sway prediction from non linear analysis. This indicates that the non linear analysis is vital and significant element to be adopted for the analysis of tall building. The study also found that the use of bracing system results in small sway values compared to the frame without bracing system. As for consideration to costing aspect, the use of alternate bracing provide better option compared to half bracing in terms of stability of the building. The analysis results also showed that the adjustment of distributed load at upper part of steel frame structure able to provide different sway values which increases the stability of the building.
Keywords: Geometric non linear, stability, bracing system, steel frame structure
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 516 KB
Author(s): Lozano-Rivas, W. A., Moyano Fonseca, D. González Acero, A. M.
Pages: 8-12 Paper ID: 134206-7474-IJCEE-IJENS Published: December, 2013
Abstract:This study summarizes the results obtained from a correlational analysis of reported disasters in 40 municipalities of the River Bogota’s basin in Colombia (South America). Environmental, social, and economic variables were selected, for which the strength of association was defined with the use of a multiple linear regression model. The ability to predict the occurrence of flood disasters depends mostly on the Population Density and Total Illiteracy Rate, with a probability of error of P < 0.001 (0.1%) and correlation coefficient R=0.738. This study concludes that for the basin of River Bogota there could be a significant mathematical correlation between the total illiteracy rate and the number of reported flood disasters.
Keywords: Floods; illiteracy; multiple correlation; natural disaster; poverty.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 507 KB
Author(s): Wan Muhammad Faris W. Yusoff, Ahmad Ruslan Mohd Ridzuan, Nurliza Jasmi, Sulaiman Hasim, Mohd Fadzil Arshad, Mohd Afiq Mohd Fauzi, Khairulniza Ahmad Anuar
Pages: 13-15 Paper ID: 134806-7676-IJCEE-IJENS Published: December, 2013
Abstract:Many ways can be adopted to reduce the environmental pollution that is caused by production of Portland cement and the increase of waste materials. Geopolymer concrete containing crushed concrete waste aggregate (CCWA) is one of the methods to solve the problem. Waste Paper Sludge Ash (WPSA) and alkaline liquid as a binder have been used to replace the Portland cement to produce geopolymer concrete. The alkaline liquid used in geopolymerisation is the combination of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium silicate (Na2SiO3). In the present study, a mixture of geopolymer concrete specimens was adopted using 8M of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and 4M of sodium silicate (Na2SiO3). The natural aggregate and CCWA was used as an aggregate in this study. The physical properties of each aggregate were determined. The geopolymer concrete specimens were cured at 60°C heat condition. There are 36 cube specimens of size 100mm dimension were prepared. The geopolymer concrete specimens were cast using the conventional cement concrete technique. The results of the studies show that the strength geopolymer concrete was in the range of 3-5 MPa.
Keywords: Geopolymer; WPSA; CCWA; compressive strength.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 411 KB
Author(s): Francisco Claudio F. Barros, Allen L. Barros, Marcos Antônio A. Silva, Ronaldo F. do Nascimento
Pages: 16-27 Paper ID: 133706-8989-IJCEE-IJENS Published: December, 2013
Abstract:The use of pesticides in agriculture has contributed to a massive increase in global food production. But the adverse impact of pesticides on living organisms has led to a growing concern about residues in soils and in aqueous media. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have proven particularly useful in degrading toxic organic compounds found in wastewater to less toxic reaction products or ultimately to carbon dioxide and water. In this study, we investigated the efficiency of removal of the pesticide chlorpyrifos by AOP system that combines microwave radiation, ultraviolet radiation, titanium dioxide tablets and hydrogen peroxide solutions. The results showed that the MO/UV/TiO2/H2O2 process was the most efficient to remove chlorpyrifos, with 100% removal reached within 6 minutes reaction time.
Keywords: Advanced oxidation processes, Microwave radiation, chlorpyrifos, Wastewater treatment.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 677 KB
Author(s): Thair Sh. Khayyun, Ayad S. Mustafa
Pages: 28-36 Paper ID: 132306-7575-IJCEE-IJENS Published: December, 2013
Abstract:Water flow in rivers causes’ sediment transport and the relationship between flow factors (velocity, depth) and amount of material transported is a very interesting but complex phenomenon and it has several important engineering aspects like erosion around structures, backfilling of dredged channels or reservoirs, erosion below a dam, morphological changes in rivers. Governing parameters were carefully selected based on a dimensional analysis and grouped into four parameters (transport, particle, shields and mobility).In this study, a new suspended load transport rate equation that is applicable for the Euphrates River at Al-Anbar Electrical Thermal Station in Iraq was developed using multiple linear regression analysis. The capability of suspended load transport rate formulas of (Leo c. Van Rijn (1984), Karim Kennedy (1990) and van Rijn (2007)) had been tested. A total of 25 series of field data had been applied which their suspended load concentration, average depth of flow, velocity, particle size of sediment and water surface width had been measured. A comparison of suspended load transport rate measured in the Euphrates River with computed transport rates of the modified formula showed a good agreement. The results of evaluations showed that, the new model performs better than the three formulas which were used. The accuracy of the new model is determined using the relative error, discrepancy ratio, and correlation coefficients. The computed suspended transport rates were found to be within a factor of (1.02) of measured values (discrepancy ratio) and 13.4% relative error. The formula of (Van. Rijn, (2007)) performed better with a factor of (1.26) of measured values and 39% relative error than the other two formulas (Van Rijn, 1984) and (Karim Kennedy, 1990). The percent of data that are between (0.5-2.0) of discrepancy ration vary between 72-100% for the formulas and new model.
Keywords: Euphrates Rivers, suspended load, new model, evaluation.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 553 KB
Author(s): Walla Mohammed, Hussain Jasem Mohammed
Pages: 37-40 Paper ID: 131306-7575-IJCEE-IJENS Published: December, 2013
Abstract:A direct method has been developed for the spectrophotometeric determination of trace amounts of Pd(II) using 4(4-antipyril azo)-8- hydroxyl quinoline (APAHQ) as a reagent in the presence of surfactant as solubilizing agent. The reagent (APAHQ), as a sensitive chromogenic complexing agent formed a purple colored Pd(II)- APAHQ in Tween- 80 with satisfactory solubility. Various condition such as pH, APAHQ concentration, type and concentration of micelling agent were optimized. Molar absorptivity of Pd complex was found 0.65x104 L.cm-1.moL-1 at 470 nm. Calibration graph was derived by zero derivative spectrophotometry at maximum wavelength with linear ranges of 0.1-3.0 p.p.m of Pd(II). Precision as standard deviation as well as accuracy as recovery percent was (0.14%, 0.36%) , (0.1, 0.4) of Pd(II).The recommended procedure was applied to tea leaves with satisfactory results .
Keywords: 4(4- - antipyrilazo)-8-hydroxy quinoline, spectrophotrophotometry, Palladium determination , Tween-80.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 371 KB