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Title: Assessment of the Baffle Effects on the Mixed Convection in Open Cavity
Author(s): Nabil Jamil Yasin, Kadhum Audaa Jehhef, Asraa Mahdi Shaker
Pages: 1-14 Paper ID: 180104-7575-IJMME-IJENS Published: August, 2018
Abstract: Several experimental and numerical studies were carried out to determine the effects of a vertical unheated baffle on the mixed convection heat transfer process in a square cross-sectional bottom-grooved cavity heated from three sides. The mixed convection heat transfer and fluid flow within the cavity were evaluated by the buoyancy parameter, Reynolds number, Grashof number, and Richardson number. In the numerical part, the validated CFD model has been used to solve the governing continuity equations for the temperature and velocity distribution. The wall temperature profile and the Nusselt numbers were investigated and presented in this study. The experimental results show that the maximum temperature values increased by increasing the baffle height and the maximum Nusselt numbers were found at the full length of the baffle. The comparison between the numerical and experimental study was done and shown a good agreement with a maximum deviation of ±17%.
Keywords: Heat transfer, Mixed convection, Grooved cavity, Baffle.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 2,190 KB
Title: High Accuracy Walking Motion Trajectory Generation Profile Based On 6-5-6 PSPB Polynomial Segment with Polynomial Blend
Pages: 15-26 Paper ID: 181602-1804-7979-IJMME-IJENS Published: August, 2018
Abstract: Many robots, such as humanoid robot, biped robot, and robotic exoskeleton, need human guide. Particularly, there is a strong need for devices to assist individuals who lost limb function due to illnesses or injuries. Thus, several methods of generating walking motion have been implemented in order to generate walking motion according to natural human behaviour for the exoskeleton robot system. Polynomial blend technique has implemented to generate the walking motion trajectory, where the polynomial blend refers to the combination of more than one polynomial. However, three constraints (angular position, velocity, and acceleration) have been imposed by the polynomial blend techniques where the constraint of angular jerk was neglected because involving the jerk constrain will be caused problem of the non-ideal match of kinematic constraints at via point. In this project, 5th polynomial segment with the 6th polynomial blend (6-5-6 PSPB) trajectory is proposed that aims to reduce the error that increases because of non-ideal match between kinematic constraints at the via points of successive segments. The trajectory planning of the 6-5-6 PSPB is generated based on the stance and swing phases. Each phase is presented by one full of the 6-5-6 PSPB trajectory. In order to validate the 6-5-6 PSPB trajectory, simulation using SimMechanics is conducted to ensure that the coefficients values of the polynomial equations are correctly obtained. The result shows that the error was improved almost 0.1445 degree based on the proposed 6-5-6 PSPB compared with the 4-3-4 PSPB and 5-4-5 PSPB. Thus, the 6th -5th -6th Polynomial blend leads to impose the angular jerk kinematic constraint beside the angular position, velocity, and acceleration kinematic constraints during the whole walking motion trajectory. Minimizing the maximum jerk in joint space has a beneficial effect in terms of reducing the actuator and mechanical strain and joint wear and to limit excessive wear on the robot and the excitation of resonances so that the robot life-span is expanded.
Keywords: Trajectory Planning, Via Point, Polynomial Segment with Polynomial Blend (PSPB), Kinematic Constraints, Runge's phenomenon.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,124 KB
Title: A Study on the Effect of the Change of Tempering Temperature on the Microstructure Transformation of Cu-Ni-Sn Alloy
Author(s): Xuan Duong Pham, Anh Tuan Hoang, Duong Nam Nguyen
Pages: 27-34 Paper ID: 180604-5959-IJMME-IJENS Published: August, 2018
Abstract: The copper alloys have been using in many applications such as electrical devices, house wares, and others due to their special properties. In this study, the changes in the microstructure and hardness value of the alloy Cu-15Ni-8Sn after heat treatment were investigated in the basis of Spinodal decomposition theory and various analysis methods. After quenching, an orderly microstructure (DO3¬) with low hardness phase was formed in case of aging at 450oC within 2 hours. As a result, an increase in the lubrication ability was shown for this alloy. In addition, phase alpha that was considered as a solid solution of Cu and Ni with high strength was formed by Spinodal decomposition. Findings of this paper will orientate to produce a new alloy for the fabrication of the small diesel engine bearing.
Keywords: Cu-15Ni-8Sn, bearing, Spinodal decomposition, hardness
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,076 KB
Title: Plane Stabilization of the Electron Storage Ring Using Automatic 3-DOF Girder System
Author(s): Supachai Prawanta and Jiraphon Srisertpol
Pages: 35-44 Paper ID: 181804-3232-IJMME-IJENS Published: August, 2018
Abstract: The plane stabilization of 1.2 GeV electron storage ring of the Siam Photon Source has changed one millimeter per year resulted from the occurrences of floor subsidence. The alignment takes approximately three months which requires a lot of manpower. This paper presents the new technique of the control system design and mathematical model of the automatic 3-DOF girder system for aligning the magnets in the electron storage ring. The girder system is designed based on three eccentric circle cam actuators with DC motor which are translation along the y-axis (heave), rotation around the x-axis (pitch) and the z-axis (roll). The control system consists of two control loops: a) the inner control loop which is composed of three actuators used the angular position control with pole-placement through the state feedback with full-order state observer and b) the outer control loop which tracks control of the girder system with proportional-integral controller tuning using the optimization method based on the simplex search method. The performance of the automatic 3-DOF girder system is supported by simulation and experimental results. Therefore, the experimental results show that it exactly and quickly tracks the reference input and robustly regulates the output response which has the external disturbances. This prototype is appropriate for the development of the magnet girder system for the electron storage ring.
Keywords: angular position control, observer-based state feedback controller, tracking control and output regulation, PI-controller, 3-DOF girder system, eccentric circle cam actuator
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,268 KB
Title: Time-Frequency Signal Processing for Automated Infant Cry Classification
Author(s): J. Saraswathy, M. Hariharan, Wan Khairunizam, I. Zunaidi, J. Sarojini, N. Thiyagar, Y. Sazali, Shafriza Nisha, S. A. Bakar, Z. M. Razlan
Pages: 45-55 Paper ID: 181803-1804-4747-IJMME-IJENS Published: August, 2018
Abstract: This work proposes a novel investigation of time-frequency (t-f) based signal processing approach using Quadratic time-frequency distributions (QTFDs) namely Spectrogram (SPEC), Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD), Smoothed-Wigner Ville distribution (SWVD), Choi-William distribution (CWD) and Modified B-distribution (MBD) for classification of infant cry signals. T-f approaches have proved as an efficient approach for applications involving the non stationary signals. In feature extraction, a cluster of t-f based attributes were extracted from the suggested t-f approaches by extending time-domain and frequency-domain features to the joint (t-f) domain. Conventional features such as Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) and Linear prediction coefficients (LPCs) were also extracted and their effectiveness was compared with the suggested methodology. The efficacy of the extracted feature vectors was validated using probabilistic neural network (PNN) and general regression neural network (GRNN). The proposed methodology was implemented to classify different sets of infant cry signals cry including binary and multiclass problems. Findings of this study significantly demonstrate the use of t-f method as an efficient practical clinical decision tool for infant cry classification.
Keywords: Infant cry, Time-frequency analysis, Feature extraction, Classification
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 345 KB
Title: Effect of Blank Holder Force and Punch Number on the Forming Behavior of Conventional Dies
Author(s): Ragad Aziz Neama, Maher A. R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi, Muhannad Al-Waily
Pages: 56-64 Paper ID: 180304-6969-IJMME-IJENS Published: August, 2018
Abstract: The circular multi-point forming (CMPF) is a flexible technique in which the fixed shape of conventional dies is replaced by two matrices of moveable punch elements called upper and lower punch grope. This paper focuses on design, simulation and manufacture of circular multi point die to produce several forms of product by using one die. This die designed by Auto cad program, and third degree with four control point points open uniform B-spline approximation technique was adopted to represent the bending surface by using MATLAB software program. The coordinate of each point of surface taken from this program to create the by adjusting the height of each punch manually. Finite element method software (ANSYS 15) was used to simulate the circular forming process numerically and due to symmetry of product only one quarter surface of circular MPD was simulated. Aluminum 1070 plate with 1mm thickness has been chosen. The effect of (1,3,5 kN) blank holder force and (17*17, 25*25) number of pins has been studied numerically in term of stress and strain distribution and thickness variation. The experimental work involved manufacturing circular MPD and forming required product by insertion and absence of (2 mm) rubber to show the effect of interpolator on dimpling and thickness variation along the sheet metal. The results showed that the insertion of (2 mm) rubber interpolator and (3 kN) blank holder force is the best to avoid the dimpling, wrinkling defect and give good stress, strain distribution and thickness variation.
Keywords: Multi Point Forming, Interpolator, Blank Holder Force, Punch Effect, Forming Several Parts.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,164 KB
Title: Design and Implemented Pitch Angle Wind Turbine Control System Base Neuro Fuzzy At East Java-Indonesia
Author(s): Ali Musyafa, D. P. Pratama, M. K. Asy’ari
Pages: 65-72 Paper ID: 182404-7373-IJMME-IJENS Published: August, 2018
Abstract: The potential of wind energy in Indonesia has not been utilized optimally. Average wind speeds (2-6 m / s) is relatively low and the change makes wind turbine design constraints. This resulted in relative angular velocity of the turbine is changed so that the production of electric power is also changing. In this study constructed a prototype wind turbine incorporates blade pitch angle control system based Neuro-fuzzy, to keep the rotational speed so that the rotation angle of the turbine generator can be maintained. The control system equipped with turbine shaft speed sensor such as a rotary encoder. Turbine pitch angle changes significantly affect the angle of the turbine rotational speed. Control systems are built have membership functions of input error and delta error varied. The results of the best design, the control system has a membership function specification input error and delta error 9 pieces 3 pieces. The controller is able to work at its optimum best and is able to maintain the set point 30 pulse per second (PPS), maximum Overshoot 6.7%, 3.63% steady state error, settling time 75 second, and ITAE = 34.916.
Keywords: Blade, pitch angle, control system, wind turbine, neuro-fuzzy.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 825 KB
Title: Study of the Rheological Behavior of the Phosphate-Water Slurry and Search for a Suitable Model to Describe its Rheological Behavior
Author(s): Hamza BELBSIR, Khalil EL-HAMI, Aziz SOUFI
Pages: 73-82 Paper ID: 182304-5959-IJMME-IJENS Published: August, 2018
Abstract: The rheological behavior of the phosphate-water slurry depends on several parameters, the density of the slurry, the concentration of solids, the particle size distribution, temperature…The rheological behavior of the slurry was studied using a rotary viscometer (Anton-Paar). The phosphate slurry consists of solid phosphate and water. We conducted experiments on a solids mass concentration range of (φ = 34.24% at φ = 57.27%) in the shear rate range (1 to 1000 s-1). we have noticed that the phosphate slurry changes its pseudoplastic behavior towards a Bingham behavior from the 46.03% concentration, and changes its Bingham behavior towards a dilatant behavior from the concentration 38.45%. Models of rheological description are numerous, we were interested in this study to four models (Casson, Bingham, Ostwald-Pawer Law, and Herschel-Buckley), Model enables us to adjust and predict the apparent viscosity and yield stress of phosphate-water slurry, and will also allow us to predict dynamic motion of the slurry and understand mechanisms for characteristic rheological behaviors.
Keywords: phosphate-water slurry, solids concentration, particle size distribution, temperature, viscosity, yield stress, rheological Models.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,035 KB
Title: Study of Mechanical Characteristics and Thermal Barrier Coating on Firefighting Robot
Author(s): Yeon Taek OH
Pages: 83-88 Paper ID: 182604-9595-IJMME-IJENS Published: August, 2018
Abstract: Robots developed to respond to diverse kinds of fire accidents in modern society are the robots assisting firefighters’ fire suppression efforts. In this study, we proposed a drive system capable of moving freely in indoor environment. Moreover, since they work in fire areas with high radiant intensity, their thermo performance test can be essential. To this end, we selected thermal barrier material preventing the transfer of external heat source to the robots. Moreover, we proposed thermal barrier method that can help improve firefighting robotic heat shield. Coating the robot surface with Ag paste can prevent heat transfer to the inside. We presented thermal barrier effect according to different thicknesses of the Ag coating. It is noted that secondary thermal barrier system is efficient, which employs insulation board and Ag coating insulation box capable of protecting the electronic devices of firefighting robots at a high temperature for its efficient functioning. In this study, we proposed a firefighting robot system and thermal barrier for use in firefighting robots.
Keywords: Thermal Barrier Structure, Fire Fighting Robot, Ag Coating, Crawler System, Tension Control
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 710 KB
Title: Design and Fabrication of a Drag Force Type air Flowmeter with Poly-Silicon Piezoresistive Layer
Author(s): Yong U Lim, Yong Jin Cho, Sang Hoon Lee
Pages: 89-94 Paper ID: 183404-7676-IJMME-IJENS Published: August, 2018
Abstract: In this paper, we designed and investigated a drag force type air flowmeter with reduced temperature effect. For this purpose, poly-silicon was deposited as a piezoresistive layer. Adjusting the doping concentration, the temperature related factor like resistivity can be controlled. In addition, since the gauge factor is larger than other metals, the output signal was improved, and the temperature effect was also minimized. The structure was designed to enhance the air drag force. The two-cantilever structure and the paddle structure were utilized, and the device was perpendicularly placed to the given air flow. The flowmeter measured a wide range air flow rate from 0m/s up to 10m/s in the wind tunnel. The basic experiments for repeatability and the short-term stability were performed, and the stable outputs were obtained. The temperature effect was examined, and the output signal of the device showed a quadratic form according to the air flow, which signifies that the device has reduced temperature effect compared to other flowmeters with platinum piezoresistive layer.
Keywords: Air flowmeter, Drag force type, Poly-silicon, Piezoresistive layer.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 658 KB
Title: The Effects of Shot Peening Treatment on the Corrosion Rate of HQ 805 Machinery Steel
Author(s): Winda Sanni Slat, Viktor Malau, Priyo Tri Iswanto
Pages: 95-100 Paper ID: 183304-9292-IJMME-IJENS Published: August, 2018
Abstract: HQ (High Quality) 805 is a steel included in machinery steel group which is widely used in industry, military, aeronautics, and marine because of its combination and high strength. However, in acid, humid, and watery environment, it is sensitive to corrosion. Therefore, surface modifications like shot peening is needed to be conducted to improve surface quality. This research aims to identify the effects of shot peening treatment on the corrosion resistance of HQ 805 material. Shot peening process was conducted on HQ 805 sample surface by using 0.5 mm diameter steel ball as the shot material in 10, 20 and 30 minutes shot duration with 7 bar constant compressor pressure. Surface characteristics were investigated. Surface hardness was measured by using a micro hardness Vickers test tool. Corrosion test was conducted by using Versa STAT 4 Potentiostat Galvanostat, whereas the surface morphology and element compositions were observed by using SEM-EDS. Shot peening treatment on HQ 805 decrease corrosion rate from 34.35 mpy to 12.08 mpy.
Keywords: HQ 805, shot peening, corrosion rate, hardness
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,075 KB
Title: Base Pressure Control by Supersonic Micro Jets in a Suddenly Expanded Nozzle
Author(s): S. A. Khan, Zakir Ilahi Chaudhary, Vilas B. Shinde
Pages: 101-112 Paper ID: 184004-5959-IJMME-IJENS Published: August, 2018
Abstract: Experimental studies were conducted in sudden expansion axi-symmetric passage for controlling base pressure and their outputs were showcased in current paper. Micro jet active control techniques are used for controlling base pressure. These controls constitute four spaces around base and symmetric to nozzle axis. Mach numbers of the abruptly expanded flows studied for base pressure range from 1.1 to 2.8 and the obtained wall pressure distribution is depicted for Mach number 1.1, 1.5, 2.1, and 2.8 respectively. In this paper the area ratio of the study was 2.56 and the L/D ratios were up to 1 from 10 respectively. Nozzles working on the concerned inertia level were performed with NPR from 3 to 11. It is found that the active controls through the micro jets are capable of regulating the pressure in the recirculation zone. In the presence of favourable pressure gradient the control becomes effective. An appreciable 65% hike in the pressure at the base was accomplished for the above discussed parameters of the current research.
Keywords: Base Pressure; Wall Pressure; Flow Control; Nozzle Pressure Ratio, Micro jets.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,322 KB
Title: Assessment of Material Loss in a Human Teeth Support by Applying EMI Technique
Author(s): Hector A. Tinoco, Carlos I. Cardona, Fabio M. Peña, Juan P. Gomez, Samuel I. Roldan-Restrepo
Pages: 113-120 Paper ID: 183804-9595-IJMME-IJENS Published: August, 2018
Abstract: Part of bone structure provides structural stability to the teeth helping to accomplish its functionality. Bone structure responds modifying its micro and macro architectural configuration, enhancing its ability to support continually the changing force distributions. However, the monitoring of these changes can be an expensive and invasive challenge. In this paper, an experimental method is described to identify material losses in a tooth support produced by successive drillings. This experimental scheme seeks to mimic the bone-tooth system. A sensor system was developed to measure variations in the supporting structure via the tooth. The device is composed of a bonded stainless-steel bracket with a segment of orthodontic wire which is attached to two piezoelectric transducers. Additionally, a concentrated mass is fastened to an end of the wire. High frequency voltage (between 5-10 KHz) was applied through the piezo-transducers to excite the device, which moves the tooth by means of the wire vibrations. High frequency vibrations allow the appraisal of the mechanical response from the material that supports the tooth. Measurements are quantified applying the electromechanical impedance technique (EMI). Results show that when a quantity of material is removed, resonance peaks of the electrical impedance are shifted. With the proposed methodology it is possible to assess and to quantify the material loss (material) by means of a sensitive analysis done in the frequency.
Keywords: Tooth vibrations, teeth, piezoelectric transducer, electromechanical impedance, structural health monitoring.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,194 KB
Title: Improvement the wear resistance of High Chromium White Cast Iron by Coating with Nano Materials
Author(s): Oday Kadhim Mohammed, Ali S.Yasir, Mujed H. Enad
Pages: 121-126 Paper ID: 183904-6767-IJMME-IJENS Published: August, 2018
Abstract: The Lining of horizontal clinker mill were made from high chromium white cast iron (HCWCI), that subjected to mechanical wear inside mill due to sever operation conditions, and that causes extra cost for maintenance. This paper deals with the improvement of the mechanical wear resistance for this lining by coat the surface of lining with nano particles of tungsten carbide. The thermal coating technique used as process for coating by high velocity oxeye fuel (HVOF) machine which assembled for this purpose. The wear tests were done for uncoated and coated samples by pin on disk test according to standard (ASTM G99-05). Also, the morphology of samples surface was test by SEM and EDX. The coating process done for three value of coating layers (200, 400 and 700) µm. The results show that the weight loss at wear test will decreased when increase the thickens of nano particles of (WC) as coating material till reach to thickness (700 µm) . The results show the improvement in wear resistance may reach to (88%) for samples coated with layer thickness of (700 μm).
Keywords: HCCI, Wear resistance, Nano-coating, surface morphology.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 885 KB