IJENS Publisher Indexed In SCOPUS


Title: Optimization of HYDRO¨ıD Robot Foot
Author(s): Mohamad El Asswad, Samer AlFayad, Khaled Khalil
Pages: 1-8 Paper ID: 173203-1705-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2017
Abstract: This paper presents a design of a new deformable active foot for HYDRO¨ıD robot. First the foot is modeled using the theory of sandwich panel. Second the design parameters of the sandwich structure undergoes optimization process using genetic algorithm to get the optimum weight which verifies the mechanical and antropometric constraints. Third, the finite element method is used to obtain the stress and deformation of the optimum design waling of the robot. Meanwhile, the impacts at the heel is studied and a solution is proposed using the property of rubber material, to calculate the energy absorbed by foot at the heel strike. Finally, the new design is carried out using CATIA software and the first prototype is manufactured.
Keywords: Active foot, Sandwich Material, Optimization, Genetic Algorithm, Lagrangian Method, HYDRO¨ıD.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,829 KB
Title: Investigation of Temperature Distribution and Residual Deformation in the Hardening Process of Gear Honing Matrix with Laser Heating
Author(s): Guoxing Liang, Yang Han, Kang Du, Donggang Liu, Zhili Li
Pages: 9-18 Paper ID: 172005-6363-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2017
Abstract: Based on SYSWELD finite element code, Gauss heat source was chosen to describe the laser energy. A three-dimensional finite element model for gear honing tool with laser brazing was created. The temperature distribution and strain field distribution of AISI 1045 steel gear honing tool were calculated and analyzed by different laser scanning path. The simulation results showed that the temperature of each node was basically the same when the heat source is sequentially loaded in the condition of the laser power is 300 W and the moving speed is 4 mm/s. The temperature gradient is large when the loaded path is arch. The strain trends of the two loading modes are the same. Experiment was carried out under the same condition as the simulation. The tooth profile and lead were measured after laser processing by gear detecting instrument. The experiment results are basically consistent with the simulation results.
Keywords: Strain field; laser brazing; temperature field; gear honing tool; finite element method
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,434 KB
Title: Flow Velocity and Crack Angle Effect on Vibration and Flow Characterization for Pipe Induce Vibration
Author(s): Muhannad Al-Waily, Maher A. R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi, Rasha Hayder Al-Khayat
Pages: 19-27 Paper ID: 172405-8989-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2017
Abstract: The flow through the pipe is effect on the vibration of the pipe and it is effect on the pipe frequency. The pipe frequency is therefore dependent on the velocity and properties of the liquid flow through the pipe. Then, the studying of flow induced vibration is very necessary of pipe structure application. In addition to, the crack found at the pipe influenced on the flow distribution and pipe frequency, therefore, the crack direction is very impartment factor its effect on the pipe frequency. Then, in this study investigate the effect of velocity flow and crack parameters as length and orientation, for crack in longitudinal direction, on the pipe frequency and effect of crack on the flow distribution, where it is supported as simply supported pipe condition. Where, results of vibration pipe behavior evaluate by using experimental and numerical technique by using finite element method (using CFD technique), and then, comparison the results with its. Also, the comparison of data shows that the maximum error between experimental and finite element method is not exact (10.5%). Finally, the results shown the pipe frequency is affect with various crack pipe length and orientation and the minimum effect of crack at longitudinal crack orientation. Also, the study included shown the effect of crack on the deformation and mode shape of pipe with different crack length and orientation. In addition to, the investigation shows the increase for flow velocity of flow cause decreasing the frequency of flow.
Keywords: Flow Induces Vibration, Crack Pipe, Longitudinal Crack, CFD Crack Pipe Vibration, Finite Element Vibration Pipe, Oblique Crack Effect, Velocity Effect on Pipe Vibration.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 896 KB
Title: Harmonic Contribution Analysis of Electric Arc Furnace by Using Spectrogram
Author(s): M. H Jopri, A. R Abdullah, M Manap, MR Ab Ghani, N. H Saleh
Pages: 28-36 Paper ID: 175903-6262-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2017
Abstract: A fast and accurate detection of the harmonic and interharmonic contribution of electric arc furnace (EAF) is crucial in identifying and to mitigate the undesired effects to the system. In this paper, spectrogram, a fast and accurate technique is introduced for the analysis of the contribution. Based on a rule-based classifier and the threshold settings that referred to the IEEE Standard 1159 2009, the analysis of the harmonic and interharmonic contribution of EAF are carried out successfully. Moreover, the impact of contribution is measured using total harmonic distortion (THD) and total non-harmonic distortion (TnHD). In addition, spectrogram also gives 100 percent correct detection and able to analyze the contribution impact. It is proven that the proposed method is accurate, fast and cost efficient for analyzing the impact of harmonic and interharmonic of EAF.
Keywords: Harmonic, Interharmonic, Spectrogram, Electric Arc Furnace
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,107 KB
Title: Design of EMG Acquisition Circuit to Control an Antagonistic Mechanism Actuated by Pneumatic Artificial Muscles PAMs
Author(s): Hassan AlImam, Nibras Abo Alzahab, M. MouathAlkhayat
Pages: 37-47 Paper ID: 172505-9393-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2017
Abstract: A pneumatically actuated antagonistic pair of muscles with joint mechanism (APMM) is supported and developed to be essential for bionic and biomimetic applications to emulate the biological muscles by realizing various kinds of locomotion based on normal electrical activity of biological muscles. This Paper aims to compare the response of antagonistic pairs of muscles mechanism (APMM) based on the pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) to an EMG signal that was acquired throw a designed circuit and an EMG Laboratory acquisition kit. The response is represented as a joint rotary displacement generated by the contraction and extension of the pneumatic artificial muscles. A statistical study was done to prove the efficiency of the designed circuit the response of antagonistic pairs of muscles mechanism. The statistical result showed that there is no significant difference of voltage data in both EMG acquired signal between reference kit and designed circuit. An excellent correlation behavior between the EMG control signal and the response of APMM as an angular displacement has been discussed and statistically analyzed.
Keywords: Pneumatic Artificial Muscles, Biomechatronics, Electromyogram EMG, Pneumatic Proportional Directional Control Valve, Signal Processing, Bionic.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,180 KB
Title: Dynamic Prediction of Laminated Glass Plate Based on Higher-Order Plate Finite Element
Author(s): Kook Chan Ahn
Pages: 48-52 Paper ID: 172605-7474-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2017
Abstract: A drop weight impact on laminated glass plate like automotive windshield can be caused the reduction of the strength of the material of window glass plate. Dynamic predictions on automotive windshield like laminated glass are approached by the use of a refined finite element formulation based on Reddy’s Higher-order Shear Deformation Theory (HSDT) in conjunction with Hertz’s contact law and Dharani's PVB interlayer model. This higher-order plate theory contains the same dependent unknowns as in Whitney and Pagano’s First-order Shear Deformation Theory (FSDT), and accounts for parabolic distribution of the transverse shear strains through the thickness of the plate. And also, this theory requires no shear correction coefficients and predicts the deflections and stresses more accurately when compared to FSDT. Consequently, dynamic predictions like deflection, kinetic energy, wave fronts and in-plane stress in monolithic glass plate are a few sensitive than those of laminated glass plate and prone to more fracture risk. But we can see that the variation of PVB thickness of laminated glass plate does not affect so much on dynamic responses. These results present a similar trend with those of simulation by using FSDT and very small differences in its magnitudes of every simulation. That is, we can’t see so much difference in application of macroscopic behaviors for laminated glass plate between HSDT and FSDT.
Keywords: Dynamic prediction, Automotive windshield, Higher-order shear deformation theory, PVB interlayer model.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 750 KB
Title: Design and Analysis of Disturbance Force Observer for Milling Cutting Force Compensation
Author(s): M. Maharof, Z. Jamaludin, M. Minhat, N. A. Anang, T. H. Chiew, J. Jamaludin
Pages: 53-59 Paper ID: 172604-1705-5858-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2017
Abstract: External disturbances acting on a drive system affect its tracking performance. In milling machine, cutting forces generated from the physical interaction between cutting tool and the workpiece exerts additional loads to the drive system and if not properly damped, could lead to significant contour error and reduced quality of the finished product. This paper focuses on design and analysis of cascade P/PI position controller and an inverse-model-based disturbance observer (IMBDO) for disturbance forces compensation in milling machine. The position controller was designed based on gain margin and phase margins consideration of the open loop transfer function and system bandwidth. IMBDO was added-on to the control structure for disturbance estimation and compensation using difference between control input signal and signal obtained from filtered system output with the inverse of the plant model. Two control configurations were considered, namely; cascade P/PI and cascade P/PI with IMBDO. This paper presents both numerical and experimental results of the two designed control configurations performed on an XY milling table using measured cutting force. Results showed that cascade P/PI with IMBDO produced 48.78% less tracking error compared to cascade P/PI alone. Fast Fourier Transform analysis performed on the position tracking error of cascade P/PI with IMBDO showed that at frequency 26Hz, where errors were reduced by 76.32% followed at frequency 51.33Hz a reduction of 67.59% in the amplitude of the cutting force harmonics.
Keywords: Cascade controller, Disturbance observer, Cutting force, Disturbance compensation.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 789 KB
Title: Vision Based for Classification of MIG Butt Welding Joint Defect Using Occurrence Matrices and Gray Absolute Histogram
Author(s): Hairol Nizam Mohd Shah, Marizan Sulaiman, Ahmad Zaki Shukor, Zalina Kamis, Mohd Zamzuri Ab Rashid
Pages: 60-66 Paper ID: 170105-9898-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2017
Abstract: This paper will introduced a new approach of vision which is enable to overcome the problems in the vision inspection systems. This system uses 2D gray pixels coocurrence matrix and gray absolute histogram of edge amplitude as the input features extract from the MIG butt welding joints. Images of the welding surfaces are captured using one CCD camera that is mounted on the top which is parallel with the work benches. The images are segmented and the 2D gray value coocurrence matrix consists of energy, correlation, homogeneity and contract, and absolute histogram of the characteristic feature in these images will be calculated. The same process will be applied in zooming image factor by 0.5 to calculated the next characteristic feature values. Finally both feature value is used as the input value in GMM and MLP classifier to classify the welds defect into three categories which are good weld, excess weld and insufficient weld. Results are taken from the 18 MIG butt welding joints samples were tested in overall accuracy recognition rate for MLP is 94.4 % while for GMM is 83.3%. In terms of total computation time, the overall time for MLP is 1.96 m/s and GMM is 1.175 m/s.
Keywords: Occurrence Matrices, Gray Absolute Histogram, Multi-Layer Perceptrons (MLP), Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM), MIG Butt Welding Joint Defect.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 453 KB
Title: Corrosion resistance on Al-12Si-xZrC composites using acid mediums
Author(s): Fradaric John. C, Christu Paul. R, Christopher Ezhil Singh. S, Sengottuvel. P
Pages: 67-74 Paper ID: 170205-6363-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2017
Abstract: This paper is to investigate the corrosion behavior of Zirconium Carbide (ZrC) reinforced Al - Si metal matrix composites (MMCs) in a mixture of acidic medium using weight loss method. The composites are prepared by powder metallurgy method. Al – 12Si – x ZrC composites containing 0, 5, 10 and 15 weight percentage of ZrC particles are compacted in a die set assembly and sintered in an inert gas muffle furnace. The acidic mediums used for corrosion is 1 N HCl, 1 N H2SO4 and 1 N HNO3. The corrosion characteristics of Al – 12Si – x ZrC composites and the Al were experimentally evaluated. The corrosion test was carried out at different weight proportions of the samples in various concentrations of the acid such as 1 N HCl, 1 N H2SO4 and 1 N HNO3 for different exposure time (i.e., 24h, 72h, 144h and 216h) respectively. The results specified that corrosion rate of composites was lower than that of base metal Al under the corrosive atmosphere regardless of exposure time and acidic mediums used as corrodent. Al – 12Si – x ZrC composites become more corrosion resistant as the ZrC content is increased. This is because of the development of stable oxide layer above the specimens. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) confirms the degree of attack of acidic medium on the surface of the examined material.
Keywords: Al-Si-ZrC composites; Powder metallurgy; weight loss method; corrosion rate; SEM.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,332 KB
Title: Pollution Reduction from Spark Ignition Engine Exhaust Gasses by Secondary Air Injection System
Author(s): Muthana L. Abdullah, Waleed A. Majeed, Salah H. Abid Aun
Pages: 75-83 Paper ID: 172805-4343-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2017
Abstract: There have been unacceptable emissions generated by combustion in automobiles engines and by all internal combustion engines polluting the environment and increasing the heat of the atmosphere, and causing acid rain, fog, odors and many health problems. The main reasons lying behind these emissions could be chemically incorrect combustion, nitrogen decomposition, and/or unclean fuel or air. The resultant pollutants are hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur and solid carbon particles. NOx, HC, and CO are the most exhaust gases which cause toxicity and contamination of the environment. Thus, this pollution is no longer acceptable under the modern technology and its development. Consequently, the treatment of exhaust gases as to reduce pollutants has become a very essential task and should require laws and regulations to stop pollutants from overpassing the specific rates of these pollutants. It has appeared that the extensive use of catalytic or thermal converters; the catalytic converter needs a temperature so that it can work. For helping the catalyst and prolonging its life, it has been designed air injection system at different velocities (0, 3, 56.7, 66.8 km/h) and different temperatures (25, 55, 65℃). This system is to pump the air inside the exhaust pipe directly from a four- petrol engine with a single four-petrol cylinder, without using the catalytic-convertor. It has been concentrated on calculating values of three most toxic gases NOx, CO, and HC at a different speed of the engine (1100, 1600, 2500 rpm) and for a different engine torque (2, 4, 6, 8, 10 N.m). It has been indicated that the use of this system has caused a reduction in concentrations of these gases, where its values have been measured pre and post-use of this system. The ratio of reduction of NOx, HC, and CO at different speeds of injected air was 51.6%, 48%, 91%; 90.1%, 79.6%, 94.7%; and 87.7%, 82.4%, 88% at temperatures of 25, 55, 65 oC, respectively. In regard to the injection air speed, the reduction was 90.8%, 61.9%, 35%; 65.3%, 25.3%, 57%; and 79.5%, 57.6%, 55.9% for injected air speed of 3 km/h, 56.7 km/h, and 66.8 km/h, respectively.
Keywords: SI engine, emission, secondary air injection system, pollutants.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 594 KB
Title: Determining the Temperature of Shale Material Conversion Into Crude Oil Based on Organic Clay and Organic Carbonate Test Outside Reservoir
Author(s): Ordas Dewanto, Bagus S Mulyanto, Rustadi, Rahmat C Wibowo
Pages: 84-89 Paper ID: 173105-4848-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2017
Abstract: The amount of shale material in Indonesia is so plentiful, so it is expected in the next few years there will be available many sources of oil and gas. If we wait the process of shale material changes into oil and gas, it obviously will require a long time. Therefore in this reseach, the process of converting shale material into oil and gas will be carried out in the laboratory. The result of its exploration and exploitation, which is in the form of shale material, will be heated to a certain temperature , the content of its organic material reacts and produces energy which can be utilized as fuel as a subtitute of oil and gas. The waste of the process is also very useful for human life. Four shale materials used has a TOC value of ≥ 12%, which are 12.02%, 12.42%, 12.57% and 12.58%. These values are already qualified as oil shale. The time to change the shale material (organic-clay and organic-carbonate) into oil and gas, is determined by the characteristics of the shale material, which are: immature hydrocarbon substance that has API gravity and boiling point which is close to the boiling point of petroleum. The heating process at temperature of 200OC to 400OC changes the subtance into shale material with low boiling point, this is due to its high API degree so it contains alot of light fractions such as gasoline, hence its boiling point is low. The heating process affects the characteristics of flash point of the shale material. The process of change requires a short time around 15 hours, so it is very efficient processing method outside reservoir, although further research need to be done to make it more perfect.
Keywords: shale material, TOC, organic clay, organic carbonate, oil shale.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 907 KB
Title: Comparative Study of Performance and Exhaust Emissions of a Diesel Engine Fueled with Algal, Used Cooked and Jatropha Oils Biodiesel Mixtures
Author(s): Farouk K. El-Baz, M. S. Gad, Sayeda M. Abdo, H. M. Abu Hashish
Pages: 90-100 Paper ID: 173705-4949-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2017
Abstract: The continuous increase in energy demand, consumption of fossil fuels, exhaust emissions and global warming, all these led to search for alternative fuels. Biodiesel was produced from different feedstocks such as algae, used cooked oil and Jatropha oils by transesterification process. Biodiesel blends of 10 and 20% volume percentages from different feedstocks were prepared. Physical and chemical properties of biodiesel blends of B10 and B20 were close to diesel oil. These experimental tests were run on a diesel engine at different engine loads from zero to full load. Performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine burning blends of biodiesel and diesel fuels were studied.Biodiesel blends achieved increases in exhaust gas temperatures and specific fuel consumptions and decreases in thermal efficiencies compared to diesel fuel. Reductions in CO, NOx and smoke emissions for biodiesel blends compared to diesel fuel were shown. Biodiesel blends produced from S. obliquusalgae used cooked oil and Jatropha biodiesel blends of B10 and B20 showed higher performance and less exhaust emissions compared to diesel fuel and other blends.
Keywords: Microalgae- Used cooked oil- Jatropha- Biodiesel- Performance- Exhaust emissions.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 458 KB
Title: Nucleate Pool Boiling of Liquid Nitrogen on a Brass Ribbon with Different Positions
Author(s): K. Bouazaoui, M. Dlimi, R. Agounoun, K. Sbai, A. Zoubir, I. Kadiri, M. Rahmoune, R. Saadani
Pages: 101-108 Paper ID: 173805-2424-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2017
Abstract: The nucleate boiling is a phenomenon of heat transfer which occupies an important place in the industrial sector particularly in the areas of electric power generation and refrigeration, because it enables to reach high flux densities with relatively low temperatures differences. To quantify the thermal exchanges in pool boiling, an experiment of steady and transient nucleate boiling is carried on liquid nitrogen from a brass ribbon fixed in the two vertical and horizontal positions and subjected to different heat flux densities. The initial conditions for the nucleation sites activation are carried out with a heat flux corresponding to 90% of the critical flux. In addition, the wall superheat variation was recorded and controlled. Moreover, the influence of different ribbon positions on the boiling triggering time, superheat of triggering and critical flux density has been investigated.
Keywords: Experimental study, Pool boiling, Liquid nitrogen, Superheat on triggering, Critical flux density.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 668 KB
Title: Effects of Cracks on the Frequency Response of a Simply Supported Pipe Conveying Fluid
Author(s): M. J. Jweeg, E. Q. Hussein, K. I. Mohammed
Pages: 109-113 Paper ID: 174505-6262-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2017
Abstract: The basic idea of this work emerged by examining the conditions of the pipes in case the crack is generated and continued to expand until it leads to the flow of liquid from the pipe and causes heavy losses, especially if the liquid is a combustible material. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of this crack on the frequency produced by the vibration of the pipe and whether the crack can be detected by using frequency as an indication of the existence of the crack. A plastic pipe was taken within a known laboratory specification; pipe dimension was taken (20mm internal diameter and 30mm external diameter). The finite element method using COMSUL program was employed. Water flow was used with certain speeds 0.5 m/sec and 1.5 m/sec. A well-known position of the crack was selected in 0.25L, 0.375L and 0.5L where L is the pipe length with the depth (1.5mm, 2.5mm, 3.5mm and 4.5mm) from the pipe thickness. It was found that the frequency of the simply supported pipe decreases more and more if the crack depth is increased. The maximum discrepancy percentage between the experimental, analytical and numerical solution was (11.98%).
Keywords: Frequency, crack, pipe, velocity, flow, vibration.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 667 KB
Title: Study of Fatigue Crack Propagation in the Austenitic Stainless Steel 304L
Author(s): M. Azouggagh, A. Nebgui, O. Oussouaddi, M. Haterbouch, and A. Zeghloul
Pages: 114-120 Paper ID: 170705-4848-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2017
Abstract: The main aim of the present work was to study the fatigue crack propagation rate in the austenitic stainless steel 304L. A model combining the energy density and the critical plane method was used in order to quantify the fatigue damage. The material behavior under cyclic loading was modeled using Lemaitre-Chaboche’s law which includes the concept of combined isotropic and nonlinear kinematic hardening. This model was implemented in the commercial finite element code ABAQUS/ Standard via a user material subroutine (UMAT). The simulation results obtained for a normalized specimen of type CT-W50 were used to determine the fatigue crack propagation rate for different values of the loading ratio R. The influence of the overloads were also studied.
Keywords: Crack propagation, Low cycle fatigue, austenitic stainless steel 304L, FEM.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 787 KB
Title: Enhancement the Heat Transfer Coefficient for Three-Phase Flow (water, gasoil, air) Through a Rectangular Channel by Triangular Ribs
Author(s): Riyadh S. Al-Turaihi, Hassanein J. Al-wared
Pages: 121-141 Paper ID: 174705-8989-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2017
Abstract: Heat transfer inside vertical rectangular channel for three-phase flow (water-gasoil-air) over triangular ribs have been investigated experimentally and numerically. Four values of water superficial velocity, three values of gasoil superficial velocity and three values of air superficial velocity with three values of heat flux have been investigated. Ansys fluent 15.0 and standard k- ε mixture model have been done for numerical study. Also, determining dimensionless roughness parameter such as rib height to hydraulic diameter ratio (e/Dh) and rib pitch to rib height ratio (P/e) have been done numerically. Conservation equation of continuity, momentum and energy was solved for the same variables that used experimentally. The local heat transfer coefficient results were found experimentally and compared with the computational results and they were in good agreement with a deviation of about (2.092 % - 14.657 %) for case effect water superficial velocity, about (2.58% - 17.545%) for case effect gasoil superficial velocity and about (1.588 % -16.594 %) for case effect air superficial velocity.
Keywords: Heat transfer; three-phase flow; ribs; vertical rectangular channel; dimensionless roughness parameter.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,705 KB
Title: Dynamics Friction Distribution at Disc-Pad Contact and its Effect on Brake Pad Vibratio
Author(s): Muhammad Zahir Hassan, Kumaresan Magaswaran, Fudhail Abdul Munir, Musthafah Mohd Tahir
Pages: 142-147 Paper ID: 170405-6868-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2017
Abstract: An automotive disc brake system is a friction brake of which friction-induced vibration is inevitable. This paper experimentally investigates the friction distributions on the brake disc and pad as in contact during braking period. These distributions are related to the brake pads vibrational deformation to observe its friction induced relationship. A validated mathematical model is then used to extract the friction distributions and the brake pad deformation data simultaneously. The obtained brake pad deformation and the friction distributions are plotted as a function of time to observe the changes in its characteristics during braking as the braking duration increases. The results show that the friction distributions are in dynamic and non-linear relationship with the pad and the disc contacts. Consequently, such inter-dependency strongly affects the vibrational deformation of the brake pad during braking.
Keywords: Automotive Braking noise Deformation Disc brake Pad Friction-induced vibration.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 412 KB
Title: Single Link Bilateral Haptics Control with PD Controller and Geared DC-Motor in Robotic Rehabilitation Technology
Author(s): Sari Abdo Ali, Muhammad Fahmi Miskon
Pages: 148-155 Paper ID: 171505-4848-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2017
Abstract: This paper presents a primary results in bilateral control as a human machine interaction. The purposed method of the research is to develop a system that synchronize two systems by copy the position and the force of a system and implement in the other. The bilateral controller will be applied in rehabilitation robot. In previous researches, the rehabilitation robots is designed using trajectories of walking which limit the robot to single way of motion. The control system contains PD controller and master and slave teleoperation system, four channel control architecture, disturbance observer DOB and reaction force observer RFOB. The master manipulator is attached to human operator. The slave manipulator is attached to a patient. The slave system will produce similar motion as the master manipulator with the same position and force. The paper shows the methodology followed to implement the system as well as the hardware and the results.
Keywords: DC-motor modelling, PD controller, haptic control. Haptic teleoperation.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 621 KB
Title: An Anisotropic Deformation Analysis of Orthotropic Materials Subjected to High Velocity Impacts
Author(s): M. K. Mohd Nor, N. Ma’at, H. C. Sin
Pages: 156-172 Paper ID: 173205-6161-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2017
Abstract: A finite strain constitutive model to predict a complex elastoplastic deformation behaviour involves very high pressures and shockwaves in orthotropic materials is developed in this work. The important feature of the proposed hyperelastic-plastic constitutive model is a Mandel stress tensor combined with the new generalised orthotropic pressure. The formulation is developed in the isoclinic configuration and allows for a unique treatment for elastic and plastic orthotropy. The elastic orthotropy is taken into account through a stress tensor decomposition combined with the new pressure. A yield surface of Hill’s yield criterion aligned uniquely within the principal stress space is adopted to characterise plastic orthotropy by means of the evolving structural tensors. An isotropic hardening is adopted to define the evolution of plastic orthotropy. The formulation is further combined with a shock equation of state (EOS) and Grady spall failure model to predict shockwave propagation and spall failure in the materials, respectively. The proposed constitutive model is implemented as a new material model in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)-DYNA3D code of UTHM’s version. The ability of the newly constitutive model to describe finite strain deformation and shock propagation in orthotropic materials is first investigated against plate impact data of aluminium alloy in the longitudinal and transverse directions before a comparison against plate impact test data of carbon fibre reinforced epoxy composites along the through-thickness direction is finally conducted. A good agreement is obtained in each test.
Keywords: Elastoplastic Deformation; Shockwave Propagation; Orthotropic Materials; Aluminium Alloy; Carbon Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Composites.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,238 KB
Title: Fractional-Order Filter Design for Set-point Weighted PID Controlled Unstable Systems
Author(s): Kishore Bingi, Rosdiazli Ibrahim, Mohd Noh Karsiti, Sabo Miya Hassan
Pages: 173-179 Paper ID: 170605-9494-IJMME-IJENS Published: October, 2017
Abstract: Control of unstable systems with conventional PID controllers gives poor set-point tracking and disturbance rejection performance. The use of set-point weighted PID controllers (SWPID) to improve the control performance with respect to set-point tracking and disturbance rejection have been attempted. This is due to the fact that, SWPID will reduce proportional and derivative kicks in the control action. However, the control signal of SWPID controller is still inheriting the PID’s undesired oscillations in the control signal. This leads to faster degradation of actuators. In this work, a fractional-order low-pass filter is designed alongside SWPID controller for unstable systems. Incorporating such filter will help to reduce undesired oscillations. The result’s comparison shows that the performance of SWPID with fractional-order filter is better compared to its performance with an integer-order filter. This is true for all the three unstable systems considered.
Keywords: Fractional-order Filter, PID Controller, Set-point Weighting, Unstable System, Noise.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 3,340 KB