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Title: A SCI-FI Episode of `Urban Metamorphosis
Author(s): M. Cetin
Pages: 1-11 Paper ID: 111001-5252 IJCEE-IJENS Published: February, 2011
Abstract: It is intended to glance at urban change from a totally different perspective whereby modernist planning is conceived as a technological-interventionist attitude towards an organic host. It is argued that city is evolving as a hybrid (of technology and natural organisms), and that it is significant to convert existing information on cities into new technological format. Therefore, the parallels between the concepts of ‘body-machine complex’ and ‘contemporary city’ are discussed on the basis of their common transformation processes. A scientific study of architecture and urbanism is advocated towards an understanding of cultural transmission encoded in urban transformation. An alternative process, leading to linguistic abstraction of urban form, is proposed as an analytical approach so as to enable coming to terms with dynamic mechanisms currently acting upon cities and transforming them into hybrid entities (i.e. an organic machine or a mechanical organism). Statistical approaches are interpreted within the scientific framework of urban studies for purposes of pattern recognition, with cross-references to linguistics, music, and science-fiction and new technologies. It is concluded that scientific innovation should not only increase technology but also promote a symbiosis of nature, history, culture, technology, economy and society, and that of nature and technology in the city.
Keywords: Urban Metamorphosis
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science| 362 KB
Title: Advantages of GIS: Integration of DEM into Damansara River Model using InfoWorks RS
Author(s): Awang Nasrizal Awang Ali, Junaidah Ariffin
Pages: 12-18 Paper ID: 111101-8989 IJCEE-IJENS Published: February, 2011
Abstract: High intensity rainfall of more than 100 mm had caused the low-lying areas such as at Taman TTDI Jaya and Batu Tiga area within Damansara Catchment to be heavily inundated, resulting in properties damage and tangible losses up to millions ringgit. This paper presents a 3D hydrodynamic flood simulation study which utilizes the Geographic Information System (GIS) where a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of Damansara Catchment was developed and integrated into a flood model using InfoWorks River Simulation (RS) program to simulate the flooding event on 26 th February 2006. Existing Damansara River profile was collected through hydrographic surveying activity. The 3D flood model was calibrated and validated successfully. The computer simulation results produced an updated flood inundation map which is essential to put up a master plan for flood mitigation.
Keywords: Hydrodynamic, Digital Elevation Model (DEM), computer simulation and flood.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science| 612 KB
Title: Optimal sizing of Activated Sludge Process with ASM3
Author(s): Walid El-Shorbagy, Abdulhameed Arwani, Ronald L. Droste
Pages: 19-33 Paper ID: 111401-3636 IJCEE-IJENS Published: February, 2011
Abstract: A mathematical framework is developed for use in optimal sizing of a wastewater treatment system that includes primary clarification and an activated sludge process. The International Water Association (IWA) model; ASM3, is used in the developed framework, as it is among the most comprehensive models that closely describe the biological reactions taking place in the activated sludge process. A nonlinear optimization problem is formulated with the objective to produce optimal sizes of different units with least cost while meeting the effluent requirements. The optimization model is applied to an illustrative activated sludge system treating domestic wastewater of typical strengths. The effect of a number of parameters and conditions on the optimal solution and the associated state variables is investigated. This includes the solids retention time, temperature, influent conditions, effluent requirements, in addition to a number of ASM3 parameters. The findings indicate that the temperature significantly affects the optimal size of aeration tank. Increase in the soluble components (biodegradable substrate and ammonia-ammonium nitrogen) of the influent results in increased volume of the aeration tank, air flow rate, and the total cost. The system is found to be most sensitive to variability of influent characteristics and maximum growth rate of autotrophic biomass.
Keywords: Activated Sludge; ASM3; mathematical modeling; optimization; model sensitivity.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science| 442 KB
Title: Estimation of Congestion Cost of Motorcycles Users in Malioboro, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Author(s): Gito Sugiyanto, Siti Malkhamah, Ahmad Munawar, Heru Sutomo
Pages: 34-41 Paper ID: 114401-5858 IJCEE-IJENS Published: February, 2011
Abstract: Congestion is the condition when the hourly traffic demand exceeds the maximum sustainable hourly throughout of the link. The aim of this research is to estimate the congestion cost of motorcycles users in central business district along the corridor of Malioboro, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The amount of the congestion cost is the difference between marginal social cost and marginal private cost. In this research, only the congestion costs of motorcycles users are estimated, as they are expected to shift to public transport. The generalized costs from origin zone i to destination zone j consist of vehicle operating cost, travel time cost, and pollution cost. This study shows that while the free-flow speed is 45,50 km per hour and the generalized cost for motorcycles in Malioboro is IDR 682.18 per trip, the actual generalized cost in traffic jam condition is IDR 1204.95 per trip, giving the estimation of congestion cost in CBD Malioboro for motorcycles users as IDR 523.00 per trip.
Keywords: Congestion cost, Motorcycle, Generalized cost, Vehicle operating cost, CBD Malioboro.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science| 419 KB
Title: Ultimate Strength of Steel Fabric Reinforced Concrete Short Wall Panel Using Crushed Concrete Waste Aggregate (CCwA)
Author(s): Mohd Suhelmiey Sobri, Siti Hawa Hamzah, Ahmad Ruslan Mohd. Ridzuan
Pages: 42-58 Paper ID: 115201-3838 IJCEE-IJENS Published: February, 2011
Abstract: Green Building Index (GBI) launched on 21st March 2009 formalised the commitment of the Malaysian Government towards sustainable issues. In line with this, the use of crushed concrete waste aggregate (CCwA) as a coarse aggregate is seen as a potential replacement in concrete mix production. This research has been conducted to study the behaviour of the steel fabric reinforced concrete short wall panel as IBS component incorporating CCwA replacing the Natural Aggregate (NA). Ten (10) samples were prepared using Grade 30 normal Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) concrete with water cement ratio of 0.55, measuring 75 mm x 1000 mm x 500 (Thickness:Length:Height). The aspect ratio (H/L) and slenderness ratio (H/t) of the wall panel are 0.5 and 6.67 respectively. Two (2) wall panels prepared with single layer and two (2) wall panels with double layer of steel fabric using CCwA as a coarse aggregate, another two (2) wall panel samples with single layer and double layer by using Natural Aggregate (NA) as control samples. Four (4) samples were tested on fatigue load test to determine the ultimate cycles before wall panel failure. The short wall panel was subjected to compressive axial and fatigue load with pin-fix end conditions at upper and lower ends until failure. The experimental result shows that all ten (10) wall panels failed in compression shear with crushing at upper and lower ends edge of the wall panel. The average ultimate load for single and double layer steel fabric reinforced concrete short wall panel is 1349 kN and 1643 kN respectively. A single curvature crushing crack pattern is dominant for all samples with average maximum lateral displacement for single and double layer of steel fabric reinforced concrete short wall panel is 2.9 mm and 3.8 mm respectively, occurred at 375 mm (0.7H) wall height. The structural behaviour of reinforced concrete short wall panel using CCwA as a coarse aggregate is similar with wall panel using NA in terms of structural strength capacity, displacement profile, and mode of failure. The percentage different between the usage of CCwA and NA in wall panel in term of ultimate strength decreased by 5.5 % and 6.6 % for single layer and double layer of wall panel respectively. The finding confirmed the performance of CCwA is as good as NA. This helps to reduce unnecessary wastages and also prevent depletion of natural resources. CCwA wall panels also address one of the six key criteria of GBI which is Material and Resources. “Malaysia is Green”.
Keywords: Crushed concrete waste aggregate (CCwA), reinforced concrete wall panel, steel fabric, crushing failure.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science| 1,411 KB
Title: Strength Characteristic of Geopolymer Concrete containing Recycled Concrete Aggregate
Author(s): Anuar K. A, Ridzuan A. R. M., Ismail S.
Pages: 59-62 Paper ID: 119601-2323 IJCEE-IJENS Published: February, 2011
Abstract: Malaysian is one of the develop countries that need to face environmental pollution. Have many ways to reduce environmental pollution that causes by production of Portland cement and cause by the increasing of waste material. Geopolymer concrete incorporating with recycle concrete aggregate (RCA) is one of the method. Waste Paper Sludge Ash (WPSA) and alkaline liquid as a binder are being used to replaced the Portland cement to produce geopolymer concrete. The alkaline liquid that been used in geopolymerisation is the combination of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium silicate (Na2SiO3). In the present study, two (2) series of geopolymer concrete specimens composing two (2) different molar of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) which are 8M and 14M were adopted. There are 30 cube specimens at size 100mm x 100mm x 100mm were prepared which is 15 cubes for 8M and another 15 cubes for 14M. The compressive strength of the geopolymer concrete specimens is tested at the age of 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after cured in local laboratory ambient condition. The result shows that the strength of geopolymer concrete based Waste Paper Sludge Ash (WPSA) incorporating with recycle concrete aggregate (RCA) increase by increasing the molarities of sodium hydroxide (NaOH).
Keywords: Geopolymer concrete, Waste Paper Sludge Ash (WPSA), Recycle Concrete Aggregate (RCA), and Concrete strength.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science| 409 KB
Title: Nonlinear Analysis of RC Beam for Different Shear Reinforcement Patterns by Finite Element Analysis
Author(s): I. Saifullah, M. A. Hossain, S. M. K. Uddin, M. R. A. Khan, M. A. Amin
Pages: 63-74 Paper ID: 1110301-2727 IJCEE-IJENS Published: February, 2011
Abstract: Several methods have been utilized to study the response of concrete structural components. Experimental based testing has been widely used as a means to analyze individual elements and the effects of concrete strength under loading. The use of finite element analysis to study these components has also been used. This paper focuses on the behavior of reinforced concrete beam for different pattern of shear reinforcement to evaluate the effective shear reinforcement pattern and also compare the variation in behavior of reinforced concrete beam for with and without shear reinforcement with a simulation. To carry out the analysis, six 3D beams without and with different patterns of shear reinforcement is built using comprehensive computer software ANSYS 10 © 2005 SAS IP, Inc package. The static non linear analysis is done to find out ultimate capacity, formation of first crack and its distance from support, initiation of diagonal crack and its distance from support. Load deflection response was also closely observed and compared with the result from theoretical calculation. From close observation of analyses results it was found that all types of web reinforcements were almost same effective for static loading condition.
Keywords: ANSYS, shear reinforcement, finite element analysis, diagonal crack.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science| 1,475 KB
Title: Climatic Impact Assessment: A Case Study of Teesta Barrage Irrigation Project in Bangladesh
Author(s): Sarker, D. C., Pramanik, B. K., Zerin, A. I., Ara, I.
Pages: 75-81 Paper ID: 1110501-7474 IJCEE-IJENS Published: February, 2011
Abstract: Increasing water demand due to faced over population, overexploitation of natural resources and environmental degradation have notable tainted the world’s freshwater resources. Since the dawn of civilization, the means of water storage are explored and transferred by human to the area those suffer from a paucity of water. The ultimate goal of the agricultural development projects is to ensure a better living for the local people, but climatic issues are generated by this project in practice. The Teesta Barrage Project was also implemented to increase the agricultural production in the vast area of northern Bangladesh suffering from acute shortage of water every year. The aim of this study is to find out the change of climatic parameters due to construction of Teesta Barage Irrigation Project on its catchment area. After all, the project has succeeded in increased production of crops; improved lifestyle of rural people and conservation of community resources. Change in climate is noticed in surrounding project area, has some positive and negative impacts on the ecosystem.
Keywords: Teesta Barrage, Climatic Change, Paucity of Water, Development.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science| 210 KB
Title: Framework for Recreational Park Suitability Sites
Author(s): Dano Umar Lawal, Abdul-Nasir Matori, Imtiaz Ahmed Chandio, Abdul-Lateef Balogun
Pages: 82-93 Paper ID: 1111001-8484 IJCEE-IJENS Published: February, 2011
Abstract: Despite the recreational parks in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), many students are still facing difficulties in accessing these recreational parks within the campus because their locations and distances are not favorable for the students to access them from their on campus residential areas. Moreover, despite the enactment of the Malaysian Guidelines for Recreational Parks Development, there is still inadequate planning guidance about the suitable sites to locate the existing recreational parks in the study area, which in turn made the students to abandon the existing facilities present in the parks. This paper is part of an on going research aimed at developing a suitable recreational park’s site(s) framework for recreational park development in the study area (UTM). The proposed conceptual framework will provide a holistic guidance on how the criteria for the location of the suitable recreational park in the study area can be generated through extensive literature review and field survey. More so, it will as well depict how GIS and Multi-criteria Decision Making (MCDM) can be integrated in creating the required datasets and attaining at a better decision based on the criterions evaluation. This will enable the university’s planning department to acquire the GIS data which is currently lacking; all the available data are in hard-copy not in GIS soft-copy format. It will further enable the planning department in understanding the student’s problems in relation to the existing recreational parks in the study area and to further understand how to obtain those criterions for the location of a suitable recreational park in the area. As this paper is part of an on going research; the base-map of the study area is currently obtained from the Department of Works, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, which was scanned and transferred into a GIS software and digitized which enable the researchers in obtaining the required spatial data layers of the area for criterions evaluation and assignment of weightings based on the criterions obtained from literature review and those to be obtained through field survey (questionnaires). Therefore, this paper presented how a suitable recreational park sites framework for recreational park development in the study area (UTM) was developed.
Keywords: Geographic Information System, Multi-criteria Decision Making, Recreational Park, Suitable Site(s).
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science| 549 KB
Title: Asessment of Dugwell as an Alternative Water Supply Options in Arsenic Affected Areas of Bangladesh
Author(s): Md. Akramul Alam, Md. Mujibur Rahman
Pages: 94-100 Paper ID: 107706-1101-8181 IJCEE-IJENS Published: February, 2011
Abstract: About 29 million people are either directly or indirectly exposed to arsenic contamination with varying degrees of risk due to extensive arsenic contamination of the groundwater in the alluvial aquifers of Bangladesh. Considering the urgency and gravity of the problem, alternative water supply options like dugwells (DW), deep tubewells (DTW), pond sand filters (PSF) and rain water harvesting systems (RWHS) are being installed in arsenic affected areas under arsenic mitigation programme. The study aimed at assessing the water quality in both dry and wet seasons, sanitary integrity, functionality, operation and maintenance and social acceptability of dugwells. The study was conducted on 11 dugwells of Charghat, Dohar and Gazaria. Microbial contaminations were found in 95 percent water samples of DWs. None of DW water sampled in this study had an arsenic concentration higher than the Bangladesh drinking water standard (BDS) of 50 µg/L but arsenic concentrations exceeding the WHO guideline value (WHOGV) of 10 µg/L were found in 35 percent of DWs water samples. Both iron and manganese were present in DW water of Dohar and Gazaria in excess of BDS. Water quality of DWs of Charghat in all respects was found better than DWs of Dohar and Gazaria. Users’ satisfaction and social acceptability of the DWs were found area specific depending on the quality and availability of water.
Keywords: Arsenic, Fecal Coliform, Alternative water supply options, Dugwells, Ground water.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science| 359 KB
Title: Relationship Between Shopping Behaviors and Its Spatial Configuration in Al-Khobar; Malls Versus Souqs
Author(s): M. Cetin, F. B. Gadola, S. M. Cheo
Pages: 101-109 Paper ID: 1112801-7373 IJCEE-IJENS Published: February, 2011
Abstract: This paper intends to put forward the nature of the relationship between the shopping behaviors and shopping spaces with specific reference to the city of Al-Khobar in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia. It elucidates the relationship between differences of traditional shopping spaces from contemporary shopping places and differences of traditional behaviors of shopping from contemporary behaviors based on the methodological observation of the behavior of the shoppers within both types of shopping places. Starting with an overview of the evolution of the typology of shopping spaces in historical context, the paper investigates the social dimension of shopping activity and defines the shopping spaces as a reflection of social behaviors associated with the cultural context. The paper, then argues the impacts of global economy on the transformation of both the shopping behaviors of individuals and societies as well as those of shopping building typologies. The study develops a specific methodology to observe the behaviors and spaces, and analyze their correlations.
Keywords: Shopping behaviors, shopping spaces
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science| 640 KB