IJENS Publisher Indexed In SCOPUS


Title: Thermal Performance of Corrugated Solar Air Heater Integrated with Nanoparticles to Enhanced the Phase ‎Change Material (PCM)
Author(s): Ali Mohammed Hayder, Azwan Bin Sapit, Qahtan Adnan Abed, Mohammed Saad Abbas, Bassam Abed Saheb , Nawfel Muhammed Baqer Mohsin
Pages: 1-17 Paper ID: 193205-8484-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2019
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to design, fabricate and evaluate the performance of SAH with integrated nanoparticles enhanced phase change material (PCM) absorber storage system ,the central ‎problem of the solar energy is that it is an ‎intermittent source, due to it ‎‎dependence on the period ‎of solar radiation. Consequently, ‎thermal energy storage is considered a ‎perfect ‎option to ‎solve this issue Three different of the SAH configurations have been designed and studied; without thermal storage, with thermal storage using paraffin wax as a PCM and with thermal storage using Al2O3-paraffin wax. All configurations are fabricated and tested under the climatic conditions of middle Iraq according to ASHRAE standard tests at different air mass flow rates. The two steps method is used to prepare the mixture of nanoparticles with PCM and ultrasonic device is used to suspend the nanoparticles in the PCM. The experimental results show that improvement in the efficiency of the SAH integrated with storage compared to SAH without storage. Moreover, the discharging time of heat stored took 5.5, 5, 4.5 and 4 hours at the air mass flow rate 0.03, 0.04, 0.05 and 0.06 kg/s, respectively. The experimental results also show that increment in the thermal conductivity of PCM with the dispersion 1wt. % Al2O3 which led to raise the outlet air temperature and thermal efficiency of the SAH compared to SAH with pure PCM.
Keywords: Corrugated solar air heater, Nanoparticles, thermal efficiency, air mass flow rate, phase ‎change material (PCM).
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,278 KB
Title: A Teager-Kaiser Spectrum Technique for Bearing Fault Detection in Induction Motors
Author(s): Turker Sengoz, Zihao Chen, Wilson Wang
Pages: 18-24 Paper ID: 190405-7373-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2019
Abstract: A Teager-Kaiser spectrum (TKS) technique is proposed in this study to detect initial bearing fault (i.e., outer race damage) in induction motors, using stator current signals. The TKS firstly optimizes the lag parameter to recognize the weak modulation frequencies in the collected current signal, which has low signal to noise ratio for bearing fault detection. The lag parameter can be adjusted to enhance a targeted frequency bandwidth. Secondly, the proposed TKS technique performs an alternative envelope analysis for bearing fault detection. The effectiveness of the TKS technique is examined by a series of experimental tests corresponding to different motor speed and load conditions. Test results indicate that the proposed TKS technique can reveal fault related characteristic frequencies more effective than the related envelope analysis techniques.
Keywords: Bearing fault detection, Teager-Kaiser operator, Current signal analysis, Envelope analysis.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,175 KB
Title: Optimization for Cutting Conditions of Surface Roughness in Machining Process Using Support Vector Regression and Genetic Algorithm
Author(s): Antoni Wibowo
Pages: 25-34 Paper ID: 190701-1905-3939-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2019
Abstract: This paper considers a machining process in which its surface roughness is influenced by radial rake angle, speed and feed rate cutting condition simultaneously. In previous works, researchers have been used a response surface methodology (RSM), soft-computing techniques based regression model and integration of linear/nonlinear regression and soft-computing techniques to estimate the proper cutting conditions in this machining process. It is noticed that the combined linear regression and genetic algorithm (GA) had limitation regarding to the issue of multicollinearity. While the hybrid of nonlinear regression and GA faced the issue of complexity of the nonlinear regression’s structure since more complex structure of regression can increase the chance of overfitting, In this paper, an alternative techniques based on support vector regression (SVR) and GA is proposed to address the above issuess. SVR employs relatively a new technique, call it structural risk minimization (SRM), to obtain a nonlinearity relationship between the cutting conditions and its surface roughness. The alternative framework gave more accurate prediction model compared to RSM and soft-computing techniques based regression model in a machining dataset, and has less complex structure of regression compared to KPCR and GA.
Keywords: Surface roughness, support vector regression, nonlinear regression, genetic algorithms.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 936 KB
Title: Prediction of wire-EDM Process Parameters for Surface Roughness using Artificial Neural Network and Response Surface Methodology
Author(s): Machaieie, Ana Tiago, Byiringiro, Jean Bosco, Njiri, Jackson Githu
Pages: 35-49 Paper ID: 191305-4242-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2019
Abstract: The prediction of machining process capabilities is important in process parameter optimization and improvement of machining performance characteristics. This paper, presents the prediction of Wire-EDM input parameters for surface roughness using Artificial Neural Network and Response Surface Methodology. Ti-6Al-4V is an alpha-beta alloy widely applied in industry due of its excellent combination of mechanical properties. However, this alloy is found to be difficult to machine by means of conventional machining processes because of its high melting temperature, high chemical reactivity, and low thermal conductivity. Nevertheless, non-conventional machining processes such Wire-EDM are able to overcome the challenge in machining Ti-6Al-4V. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on Central Composite design is used to evaluate and optimize the effect of pulse on time (Ton), discharge current (I) and open circuit voltage (UHP) on surface roughness (SR). Analysis of Variance revealed that open-circuit voltage is the most significant parameter affecting the obtained surface roughness followed by the discharge current. Parametric variation shows that lower surface roughness can be obtained at lower levels of UHP and I. The main contribution of this paper is the prediction of wire-EDM machining process parameters for a given surface roughness using Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The developed ANN model revealed to be 97.155% accurate with an average prediction error of 2.845%. The predictive capability of the developed ANN model is found to be satisfactory and the model can be successfully used for predicting machining process parameters for desired surface roughness in wire electrical discharge machining process.
Keywords: Artificial Neural Network, Response Surface Methodology, Scan Electron Microscopy, Ti-6Al-4V, WEDM.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,849 KB
Title: Motion and Grasping Control Method of 2-DOF Robotic Finger
Author(s): Mariam Md Ghazaly, Mohamad Adzeem Mohamad Yuden, Aliza Che Amran
Pages: 50-55 Paper ID: 191005-7373-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2019
Abstract: The focus of this paper is the grasping control and tracking performances for the two degrees of freedom (2-DOF) robotic finger mechanism in accomplishing precision motion control as the initial study in the development of a multi-fingered robotic hand system. In the robotic hand mechanism, behaviours like large steady-state error, instability, and poor transient performance are often observed. For this research, the proposed controllers will rely on each motor joint’s angular position control, which refers to the position control possessed by the 2-DOF robotic finger mechanism. Three various control approaches namely (i) Fuzzy Logic controller (FLC) (ii) Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller and (iii) Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) controllers were selected for comparison via experimental and simulation works. Validation of the controller results was performed by tracking control and grasping control, with frequency ranges from 0.1 Hz to 0.5 Hz at various reference amplitudes. Based on the results of the analysis, it was concluded that LQR controller had the best performance for tracking control. The LQR controller exhibited a 98.5% (0.11 °) improvement in steady-state error compared to an uncompensated system based on a series of experimental tracking tests. Another conclusion was that the 2-DOF robotic finger mechanism was also successful in grasping tasks with the Fuzzy controller being used by the specific reference trajectory.
Keywords: motion tracking, grasping, controller, robotic finger.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,918 KB
Title: Enhanced Mechanical and Erosion-Corrosion Properties of Al/Nano Al2O3 Composite by ECAP
Author(s): Osama M. Irfan
Pages: 56-64 Paper ID: 190805-7474-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2019
Abstract: Aluminum composities are widely used in several applications due to light weight, outstanding strength, erosion corrosion resistance, and good formability. With the aim to study the effect of the severe plastic deformation (SPD) on the mechanical properties and erosion corrosion resistance of aluminum composities; in the current study equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) was applied for consolidation of aluminum powder (50 μm) with varying concentrations of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) Nano-powders (40 nm). The homogeneity of the nano particles distribution due to ECAP was examined and the variations of the mechanical properties were investigated. The fracture surface and erosion corrosion resistance of the composite was also investigated. The results had showed that the ECAP process enhanced the distribution of reinforcement material, tensile strength, Vickers hardness value, and erosion corrosion properties of Al/Nano Al2O3 composite.
Keywords: Aluminum composite, ECAP, Erosion corrosion, Powder metallurgy.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 995 KB
Title: A Specialization of Model-Driven Architecture to Implement AUV Controllers
Author(s): Ngo Van Hien, Pham Gia Diem
Pages: 65-74 Paper ID: 192305-4747-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2019
Abstract: The Model-Driven Architecture (MDA) approach combined with the real-time UML/MARTE, Extended/Unscented Kalman Filter (EKF/UKF) algorithms and hybrid automata are specialized, in order to intensively realize controllers for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs). The paper shows out stepwise the adapted AUV dynamics and control structure that are then combined with the specialization of MDA features as follows: the Computation Independent Model (CIM) is defined by the specification of use-case model combined with the extended functional block and hybrid automata to closely gather the requirement analysis for control; the Platform Independent Model (PIM) is then built on the defined CIM with the real-time UML/MARTE’s features such as the capsules, ports and protocols that indicates in detail structures and behaviors of AUV controllers; the detailed PIM is subsequently converted into the Platform Specific Model (PSM) by using object-oriented open-source platforms to conveniently implement and realize the AUV controller. Based on this specialized model, a trajectory-tracking controller, which permits a turtle-shaped AUV to autonomously reach and follow a horizontal planar reference trajectory, was completely developed and taken on trial trip.
Keywords: Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV), AUV Control; Model-Based Control Design, Hybrid Automata, Real-Time UML/MARTE, Model-Driven Architecture (MDA).
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,437 KB
Title: An Extended Systematic Literature Review on the Non-Invasive Haptic Feedback Prostheses in Upper Extremity
Author(s): Mohammed Najeh Nemah, Muayad M. Maseer, Cheng Yee Low, Pauline Ong, O M Fakhri, Hayfaa J. Jebur
Pages: 75-97 Paper ID: 190105-4848-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2019
Abstract: Amputees wish to live a normal life similar to the other healthy human beings. An ideal prosthesis should help amputees making progress and try something new in their daily life. In order to do so, the amputees need a sense of touch from their prostheses in carrying out their daily activities. Thus, a haptic feedback stimulation system providing a sense of touch is an essential functionality for upper extremity prostheses. In this context, the haptic feedback stimulation system conveys the touch sensation to the patients’ brain and enable them to interact with their surroundings. To provide valuable technological insights into prosthetic research, the options and gaps in this field of study must be understood. Therefore, in this investigation, a review is performed to outline the research landscape into a coherent taxonomy. The investigated study covered every article related to the haptic upper limb prostheses with nonsurgical intervention feedback stimulation system in three main databases, namely, ScienceDirect, IEEE Explore, and Scopus. After scanning and filtering, 159 articles have been classified into five classes. These five classes are: (i) reviews and survey articles, (ii) the demands of modifying the haptic prosthetic hand, (iii) the development of the tactile sensory technologies, (iv) the haptic feedback displays with the upper extremity prostheses, and (v) studies which analyze the performance of the sensory system and the feedback stimulation system at the same operating time. The fundamental characteristics of this emerging field are studied against the following criteria: benefits, challenges, limitation, and future trend to improve the acceptance of the amputees towards haptic upper limb prostheses. The hybrid haptic feedback stimulation systems are effective in recovering the sense of touch to the upper limb amputees. The review points out the need for more study in this field to improve the performance and the functionality of the haptic system.
Keywords: Prosthetic hand, Upper limb prostheses, Arm amputation, Haptic feedback stimulation system, Hybrid stimulation system, and Recover feeling for amputees.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,620 KB
Title: Effects of Different Processes on Mechanical Properties of CFRP by RTM and VIP Techniques
Author(s): M. Y. Yuhazri, A. Zailinda, M. H. Amirhafizan, H. Sihombing, S. T. W. Lau
Pages: 98-103 Paper ID: 190605-2323-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2019
Abstract: There is a high demand of hinge bracket for aircraft spoilers from metallic to composite materials in aircraft industries. Therefore, new fabrications process studies to replace the current process. Moreover, the current fabrication processes are of tooling and production are expensive as well as high testing cost. Thus, studies present the effect of different number and orientation of woven carbon fiber layers in laminated composites (CFRP) system in mechanical properties. The composites were fabricated based on eight plies, 16 plies, 24 piles and 32 plies of woven carbon fiber layers. The same orientation of woven carbon fiber layer was fabricated using two different processes which are Resin Transfer Moulding Process (RTM) and Vacuum Infusion Process (VIP). The composites fabricated using both processes undergo tensile test and flexural test to evaluate the effect of different process fabricating the composites with a different number of woven carbon fiber layers. Based on the results, the best properties of composites based on the different fabricated process and number of woven carbon fiber layers can be proposed to replace the manufacturing process for hinge bracket for aircraft spoilers were obtained. The result from the experiment shows that 8CF/EP composites fabricated using VIP have 10.6 % higher in specific strength obtained from tensile test and 64.4 % higher in specific strength obtained from the flexural test. From this results of this study indicate that the composites with 8 plies of carbon fiber fabricated using VIP has a good tensile and flexural strength compared to composites fabricated using RTM and other different plies of carbon in the composite.
Keywords: different processes, carbon fiber reinforced plastic, resin transfer moulding, vacuum infusion process, mechanical properties.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 512 KB
Title: A Wearable Hybrid Haptic Feedback Stimulation Device for Upper Limb Prostheses
Author(s): Mohammed Najeh Nemah, Saif Salih Khaleel, Omar Hammad Aldulaymi, Cheng Yee Low, Pauline Ong, Balasem Abdulameer Jabbar
Pages: 104-114 Paper ID: 190205-3737-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2019
Abstract: A sense of touch restored by upper limb prostheses can greatly help patients with upper limb amputation to perform activities of daily living. In this work, a novel hybrid haptic feedback stimulation system for upper limb prostheses has been designed, developed and evaluated. The wearable device consists of one servomotor and two vibration motors, which function as a pressure feedback display and a vibration feedback display, respectively. The pressure display conveys the sensing of the contact pressure and its strength level, while the vibration display gives an indication about the continuity of the contact pressure. An evaluation on sensation and response has been conducted with healthy subjects. The results showed that the subjects can identify the touch, the start of touch, and the end of touch accurately. In particular, 96 %, 95 % and 88 % of the healthy subjects are able to distinguish the grasp, the pressure level, and the slipping objects, respectively. In addition, the usability tests demonstrated that the system is easy to setup and comfortable to use. The device is able to convey real-time haptic feedback to the amputees without the risk of surgery, brain confusion and intensive pre-training. This solution contributes to making the haptic feedback stimulation a common functionality in upper limb prostheses in the near future.
Keywords: Feeling recovering, Haptic feedback stimulation system, Mechanotactile stimulation, Tactile glove, Upper limb prostheses, Vibrotactile stimulation.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,305 KB
Title: Experimental and Numerical Investigation of I-65⁰ Type Cylinder Effect on the Savonius Wind Turbine Performance
Author(s): Gunawan Sakti, Triyogi Yuwono, Wawan Aries Widodo
Pages: 115-125 Paper ID: 192005-4343-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2019
Abstract: In this study, a circular cylinder cut by 65 degrees on both sides was placed aligned with the axis returning turbine vane of a Savonius rotor turbine. This type of cylinder is called an I-65⁰ type cylinder and is designed to bring down the drag forces on the returning blade, aerodynamically. Wind turbine performance was investigated experimentally and numerically under two conditions, with and without the installation of a type I-65⁰ cylinder in line with a horizontal axis returning turbine blade. The study was conducted with Reynolds number Re = 9.9 x 104 based on free stream velocity (U) 5 m/s and a characteristic length L = 2D-b, where D is the outer diameter of the vane and b is the diameter of the rod. The I-65⁰ type cylinder, which has a diameter of 0.5D, is placed at a distance of 1.4D in front of the returning turbine blade. In numerical studies, a 3D simulation was conducted to analyze the Savonius turbine flow using Commercial CFD software, Ansys Fluent version 19.1. The experimental output shows that installing an I-65⁰ type cylinder in front of the returning blade can increase the Cp of the Savonius turbine. Compared to the conventional turbine, the maximum power coefficient of the Savonius turbines increased to around 23.6% due to the installation of an I-65⁰ type cylinder, and this was achieved at a tip-speed ratio (TSR) of 0.8. This result is justified by numerical results carried out in this study.
Keywords: Savonius turbine; I-65⁰ type cylinder; returning blade; performance; transient; sliding mesh.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,920 KB
Title: Relaxation, Impact and Flexural Properties of Glass Fiber Reinforced Epoxy
Author(s): Mohammed Y. Abdellah, Sulaiman S. AL Swailem, Ahmed F. Mohamed, Gomaa, A. A., G . T. Abdel-Jaber
Pages: 126-131 Paper ID: 193505-2727-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2019
Abstract: Glass fiber composite laminates have attractive applications in a lot of industrial fields. Obtaining a complete understanding of the behavior of such material under relaxation, bending and impact are demonized and important. Three different layups of stacking sequences [0/90]2s, [0/60/90]2s, and woven fabric are used. These laminates are manufactured using hand layup techniques. It is made from glass fiber as reinforcement and epoxy as resin. Relaxation test at room temperature is carried out using a nearly equally load of 40% of the maximum load for each specimen. This test is continued until the load with time get more stable. Drop weight impact test is performed to measure the depth of penetration through specimens’ surface, therefore, the effect of fallen load on the topography of the specimen and damage will be observable. Flexural strength through a three-point bending test is established. The results showed that all specimens failure after two cycles of preloading in a relaxation test at this rang of the initial load. The impact strength is nearly better in cross-ply laminates than in quasi-isotropic laminates than woven fabric one. Flexural strength values are close for test stacking sequences, no fracture planes are observed, just surface cracks and matrix cracking.
Keywords: Cross-ply, Damage, Flexural strength, Laminates, Glass fiber.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 834 KB
Title: Performance Assessment of Parabolic Trough Collector (PTC) by Using Three Passes Receiver for Preheating the Fuel Oil Under Iraq Climate for Different Mass Flow Rates
Author(s): Mohammed Saad Abbas, Azwan Sapit, Nawfel M. Baqer, Hyder H. Balla, Ali Mohammed Hayder
Pages: 132-141 Paper ID: 194105-3636-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2019
Abstract: An alternative design receiver of parabolic trough collector (PTC) has been discussed in the present study. The three passes design (3p) receiver made from copper and coated with selective black paint was studied and optimized experimentally. Mass flow rates were varied alongside number of days. The proposed design was compared with the PTC equipped with smooth receiver (SM). The aforementioned variations resulted in the experiments performed in September 2018. The 17th, 18th, 19th, and 20th, were chosen for the PTC with smooth receiver, while 25th, 26th, 27th, and 28th were for the receiver with three passes). The solar irradiances for these days were similar. The heat transfer fluid (HTF) was fuel oil. Mass flow rates of 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5 LPM were observed alongside change in number of days for the experiment. The results show that the PTC with three passes receiver achieved higher average thermal efficiency and average useful energy than the PTC with smooth receiver.
Keywords: PTC, Three passes receiver, fuel oil, mass flow rate, Efficiency.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 759 KB
Title: Effects of RUAEM Parameters Toward Cutting Force for Machining Hardened Steel Material
Author(s): R. Azlan, R. Izamshah, M. S. Kasim, M. S. Noorazizi
Pages: 142-148 Paper ID: 193905-4646-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2019
Abstract: The tight tolerance requirement of mould and die components creates several problems for conventional milling process. Some of common issues in machining with mould and die components are high cutting force, high machining temperature and rapid tool wear due to the high strength of the material employed. Therefore, an advanced precision machining strategies were adopted using Rotary Ultrasonic Assisted End Milling (RUAEM) aim to improve the machining performance namely cutting force. Experimental test was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of RUAEM technique with different alumina oxide slurry substance concentration. Response surface methodology and Taguchi method were employed as the statistical analysis tools to evaluate the relationship between the machining parameters namely cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut, frequency vibration, amplitude vibration and slurry concentration toward cutting force. Based on the conducted experimental work it shows that the magnitude of cutting forces decreases up to 89% as compared with conventional milling with same cutting condition. The ultrasonic vibration effects create an interrupted cutting process in which the milling cutter tooth is periodically in contact with the work piece thus reducing the cutting force.
Keywords: About four Rotary ultrasonic assisted machining; Cutting force; precision machining.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 785 KB
Title: Design and Implementation Wind Turbine Power Control System Base Particle Swam Optimization at Low Rate Wind Farm
Author(s): Ali Musyafa, Imam Abadi, Ronny Dwi Noriyati, M. Faiz Afif, M.Khamim Asy’ari
Pages: 149-157 Paper ID:193805-4747-IJMME-IJENS Published:October, 2019
Abstract: The main issue that must be considered in finding new renewable energy sources is the availability of unlimited energy sources. One of the energy sources in question is wind energy. By designing and developing a wind power system, especially the electronic system, the system is able to produce optimum electrical energy. The voltage that comes out of the generator is then inputted to the buck-boost converter device which produces an output voltage whose value is higher or lower than the generator output voltage. The electrical voltage of the generator product is controlled through a microcontroller in the form of arduino uno with the PID-PSO method to get the voltage according to the design. By adjusting the voltage, the voltage is expected to be 13V, from the wind power plant being developed. From the Buck-boost converter control system simulation, the best control parameters are obtained; Kp = 7.60, Ki = 0.66, and Kd = 0.56. The buck-boost converter controls voltage. System performance is obtained by the value of Rise Time (Tr) = 0.37 seconds, settling time (Ts) = 0.39 seconds, delay time (Td) = 0.20 seconds, and Peak time (Tp) = 0.39 seconds.
Keywords: Converter, Control, Generator, PSO, Turbine.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,412 KB
Title: Mobile Robot Navigation System Vision Based through Indoor Corridors
Author(s): Hairol Nizam Mohd Shah, Lee Zhong Chen,Zalina Kamis, Azhar Ahmad, Mohd Rizuan Baharon
Pages: 158-167 Paper ID:192605-3737-IJMME-IJENS Published:October, 2019
Abstract: Nowadays, industry has been moving toward fourth industry revolution, but surveillance industry is still using human in patrol. This will put this industry in risk due to human nature instincts. By using a mobile robot with assist of vision sensor to patrol can bring this industry to a new level. However, the indoor corridor navigation will become a big challenge to this method. The objective of this project is to develop a navigation system using vision sensor and navigate the mobile robot in indoor corridor environment. To perform this operation, a control system though the WLAN communication develop to guide the movement of mobile robot. Besides that, corridor following system with vision sensor that using Sobel edge detection method and Hough transform to getting the vanish point is needed to help the robot to safely travel in the corridor. Both systems can be using MATLAB to be execute and link with the mobile robot through WLAN connection. This system can be analysis the corridor condition base on different feature and can decide to drive the mobile car in the direction that given. The image capture by mobile robot can be stream to MATLAB in real time and receive a feedback in short time.
Keywords: Hough transformation, line extraction, vanish point, edge detection.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 785 KB