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Title: Numerical Investigation of New Cooling Method for Clinker Flow in Parallel with Air flow at Different Height Ratios
Author(s): Nasr A. Jabbar, M. J. ALshukri, Wakkas Ali Rasheed, Ihsan Y. Hussain
Pages: 1-17 Paper ID: 180403-7272-IJMME-IJENS Published: June, 2018
Abstract: The properties of Portland cement depend on several parameters, and the cooling method is one of these parameters. When the effectiveness of cooling method increases, the properties of Portland cement are enhanced. In the present work, a new cooling method is suggested and numerical analysis is made by CFD modeling using (FLUENT 6.3.26). Using the same dimensions of cooling room in grate cooler, constant mass flow rate of air and clinker, different porosity of clinker, and different height ratios ( height of air / height of clinker), the numerical results were calculated. The results show that the height ratio is an important factor affecting the new cooling method and can be used in order to decrease the length of cooling room or the time of cooling process according to the porosity of clinker. The maximum temperature of clinker with the lowest possible porosity is much lower than the maximum temperature of clinker with maximum porosity at a constant height ratio (H.R.). Also, when the height ratio (H.R.) increases, the temperature of clinker decreases at any point, also the rate of change between clinker and air temperature decreases with increasing the height ratio (H.R.).
Keywords: Clinker; Cooling Process; Forced Convection; Porosity; CFD.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 2,129 KB
Title: Experimental and Finite Element Analysis of Severing the Butt Ends of Aluminum Billets During the Extrusion Process
Pages: 18-24 Paper ID: 181403-6262-IJMME-IJENS Published: June, 2018
Abstract: The objective of this study is to redesign the blade used for severing the butt ends of aluminium billets in order to eliminate the quality and production problems during the extrusion process. During the end of the cutting process, material from the mold may be detached and gaps between the mold and the next billet occur. This phenomenon creates blisters in the extruded aluminum profiles and many profiles are considered scrap. By alleviating such problem, many quality control complications could be resolved while extrusion’s scrap percentage could be significantly reduced. Various different factors that can affect the cut process are studied herein, with an emphasis given on the angle of the cutting blade and the lubricant used in order to make the severing more efficient. Also, a new design of the blade is proposed in order to improve the cutting process, while the simulations of the process performed investigate the behavior of the system in detail.
Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, Severing butt ends of Aluminium Billets, Extrusion.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,013 KB
Title: Effect of Water Hammer on Pipes Containing a Crack Defect
Pages: 25-31 Paper ID: 181003-4242-IJMME-IJENS Published: June, 2018
Abstract: Water hammer pressure wave may occur in pipelines transporting fluids when a sudden change in flow occurs. To model this phenomenon, the method of characteristic technic is used to solve mathematical equations describing the transient flow in the pipe considering the transportation of four different fluids. The results of pressure variation are then used in a proposed analytical model for the calculation of the stress intensity factor based on Raju and Newman model. This model is calibrated against results obtained from a numerical model composed of a pipeline that contains a longitudinal semi-elliptical crack defect. A simple program using the calibrated analytical model is validated and permits to predict fatigue life of cracked pipe subjected to static and dynamic loads. A parametric study conducted on pipe with external and internal crack of different geometries allowed to conclude on the harmfulness of the crack defect when subjected to water hammer phenomenon.
Keywords: Fatigue, Pipeline, Semi-elliptical, Crack, Water Hammer, Dynamic load, Method of characteristics, Leak, Break
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,005 KB
Title: Biomechanical Analysis and Gait Assessment for Normal and Braced Legs
Author(s): Mahmud Rasheed Ismail, Muhannad Al-Waily, Ameer A. Kadhim
Pages: 32-40 Paper ID: 180303-9595-IJMME-IJENS Published: June, 2018
Abstract: In this work an attempt is made to derive suitable models to investigate the effect of the joints constrained on human gait due to wearing bracing devices at lower limbs. Linkages concept are used to model the leg segments and evaluate GRF and friction force. Three models for normal, AFO and KAFO are presented. The presented models are semi analytic since some input data are needed to be evaluated experimentally. In this regard the joint angles are evaluated from video analysis of individual walking on Treadmill. KINOVEA program is used to track the joints angles for the stance phase of gait cycle, and the MATLAB program is used to estimate the angular displacement as a function of time. To validate the results some experiments on force plate were conducted for the three mentioned cases. The results showed good agreements and that the suggested models are succeeded for describing the human gait parameters for normal and abnormal gait.
Keywords: Ankle Foot Orthosis AFO, Knee Ankle Foot Orthosis KAFO, Ground Reaction Force GRF, Normal Gait.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 726 KB
Title: Design Parameters and Dynamic Analysis of Unfolded Headrests for Vehicles
Author(s): Yunsik Yang, Euy Sik Jeon
Pages: 41-45 Paper ID: 181603-5252-IJMME-IJENS Published: June, 2018
Abstract: Many studies have attempted to reduce neck injury caused by rear-end collisions. If the headrest of a vehicle seat restrains the head extension induced by the relative motion of head and torso, the severity of neck injury could be decreased. An active headrest is projected to support the head in the event of a rear-end collision. Before any collision signal occurs, springs continue to be compressed or twisted. The headrest is unfolded upon a collision signal. The “unfold” velocity can be optimized by reducing the unfold distance and using springs with as strong an elastic force as allowable for the headrest. This study analyzed the kinematics of the unfold mechanism and selected an adequate elastic force for the spiral spring of headrest. Moreover, prototypes were fabricated to determine design properties such as unfold time and distance, from which design parameters were derived, which could be used for headrest design. Finally, dynamic properties and unfold time of the headrest thus designed were verified by conducting a finite element analysis.
Keywords: Headrest; Neck injury; Rear-end collision; Design parameters; Dynamic analysis.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 907 KB
Title: Smart Meter based on Time Series Modify and Neural Network for Online Energy Monitoring
Author(s): Mat Syai’in , M. F. Adiatmoko , Nasyith Hananur Rohiem , Adi Soeprijanto
Pages: 46-53 Paper ID: 172905-1803-3737-IJMME-IJENS Published: June, 2018
Abstract: This paper proposed new method for online energy monitoring system (OEMS). This method combines Non-Intrusive Load Model (NILM) and Time Series Lag-1 for signal conditioning process. and Neural Network (NN) for decision making process. The advantage of the method is easy to identify energy cosumption of appliance with small number of training data and only need single current sensor for identification of energy consumption of appliances. Signals from current sensors are processed by microprocessor to represent activities of appliance. In this process raw signal from the sensor is modify by lag-1 concept to capture transient condition in magnitude and duration. Then the data is deliver to Neural Network (NN) for final step appliance identification. Data resulted by NN is sent to the display and also sent to the server real time in order to be monitored online, either using website or using Android. From the experiment result, it can be proof that OEMS capable to identify the use of appliances and also capable to monitor the use of energy consumption real time with 5% error tolerance in averages. With this performance the OEMS have big chance to implement in the real systems and mass production.
Keywords: Online energy monitoring system, Smart Meter, Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring, Artificial Neural Network, Time Series Modify, Signal, Microprosessor, Android.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 910 KB
Title: PD/H-∞ Integrated Controller for Position Tracking and Vibration Suppression of Flexible Link Manipulator System
Author(s): E. A. Alandoli, H. N. M. Shah, M. Sulaiman, M. Z. A. Rashid, M. S. M. Aras, Fakulti Kejuruteraan Elektrik, Hang Tuah Jaya
Pages: 54-61 Paper ID: 170304-1803-9292-IJMME-IJENS Published: June, 2018
Abstract: This paper presents PD/H-∞ integrated controller technique for position tracking and vibration suppression of flexible link manipulator (FLM) system. PD/H-∞ integrated controller has been designed to accurately track FLM system of 50 cm length and to suppress its vibration, then the length of the FLM system is increased to 65 cm and 80 cm in order to test the proposed controller robustness. Simulation results are simulated using MATLAB/Simulink software which demonstrated the robustness of PD/H-∞ integrated controller for position tracking and vibration suppression for different lengths of the FLM system. The features of this proposed controller are robust, easy to be designed and can increase or decrease the system transient response by manually change the PD controller parameters.
Keywords: Flexible Link Manipulator, PD/H-∞ integrated controller, position tracking, vibration suppression.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 827 KB
Title: Manufacturing and Analysis of Partial Foot Prosthetic for The Pirogoff Amputation
Author(s): Ayad M. Takhakh
Pages: 62-68 Paper ID: 183603-5959-IJMME-IJENS Published: June, 2018
Abstract: In this work, three types of laminated composite materials used for experimental study to investigate the tensile and fatigue properties of partial foot prosthetic socket which fabricated by using vacuum pressure system. The composite material matrix was Lamination 80:20and reinforced with nine types of laminations (perlon, fiber glass and carbon). Results of these tests showed that the mechanical properties of perlon were: Ϭy= 33.8Mpa, Ϭult=35.6MPa and E=1.037GPa. The test result of (3Perlon+3fiberglass+3perlon) layers were Ϭy= 55Mpa,Ϭult=55.4MPa, and E=1.57GPa. The test result of (hybrid CF-GF) layers were Ϭy= 112MPa, Ϭult=150MPa, and E=1.66GPa.The estimation of the internal pressure between the patient’s stump and prosthetic socket was measured using (F-socket) Mat scan sensor and high pressure values of (112Kpa) and (108Kpa) were recorded for the lateral and posterior sections respectively. The safety factors for composite material (3Perlon+3fiberglass+3perlon) layers is about (1.146) and for (hybrid CF-GF) layers is about(1.423) which are safe and acceptable in design applications.
Keywords: ---
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 589 KB
Title: Passive Control of Base Drag Employing Dimple in Subsonic Suddenly Expanded Flow
Author(s): S. A. Khan, Mohammed Asadullah, Jafar Sadhiq
Pages: 69-74 Paper ID: 181303-5757-IJMME-IJENS Published: June, 2018
Abstract: This paper presents an experimental and computational investigation to study the effectiveness of dimples to control the base pressure in Backward facing step (BFS) for various Nozzle pressure ratio (NPR) having Compressible flow to minimize the base drag. Two dimples of 3 mm diameter located at 1800 interval along pitch circle diameter of 23 mm in the base region was employed as passive controls. The test was conducted for NPR 1.27, 1.38, 1.52 and 1.69. The model is designed in such a way so as to provide four BFS with angle of incidence as 150 from which the flow suddenly expands to a square duct of 25 mm. The experimental investigation is carried out for different length of duct 4D≤L≤10D to see the influence of geometric parameter on base pressure. From the present investigation, it was found that dimples as passive control is very effective at higher NPR and the wall pressure distribution too was quite stable at higher NPR. Also the geometric parameter was found to influence the base pressure for a particular NPR. Computational investigation using commercial CFD tool shows pressure and velocity distribution profile for both dimple and non-dimple control. Tests are carried out by using Navier-stokes equation, Turbulence model as SST, Reynolds number (Re) =122.56×103. From this investigation it is clear that for a given nozzle pressure ratio one can find optimum L/D ratio which will result in maximum increase/decrease of base pressure and dimples can be effective passive controller for reducing base drag without disturbing the flow field.
Keywords: Backward Facing Step, Base Pressure, Wall Pressure, Nozzle Pressure Ratio, Passive Control.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 876 KB
Title: Design Parameters Estimation and Design Sensitivity Analysis in Manufacturing Process of Rubber Pad by Using Finite Element Technique
Author(s): Abbas Allawi Abbas, Maher Ali Hussein, Mohand Mosa Mohammad
Pages: 75-85 Paper ID: 183503-7272-IJMME-IJENS Published: June, 2018
Abstract: For this time being; one of the main approaches in mass production is to control both quality and raw material consuming by smart design and analysis method. Estimating and controlling the main design parameters which effects on the productivity and quality, with design sensitivity analysis to control and optimize the geometry topology is the important key for any efficient manufacturing process. This article introduces a work relating to manufacturing process of a rubber pad which used in many industrial applications like automobile and aerospace by using finite element analysis. An efficient model has been created for solving this manufacturing process by using FEM. Commercial software (ABAQUS/CAE) has been adopted in this research for developing a standard design based on finite element analysis. This analysis will includes estimating and finding the effects of updating and modifying the geometry according to stresses concentration, thereby finding and specifying the main effecting parameters to estimate and determine the appropriate geometry design. One of the main objectives is to alter or modify the geometry to minimum or lowering axial stresses values, which help for increasing the service life. Study of design sensitivity is very important in improving any design through analysis process. It has been found from simulation results that effects of radius influence on stress generation is more than the effects of changing in rubber thickness. This analysis will also provide important information’s to ensure that the values of strains and stresses will not exceed the maximum range and rest in acceptable limits. Simulation results can be used to validate the experimental results and establish a new design formula through comparison. It has been found that a good relation between simulation results and experimental results. In order to increase the stiffness of the unit; steel parts are normally used and attached with rubber in many structural applications to bond and support the structure. The bonding between steel part and rubber will be stronger than the rubber material and will be very efficient with good suitability to attach during molding process.
Keywords: ABAOUS, Rubber, Simulation, Manufacturing, Design and Analysis.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,083 KB
Title: Effects of Alkali Treatment on Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Composites Reinforced Kenaf Fibre using Compression Moulding Process
Author(s): N. F. ISMAIL, N. MUHAMAD, A. B. SULONG, & C. H. C. HARON
Pages: 86-95 Paper ID: 183703-4242-IJMME-IJENS Published: June, 2018
Abstract: Development of sustainable and renewable materials from natural resources, especially plant fibre, has drawn considerable attention instead of synthetic fibre due to environmental concerns. Thermoset reinforced natural filler composites still challenges in term of dispersion, distribution and interfacial bonding with polymer matrix. The aim of this study is to fabricate epoxy composite reinforced with kenaf fibre using a compression moulding technique. The composites were fabricated with different fibre loadings and various types of kenaf fibres (untreated and treated kenaf). The kenaf fibres were treatedwith a NaOH solution (6 wt%) at room temperature for 24 hours in order to remove the impurities from the surface. The effect of the alkali treatment on the properties of epoxy composite was investigated. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were deployed to study the thermal behaviour of untreated and treated kenaf/epoxy composites. Results of the TGA show that the untreated kenaf starts to decompose earlier compared to the treated kenaf. Reinforcement of untreated and treated kenaf in composites produces robust properties in terms of strength and microstructure. The addition of kenaf increases flexural properties by 25.95% compared to pure epoxy composite. Flexural strength shows a higher result at 50 wt% of fibre loading with an increment of 98.92% (untreated kenaf) and 135.14% (treated kenaf). Regarding the tensile strength, the reinforcement of 40 wt% of untreated kenaf shows higher tensile properties (49.29 MPa) with an increment of 25%.
Keywords: Polymer–matrix composites (PMC); alkali treatment; compression moulding; mechanical properties.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 648 KB
Title: Solvent De-Binding of Bi-Material Green Component of Two-Component Powder Injection Moulded Stainless Steel and Zirconia
Author(s): Ukwueze, Bonaventure Emeka, Abu Bakar Sulong, Norhamidi Muhamad, Zainuddin Sajuri
Pages: 96-104 Paper ID: 182403-9696-IJMME-IJENS Published: June, 2018
Abstract: Solvent de-binding is a critical step in implementation of a powder injection moulding process which may lead to defect formation, if neglected and cannot be reversed in subsequent stages. In this study, stainless steel (17-4PH) and zirconia (3YSZ) feedstocks were prepared based on two-binder system consisting of palm stearin (PS) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE). The rheological investigation of the feedstocks revealed that both of them possess characteristics suitable for injection moulding. The feedstocks were subsequently injected to form a bi-material component via two-component injection moulding process (2C-PIM). To predict the solvent optimum de-binding time, single and bi-material green components of SS17-4PH and 3YSZ were extracted in acetone. Next, the bi-materials were further pyrolyzed in argon environment and isothermally sintered for 2h at 1300oC in a vacuum atmosphere. SEM observations indicated no defects on the bi-materials.
Keywords: 2C-PIM: rheology: solvent de-binding: thermal de-binding: sintering
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 611 KB