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Author(s): Erik Prasetyo, Fika R. Mufakhir, Kalzani Jafri, Karna, Ulin Herlina, Nurbaiti M. Prilitasari
Pages: 01-08 Paper ID: 120801-7676-IJCEE-IJENS Published: February, 2012
Abstract: Tropical climate gives rise to difficulties in metal deposit prospecting. They include the high rate of weathering process which severely conceals the existence of mineral deposit beneath (blind ore). In this case it is hypothesized that plants could be served as superior indicator of mineral deposit occurence compared to other sampling media e. g. soil. Therefore, in this paper the viability of biogeochemistry method to pinpoint the iron deposit occurence would be assessed after comparison with traditional geochemical soil sampling method. The study was carried out in Lumbok Seminong, West Lampung. In biogeochemical exploration to locate iron mineralization, the species Coffea arabica (coffee) would be tested as indicator due to its abundance and wide distribution. The results showed that the species could be used as indicator and served as alternative method to pinpoint the location of primary iron mineralization.
Keywords: Biogeochemistry, iron deposit, Coffea arabica, Lampung
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 540 KB
Author(s): Sunaryo
Pages: 09-20 Paper ID: 120901-3838-IJCEE-IJENS Published: February, 2012
Abstract: Study on quantity and quality of Arjuno-Welirang volcano-geothermal energy zone by means of density contrast from gravity survey and susceptibility contrast from magnetic survey has been done.Gravity, magnetic, and position data acquisition were acquired 120 data respectively by using gravitymeter, PPM, and GPS distributed in lines of Singosari-Tretes, Lawang-lereng_Arjuno, Karangploso-Batu-Pujon, Batu-Cangar, Cangar-Pacet, Tretes-Welirang-Cangar, and Tretes-Arjuno-Lawang.  Contrast density parameter i.e. residual gravity anomaly was acquired from subtracting result of regional Bouguer anomalyfromcomplete Bouguer anomaly.  Contrast susceptibility parameter i.e. residual magnetic anomaly was acquired from subtracting result of regional magnetic anomalyfrom total magnetic anomaly. 3D quantitative interpretation has been done by 2.5D Talwani for arbitrary shape approximation.  Qualitative interpretation has been done by using fluid-crater sample-coretest.By means of gravity and magnetic interpretation, has been carried out volcano-geothermal chamber quantitative value for contrast density -2.9 i.e.: maximum volume ±2.26km3, depth to top0m dpl and depth to bottom 781.065m dpl withrms error 0.41% and for contrast susceptibility 0.00595 i.e.: andesitic-basaltic rocks body with maximum volume ±18326.85km3, depth to top 0m dpl and depth to 124260.4m dpl with rms error 11% respectively.  From fluid-crater sample-core test shown that volcano-geothermal chamber has steam system with high temperature relatively (±3000C). By means of volcano-geothermal chamber quantitative value and fluid-crater sample-core test shown that Arjuno-Welirang volcano-geothermal chamber have good prospect for geothermal energy resources in the future.
Keywords: Volcano-geothermal, Arjuno-Welirang, density, susceptibility
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 562 KB
Author(s): Fatima Ghani
Pages: 21-24 Paper ID: 124601-9595-IJCEE-IJENS Published: February, 2012
Abstract: The growing concern with environmental and ecological conditions have led to the discussion/search for ‘energy conscious’, ‘Eco friendly’, ‘energy efficient’ building designs. For the better growth of the future, keeping in view the environment related issues, the first objective of the designer is  sustainable development i.e. environmentally compatible building designs. Sustainable architecture also referred as green architecture is a design that uses natural building materials e.g. earth, wood, stone etc (not involving pollution in its treatment) that are energy efficient and that make little or no impact on the nature of a site and its resources. This paper discusses issues related to Sustainable/environmental architecture. It also considers possible solutions related to these issues.
Keywords: Sustainable, Green, Architecture, Building, Design. Efficiency
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 59 KB
Author(s): Asena Soyluk, Zeynep Yeşim Harmankaya
Pages: 25-29 Paper ID: 124701-3636-IJCEE-IJENS Published: February, 2012
Abstract: A major part of Turkey is located on active seismic zones. Earthquakes that occurred in recent years in populated towns have left many people dead and caused substantial damage to buildings. This has made the issues of designing an earthquake-resisting building and determining the safety level of buildings against earthquakes topical. Taking precautions towards determining the safety level of the building has a vital importance on reducing the possible damages of future earthquakes. This paper describes the development of seismic design codes in Turkey. Destructive earthquakes have usually resulted in revisions to the codes. This study includes a detailed comparative study among seismic design codes from 1940 to 2007. As a result this paper is expected to form a guide for universal engineers and architects.
Keywords: Code Standards, Construction, Earthquakes
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 289 KB
Author(s): Ariestides K. T. Dundu, Koichiro Ohgushi
Pages: 30-35 Paper ID: 125201-8383-IJCEE-IJENS Published: February, 2012
Abstract: Ariake Sea is an enclosed sea faced at 4 prefectures, i.e. Nagasaki, Saga, Fukuoka and Kumamoto. Most of the plains in Saga Prefecture are mainly lowland with a very small slope, so when the sea water enters these areas it will immediately create large inundated area. This hydrodynamic modelling is to estimate the impact of storm surge due to the typhoon that ever crossed the region especially in Saga Lowland area and the surroundings.
Keywords: Typhoon, Saga Lowland, Water Level, Current Speed
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 879 KB
Author(s): Ayman G. Awadallah
Pages: 36-41 Paper ID: 126301-7575-IJCEE-IJENS Published: February, 2012
Abstract: Availability of rainfall data in real time is needed for management of important water resources like that of Zamzam well in Makkah watershed. However, rainfall network, in most watersheds, is significantly poorer than the values recommended by the World Meteorological Organization. A methodology based on the sequential use of kriging and entropy principles is used to determine the spatial distribution of potential rainfall gauging stations. Kriging, which performs linear averaging to reconstruct the rainfall over the watershed on the basis of observed rainfall data, is used to compute the spatial variations of rainfall in the locations of candidate stations. The information entropy reveals the rainfall information of each of the candidate locations. By calculating the joint entropy, the candidate stations are prioritized. The methodology is applied on Makkah watershed using geostatistical analyst in ArcGIS software for kriging and R software for information entropy. The candidate locations are validated on ground and final stations locations are selected.
Keywords: Rainfall network design, Kriging, Entropy, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1854 KB
Author(s): Zeynep Yeşim Harmankaya, Asena Soyluk
Pages: 42-48 Paper ID: 125001-9494-IJCEE-IJENS Published: February, 2012
Abstract: According to experiences from past earthquakes of Turkey, collapses or damages of buildings were directly or indirectly related to the architectural design. Since the irregularity of a building is one of the main causes of heavy damages, there has been a title called “Irregular Buildings” in Turkish earthquake code since 1998. Under this title, some types of buildings are defined as irregular, and architects and engineers are advised to avoid these kinds of irregular configuration designs. In this study, reasons that would lead to irregularities in buildings are explained with figures, and precautions should be taken to avoid from these irregularities are presented.
Keywords: Code Standards, Construction, Earthquakes
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 577 KB
Author(s): Babalola, Daniel Olatunde
Pages: 49-69 Paper ID: 118206-1201-4949-IJCEE-IJENS Published: February, 2012
Abstract: This study assessed the trends in the global developments since inception of the agenda to precisely predict what the level of attainment would be at the end of the set duration. The methodology adopted includes the qualitative and quantitative research design methods based on secondary data. Analyses of data include ‘Factorial Deviation’ and ‘Regression with coefficient of correlation’. The results showed that ‘the sum of Measurement Of Deviation for each indicator (∑MOD), which deals with actual values of deficiencies and real attainments in all assessed indicators under each goal, is ‘+11.32’. A regression also performed on regrouped goals with equal number of indicators for variable ‘X’ and average value of ‘MOD’ for all the goals in the group for variable ‘Y’ is represented by the equation: Y= m X + c = 0.48X- 4.3 and that the corresponding Ys for X0, X6, X8.96 and X14  are -4.30,       -1.42, 0.00 and +2.42 respectively. The sum of XY of the regression line for X6 to X14 is +8.00. A coefficient of correlation ‘r’ of ‘+0.60’ falls in the upper half of positive correlation between X and Y. The ‘high value’ agreement of the sum of MOD (also known as the attainment target index ) value of ‘+11.32’ and the sum of XY of the regression line for X6 to X14  of +8.00 are indications that by Y2015, the MDGs are attainable if current trends are at least maintained or positively intensified. The paper recommended that efforts must be made by the UN and other concerned global organizations towards ensuring that quantifiable data are available for the remaining 30% indicators (hence goals) and all those with negative ‘-ve’ values must be improved upon unto positive ‘+ve’ values, which can only be guaranteed by intensifying efforts for attainment of real ‘+ve’ values. It concluded that with the UN Conferences and all that has been established to achieve particularly the MDGs among others, there is hope of greater improvement for humanity and our inhabited planet earth.
Keywords: Environment, evaluation, sustainable development, United Nations, and urbanization
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 244 KB
Author(s): Amar, Mary Selintung, Roland A. Barkey, M. Arsyad Thaha
Pages: 70-80 Paper ID: 127501-6868-IJCEE-IJENS Published: February, 2012
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to investigate the relationship between area availability of ​​land use for building based on land characteristic of Palu City as bay city and time in the future, until when the land is capable of supporting the growth in the use for building, and how to deal with land use for building so that the land in the territory of Palu is capable of supporting the growth in the longer use. The research method used is the approach of survey method. The research data consists of spatial with showing Palu City land characteristic. Spatial data including data on topography map, geology map, hidrology map and data on the number of ​​land users of protected areas and cultivation areas obtained from the Revised Map of Spatial Planning of Palu City in 2010. Analysis techniques by using overlay and quantitative analysis. The results showed that wide of effective land availability for building wich as cultivation areas in Palu City are 13,151.13 hectares; the land use for building in Palu city on the future having growth average 2.72% per year; cultivation area will be full of buildings in the year 2056. In order to get the land in the territory of Palu city is capable of supporting the growth of the land use for building much longer, some efforts are adding the width of area, and planning storey buildings in certain zones.
Keywords: Land use, building, land availibility, land characteristic, palu city
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 472 KB