IJENS Publisher Indexed In SCOPUS


Title: Numerical Investigation of the Elbow Angle Effect on Solid Particle Erosion for Liquid-Solid Flow
Author(s): Rehan Khan, H. H. Ya, William Pao
Pages: 1-13 Paper ID: 190401-3535-IJMME-IJENS Published: February, 2019
Abstract: Solid particle erosion is predominant in hydrocarbon production, drilling, and minerals processing industries. Erosion may be cause by the impact of particles of various sizes, shape and hardness to the surface at various speeds and impact conditions. This work pertains Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study to characterize the wear behavior of carbon steel material long radius elbows used as flow changing devices in pipelines of the hydrocarbon production industry. Although extensive studies have been directed to substantiate the association of system parameters and material erosion rate, accurate prediction of the erosion severity in flow changing devices is still a challenge. In this study, CFD with the discrete phase models is adopted to study the solid particle erosion physics and the erosion severity of carbon steel long radius elbow with three different angles 90o, 60o and 30o under the impact of sand particles. The simulation is done with the k–epsilon turbulence model and the simulation result from the k–epsilon model was validated by comparing with the experimental results from the previous study. The 60o and 30o elbow are less prone to erosion wear and maximum rate appeared in the 90o elbow. The largest erosion zones have been identified at or near the outlet of the 90oand 60o elbows and near to the inlet for 30o elbow. Furthermore, the relationship of curvature angle on erosion, particle trajectory and turbulence in the elbow pipe has been discussed.
Keywords: Solid particle erosion; Long radius elbow; discrete phase model; CFD.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,457 KB
Title: Effect of Tool-Pin Geometry on Microstructure and Temperature Distribution in Friction Stir Spot Welds of Similar AA2024-T3 Aluminum Alloys
Author(s): Haider Kamal Ibrahim, Abdul Wahab Hassan Khuder, Muhammed Abdul Sattar Muhammed
Pages: 14-28 Paper ID: 190201-7676-IJMME-IJENS Published: February, 2019
Abstract: Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) is a solid state joining process derived from the linear friction stir welding as an alternative method for the single-point joining processes. Three tool rotational speeds of (535, 980, 1325rpm) and two types of tool-pin geometry (straight cylindrical and triangular) were used to fabricate the FSSW joints of similar AA2024-T3 aluminum alloy sheets with 2mm thickness. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of pin geometry and tool rotational speeds on the lap shear strength and microstructural characteristics of friction stir spot welds. In addition to that, temperature distribution during FSSW, using both tool-pin shapes at the best rotational speed, was evaluated by two thermocouples K-type which were positioned at two different locations within welded area. Three dimensional non-linear numerical models using ANSYS program were built to simulate the temperature distribution. Tensile-shear test results showed that the weld strength was improved in all FSSWed joints by changing the tool pin profile from cylindrical to triangular. Scanning electron microscopy of the failed specimens observed that the pin geometry influence fracture mode under tensile shear loading. Microscopic examinations revealed that grain size in the stir zone increased with increasing rotational speed in the welds made by the cylindrical pin. While, conversely, was occurring in the other welds fabricated by the triangular pin. Temperature distribution obtained from the experimental and numerical model results was directly affected by the pin geometry during the welding process.
Keywords: Friction stir spot welding, AA2024-T3 aluminum alloy, Pin geometry, Temperature distribution, ANSYS, Fracture mode.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,795 KB
Title: Robot Arm Free Cartesian Space Analysis for Heuristic Path Planning Enhancement
Author(s): Firas A. Raheem, Ahmed T. Sadiq, Noor Alhuda F. Abbas
Pages: 29-42 Paper ID: 191401-6767-IJMME-IJENS Published: February, 2019
Abstract: Solving the robot arm path-planning problem can be considered as a significant aspect in the robot navigation that should guarantees a free collide with obstacles in order to construct the best path. In this paper, the shortest path and trajectory planning of two-link robot arm with 2-DOF in the 2-D static known environment has been analyzed. This analysis deals with three main problems. The first one concerns with the construction of the free Cartesian space by analyzing the inverse kinematic solutions, which guarantees a free collision path planning. The second problem focuses on generating the shortest path that satisfied the aims of motion by applying the D* algorithm. The third problem concerns with selecting the specified number of intermediate via-points and attaining the corresponding smooth trajectory through using Fifth-order polynomial equations. The obtained results illustrate that the free Cartesian space ensures a free collision path and trajectory planning.
Keywords: Two-Link Robot Arm, Free Cartesian Space Analysis, D*, Path and Trajectory Planning.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 3,277 KB
Title: Influence on Thrust Force and Delamination for One Shot Drilling of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic (CFRP)
Author(s): M. F. Jaafar, M. S. Salleh, R. Izamshah, M. H. Hassan, S. A. Sundi, M. S. A. Hafiz, M. S Kasim
Pages: 43-56 Paper ID: 182306-1901-4545-IJMME-IJENS Published: February, 2019
Abstract: The requirement of drilling process of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) is vital in order to fulfil final assembly specifications. Despite the excellent mechanical properties of composites, they are hard to be machined due to its toughness. The damages such as peel-up and push-out delamination usually occur during its machining. To provide drilling induced delamination is a priority to reduce parts rejection and lead to waste in time and money. In this work, a comparative study of three geometries under different cutting conditions is presented. Application Taguchi’s design of experiments for this experimental works increase the analysis reliability. Various penetration angle drilling also studied to determine the effect of thrust force and delamination. Thrust force was monitored during drilling tests, and delamination extension was quantified using image processing software. Results are processed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) then further presented by response surface graph showed that the best drill geometry, spindle speed and feed rate selection is fundamental to reduce delamination. The result obtained from the analysis shown delamination both for peel-up and push-out spread worse with increasing of drilling angle. Delamination factors are directly proportional with thrust force generated during drilling and increasing of thrust force will worsening the delamination damages. Straight flute drill is the best drill that generates lower thrust force thus reducing delamination effect compared with twist and dagger drill which on optimum feed rate and spindle speed parameter is 0.05 mm/rev and 4000 rpm, respectively.
Keywords: cfrp; one-shot drilling; delamination; thrust force.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,222 KB
Title: Characteristic Analysis: Vibration Behaviour of Composite Laminated Structures Compared to Monotonic Materials
Author(s): Mohammed Y. Abdellah, Ahmed F. Mohamed, Mohamed K. Hasan
Pages: 57-69 Paper ID: 192101-5454-IJMME-IJENS Published: February, 2019
Abstract: In recent decades, composite laminated structures have become more competitive materials than monotonic ones. Such composites are found to have a wide range of applications particularly when they are lightweight and have high specific strengths, which are properties needed in such industries as aerospace and automobile. In this regard, the vibration behaviour of two types of composite laminated structures are investigated in this study. The first composite is woven-glass fibre-reinforced epoxy laminate, whereas the second is a hybrid laminate of epoxy reinforced by glass fibres and steel-mat mesh. These composite laminates are fabricated using the hand-layup technique at room temperature. A developed finite element method is employed to simulate their vibration-mode shapes and natural frequencies. The behaviours of the free vibrations of these composites are then compared with those of wrought 1100 aluminium and tinned steel. The results show that composite laminated structures have high damping ratios than other monotonic materials. In general, these types of composites follow the same free vibration trend as monotonic materials.
Keywords: Free vibration, shape mode, finite element, spring damper, laminated composite structures
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,887 KB
Title: Influence of Micro Jets on the Flow Development in the Enlarged Duct at Supersonic Mach number
Author(s): Sher Afghan Khan, Abdul Aabid, C Ahamed Saleel
Pages: 70-82 Paper ID: 191301-2828-IJMME-IJENS Published: February, 2019
Abstract: In this paper, Computational fluid dynamics method is used to simulate the supersonic flow. Convergent-divergent (C-D) nozzle have been used with sudden expansion. The base pressure controlled by using the microjets of 1 mm of orifice diameter is arranged at ninety degrees at PCD 13 mm. The Mach number is 1.87, and the area ratio of 3.24 was considered for the present study. The L/D of the duct was used 10, and the nozzle pressure ratio (NPR) considered for simulation was from 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11. The two-dimensional planar model has been used using ANSYS commercial software. The total wall pressure distribution and Mach number variation from the inlet to the outlet was observed. From the results, it is found that the microjets are capable of controlling the base pressure, the loss of pressure and decreases in the drag. In the present study, the C-D nozzle designed and modeled: K-ε standard wall function turbulence model has been used and validated with the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD).
Keywords: C-D nozzle, Wall Pressure; Flow Control; NPR; CFD; Microjets.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,796 KB
Title: Heat Transfer Enhancement in a Tube Fitted with Modified Nozzle-Turbulators and Wire-Coil
Author(s): Akeel Abdullah Mohammed
Pages: 83-93 Paper ID: 191101-5454-IJMME-IJENS Published: February, 2019
Abstract: Experimental investigation has been conducted to study the enhancement of forced convection heat transfer by means of passive techniques for a turbulent air flow through an Aluminum test tube. The length to diameter ratio is 40. Reynolds number ranged from 6000 to 13500 with boundary conditions of constant heat flux of 357 W/m2. The augmentation process is done by using six different arrangements which are; convergent nozzle CN, divergent nozzle DN, convergent-divergent nozzle CDN, divergent-convergent nozzle DCN, combined convergent-divergent nozzle CCDN and combined divergent-convergent nozzle CDCN. Then, the DN was modified by using three different modifications; perforation (triangle holes, square holes and circle holes), combining the Nozzle-Turbulator with Wire-Coil, and combining the Nozzle-Turbulator with drilled plate CNDP. The results at the same Reynolds number show that the CNDP provides higher heat transfer rates by 408% than that in a plain tube and friction factor 35 times that provided by the plain tube. On the other hand the perforated Nozzle-Turbulators with triangle holes give a thermal performance factor of 1.7 which is the highest thermal performance factor among all other augmentation devices used in the present study.
Keywords: heat transfer; tube; conical ring; nozzle turbulator.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 996 KB
Title: Numerical Analysis on the Effect of Normotensive and Hypertensive Physiological Conditions onto Hemodynamic Characteristics in Stented Carotid Artery
Author(s): Muhammad Sufyan Amir Paisal, Ishkrizat Taib, Al Emran Ismail, Ahmad Mubarak Tajul Arifin
Pages: 94-107 Paper ID: 181406-1901-7575-IJMME-IJENS Published: February, 2019
Abstract: An arterial re-blockage or restenosis by abnormal atherosclerosis and thrombosis progression in carotid artery is associated with the geometry of the implanted medical device, called as stent. However, the physiological conditions consisting of normotensive and hypertensive blood flow in the stented carotid artery are rarely studied in term of hemodynamic characteristic especially near the geometry of the stent strut. Thus, the objective of this study is to determine the hemodynamic effect based on its characteristics at different stent strut configurations in carotid artery as well as analyzing the critical parameters at varying blood physiological conditions. Six different geometries of stent that resembles the existing medical device have been studied at three varying physiological conditions of blood. The study was conducted through computational fluid dynamic (CFD) method to analyze the hemodynamic characteristics of the blood flow parameters. In overall physiological condition, the stent geometry of Type VI which are resembling to Acculink (Abbott Vascular), had been shown to have the best hemodynamic characteristic by the parameters of time averaged wall shear stress low (TAWSSlow), oscillatory shear index (OSI) and relative residence time (RRT), which contributed with average luminal surface area percentage about 10.443%, 99.849% and 98.736%, respectively. As the physiological condition of blood flow increased from normotensive to hypertensive, there were two parameters shown to have critical hemodynamic characteristics at different stent geometries which are TAWSSlow and time averaged wall shear stress gradient (TAWSSG) that achieved about 32.388% and 36.629%, respectively. The study had shown that the different stent strut geometries had presented different hemodynamic characteristics due to the effect by the blood flow physiological condition.
Keywords: carotid artery; stent geometry; CFD; hemodynamic characteristic; normotensive; hypertensive
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 4001 KB
Title: Dynamic Stresses and Deformations Investigation of the Below Knee Prosthesis using CT-Scan Modeling
Author(s): Muhsin J. Jweeg, Abdulkareem Abdulrazzaq Ahumdany, Ali Faik Mohammed Jawad
Pages: 108-116 Paper ID: 190501-6868-IJMME-IJENS Published: February, 2019
Abstract: The main issue of this research to improve and develop the mechanical properties of the socket composite material for below-knee (BK) prosthesis; and study the stresses and deformations that are developed due to the dynamic loading caused in the gait cycle. The suggested composite material was consisting of the following layers (2perlon +1kevlar +1perlon +1kevlar +2perlon) as 7 layers and 3.5 mm thickness. This research involved two main parts experimental and numerical. The experimental parts investigation the ultimate tensile strength and modulus of elasticity, (187 MPa) and (1.78 GPa) respectively for the suggested material. The experimental part also included the measurement of the ground reaction force test (GRF). The results showed that the suggested socket was close to symmetrical by (96%) as compering with the intact leg. The numerical part depends on ANSYS 16.0 to calculate the dynamic stresses and deformation. Modeling of the socket was developed by using CT –Scan method and exported to ANSYS 16.0. The dynamic results showed that the maximum stresses (107 MPa) and the total deformation was (18 mm) for the suggestion socket when assuming the applying load as unit step. The dynamic load factor (DLF) was (1.18).
Keywords: Kevlar, Below Knee Prosthesis Dynamic Stress, CT Scan.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 921 KB
Title: Effect of Liquid Flow Rate on Droplet Size Distribution of Induced Atomized Charged Droplets
Author(s): Zhicheng WANG, Jie ZHAO, MD RAYHAN Tanvir, Shumin ZHOU, Wenjie XIONG
Pages: 117-122 Paper ID: 182506-1901-7373-IJMME-IJENS Published: February, 2019
Abstract: The droplets size distribution of electrostatic atomization is considered a very important factor for evaluating the atomization effect and its applicability. Different kinds of research like theoretical analysis, experimental research and numerical modeling method are carried out to analyze the effect of liquid flow rate on droplet size distribution of electrostatic induction atomization. The results show that, droplet size will increase obviously as the flow rate is increased and geometric standard deviation (GSD) index of atomizing liquid is dropped because of the decrement of droplets induction time. The mathematical expression of droplet size, geometric standard deviation (GSD) index and flow rate of the liquid medium are established by fitting the research data which are tested experimentally with highest accuracy.
Keywords: Liquid medium flow, Electrostatic atomization, Induction charge, Droplet diameter, GSD.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 781 KB
Title: Real-Time External Control Coupled with Vision-Based Control for an Industrial Robotic Arm to Pick and Place Moving Object on a Conveyor Belt
Author(s): Mahmoud Abdelaal, Ahmed Bahgat, Hassan M. Emara, Ayman El-Dessouki
Pages: 123-131 Paper ID: 183106-1901-7272-IJMME-IJENS Published: February, 2019
Abstract: This paper presents and implement a real-time external control software framework for a 6-DOF industrial robotic arm and object’s orientation recognition coupled with a vision-based control system for the industrial robotic systems applications. The objects are moving on a conveyor belt. A computer vision system is designed to recognize the orientation of the object and to adjust the pose of the robot arm to a certain angle targeting the center of the object. The motion of the conveyor belt is synchronized with the Robot Arm, which is guided for grasping, moving and positioning objects in its position. The real-time external control and the adoption of computer vision technique for objects recognition are implemented using C++ and OpenCV library, and Windows Socket Library is used to establish a TCP/IP data exchange connection between the vision system on a PC and the robot controller. A GUI application has been developed to supervise the pick and place process. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme to achieve accurate positioning.
Keywords: Real-Time External Control, Robot-Vision System, Industrial Robotic Arm, Industrial Robot Arm Applications.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 786 KB
Title: Determining the optimal feature for two classes Motor-Imagery Brain-Computer Interface (L/R-MI-BCI) systems in different binary classifiers
Author(s): Nibras Abo Alzahab, Hassan Alimam, MHD Shafik Alnahhas, Ali Alarja, Zuheir Marmar
Pages: 132-150 Paper ID: 192001-6363-IJMME-IJENS Published: February, 2019
Abstract: Day-by-day, artificial intelligent becomes more and more in important in the field of healthcare filed. One important application is Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) which has many advances in enhancing the life quality of patients who suffers from paralysis for a reason or another. Motor-Imaginary BCI (MI-BCI) is mostly used to control robotics and mechatronic systems, for example robotic arm, orthosis, prothesis and exoskeletons. This research evaluates the effect of different features on classification process of EEG signal in MI-BCI systems. In this study, five healthy subjects performed trail imaginary in order to acquire EEG signal dataset. Five feature groups were extracted (Power Spectral Density (PSD), Amplitude mean (AM), Standard Deviation (STD), Shannon Entropy (SE) and Differential Entropy (DE)) from EEG signal in MI-BCI of five different subjects. The features groups are classified using five classification technique "ANN, Decision tree, LDA, SVM, and KNN. The influence of features groups in classification performance was compared separately according to three classifier criteria (Accuracy, Precision and MCC). One-way ANOVA test was used to compare influence of features groups in classification performance. For classification accuracy and precision, significant differences were obtained in SVM and ANN classifiers for pairs of features which is fairly supported by the experimental and statistical data. The results of the research show that Power Spectral Density (PSD) feature shows great ability to describe EEG signal in MI-BCI field and considered as an effective feature in binary classifiers. Additionally, Differential Entropy (DE) is considered as a promising feature to be used in MI-BCI field. The results of this study will be used for developing bio-robots and bio-mechanical and bio-mechatronic systems in ACIA Lab.
Keywords: Electroencephalography (EEG), G-tech, Artificial Intelligent (AI), Motor Imaginary Brain Computer Interface (MI-BCI), Feature extraction, Binary-Classification, MATLAB, SPSS, One-way ANOVA, Mathew Correlation Coefficient (MCC).
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,241 KB
Title: Effect of a Circular Cylinder in Front of Advancing Blade on the Savonius Water Turbine by Using Transient Simulation
Author(s): Priyo Agus Setiawan, Triyogi Yuwono, Wawan Aries Widodo
Pages: 151-159 Paper ID: 192501-3434-IJMME-IJENS Published: February, 2019
Abstract: The paper has investigated the effect of a circular cylinder diameter on the performance of the vertical axis savonius water turbine. The free stream velocity over the cylinder will increase the velocity in the upper side and lower side. The phenomena will increase the flow momentum when the fluid-flow through between Savonius turbine and a circular cylinder. The cylinder can improve positive torque at the advancing blade and will improve the turbine performance. The flow investigation has been studied numerically to the Savonius turbine by placing a circular cylinder as passive control in the front of the advancing blade side. The paper has seen the influence of the cylinder diameter variations to the performance and the flow characteristics of the turbine. The numerical simulation has been conducted on the Savonius turbine by without and with a circular cylinder. The numerical of 2D simulation has been conducted by using a sliding mesh to solve the rotation equipment in the transient condition and the turbulence model used is the realizable k-ε (RKE). The firstly, the numerical has been verified and has validated with respect to experimental data. The data used in verification and validation is the torque coefficient using air fluid. Secondly, after the validation has attained, the next simulation has changed the working fluid to be water by placing a circular cylinder in front of advancing blade with varying ds/D of 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 for each stagger angle () of 0o, 30o, and 60o for S/D of 0.95. The results have shown that the best performance of Savonius turbine occurs at the ds/D of 0.5,  of 30o, and a TSR of 0.9. The turbine performance has increased by 41.18% higher than conventional Savonius at  of 30o and TSR of 0.9. The ds/D variations have lowest turbine performance at  of 0o.
Keywords: Savonius turbine; advancing blade, torque coefficient, power coefficient; sliding mesh.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,783 KB
Title: Experimental Investigation on Low Velocity Impact of a Novel Fibre Metal Laminate (FML) Tube
Author(s): M. A. Mansor, Z. Ahmad, M. R. Abdullah
Pages: 160-169 Paper ID: 193001-4848-IJMME-IJENS Published: February, 2019
Abstract: The experimental study of new tubular type of Fibre Metal Laminate (FML) with braided fibreglass sleeve and aluminium alloy tubes was performed and its manufacturing process was proposed. Aluminium tubes was machined to specific thickness and chemically treated to improve the adhesive bonding. Sleeve type braided fibreglass was selected as it comes in specific dimension and more importantly it is seamless and perfectly produces an excellent composite tube. Tubes carefully assembled to form 2/1 and 3/2 layup configurations and highly adhesive resin was introduced as interlayer, which is composed of two layers of aluminium tubes and one layer of fibreglass braided sleeve in between for 2/1 layup. The new design tube was tested to evaluate the behaviour and impact characteristics under low velocity axial impact loading, where its intended purpose of application. This tube crushed progressively and was able to avoid catastrophic failure. The results also indicate that the mechanical performance of the new FML tube could be applied as a new and efficient energy absorber.
Keywords: Fibre Metal Laminate, Energy Absorption, Crashworthiness, Low Velocity, Impact Loading.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 585 KB
Title: CFD Simulation with Analytical and Theoretical Validation of Different Flow Parameters for the Wedge at Supersonic Mach Number
Author(s): Sher Afghan Khan, Abdul Aabid, Ahmed Saleel C.
Pages: 170-177 Paper ID: 193101-4545-IJMME-IJENS Published: February, 2019
Abstract: In this paper analytical and numerical methods are used to evaluate flow over a wedge at supersonic Mach numbers. Closed form solutions are obtained for various semi-vertex angle of the wedge and the Mach numbers. Supersonic similarity parameter has been used to obtain the pressure distribution over wedge at different angle of attack with attached shock wave case. Results are in good agreement with the theory. For the analysis a strip theory is used which are independent in the direction of the flow. To simulate the results, the finite element (FE) method has been used. The validation has been done using the second order shock-expansion theory and the analytical solution obtained by Ghosh’s unified supersonic/hypersonic theory.
Keywords: CFD, Wedge, FEM, Mach number, surface pressure.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 927 KB
Title: A New Backstepping Sliding Mode Control System to prevent Roll Instability of a Four-Wheeled Vehicle
Author(s): M. A. Saeedi, M. Mirzaee
Pages: 178-186 Paper ID: 193401-6868-IJMME-IJENS Published: February, 2019
Abstract: In this paper, in order to prevent the rollover instability of a four-wheeled vehicle, a new roll control system is designed. In this control system an active anti-roll bar is employed as an actuator to generate the roll moment. First, in order to achieve an accurate model a through nonlinear dynamic model of a four-wheeled vehicle is developed. Then, dynamic model validation is done using ADAMS CAR software during a transient maneuver. Next, in order to design the roll control system backstepping sliding mode control method is used. In this study, lateral load transfer ratio is considered as an important factor to investigate the vehicle rollover. The dynamic performance of the vehicle is evaluated in standard maneuvers at different conditions. The simulation results show that the proposed active roll control system is able to reduce the lateral load transfer ratio, especially during severe lane change maneuver in which intense instability occurs. Also, the robustness of the control system is verified during steady state and transient maneuvers at different road conditions.
Keywords: Robust Control System, Rollover, Lateral Load Transfer Ratio, Stability Analysis.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,067 KB