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Title: Nonlinear PID Triple Hyperbolic Controller Design for XY Table Ball-screw Drive System
Author(s): S. C. K. Junoh, S. N. S. Salim, L.Abdullah, N. A. Anang, T. H. Chiew, Z. Retas
Pages: 1-10 Paper ID: 173303-5858-IJMME-IJENS Published: June, 2017
Abstract: This paper presents an enhancement of a nonlinear PID (NPID) controller for the purpose of improving the tracking performance of an XY Table Ball-screw drive system. The new proposed control strategy which is known as NPID triple hyperbolic controller is introduced in this study. The hyperbolic algorithm of the nonlinear proportional is designed by constructing a smaller nonlinear gain when the error is small and vice versa. Meanwhile, two reciprocal hyperbolic algorithms are utilized for a nonlinear integral and nonlinear derivative. The key attribute is it will produce a smaller nonlinear gain when a higher error is released. In order to demonstrate the stability of this proposed controller, Popov stability criterion is utilized. The effectiveness of the proposed controller is verified based on the maximum tracking error and root mean square error (RMSE). The results of the proposed controller show a better tracking accuracy with an improvement of 50.58% and 36.97% compared to the NPID controller and PID controller respectively. The recommendation for future work is in term of the implementation of the optimization technique to further improve the transient aspect of this work.
Keywords: Conventional PID, maximum tracking error, NPID, proposed NPID triple hyperbolic, RMSE
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 748 KB
Title: Adaptive Hybrid Regressor and Approximation Control of Robotic Manipulators in Constrained Space
Author(s): Hayder F. N. Al-Shuka, R. Song
Pages: 11-21 Paper ID: 171203-5959-IJMME-IJENS Published: June, 2017
Abstract: This paper attempts to combine the features of both the regressor and the approximation techniques in adaptive control. The regressor technique is a powerful tool for adaptive control of the known structure of modeling while the approximation is useful for estimation of time-varying uncertainty. Therefore, this paper proposes adaptive hybrid regressor and approximation control for robots in constrained space. The control law consists of three terms: (i) regressor term for initial estimation of the known structure of the robot dynamics, e.g. inertia matrix, Coriolis and centripetal matrix and gravity vector, and (ii) approximation term for estimation of internal and external disturbances resulted from the inexact calculation of regressor matrix and unknown modeling of friction, etc, and (iii) robust term consists of switching sgn(.) function. The control law is designed based on updating the uncertain parameters and the weighting coefficients corresponding to regressor and approximation respectively with position/force tracking purposes. The proposed controller is stable in the sense of Lyapunov stability and applied to 2-link manipulator moving along a circular arc. The coordinates partition is performed for model reduction of the constraint dynamics of the investigated robot. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed controller for dealing with miscellaneous disturbances.
Keywords: Adaptive control; regressor; approximation; intelligent control; disturbance compensation.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 618 KB
Title: Effect of Substitution ION Titanium and Mangan on the Microstructure, Magnet Properties and Microwave Absorption of Barium Hexaferrite with Milling and High-Pressure Ultrasonic Method
Author(s): Novizal, Musfirah, C. F. T, Elda Rayhana
Pages: 22-29 Paper ID: 172003-5959-IJMME-IJENS Published: June, 2017
Abstract: In this research, We report the magnetic properties of BaFe12O19 (BHF) as a based material by substitution of (Ti2+-Mn2+) ions, in the composition of x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8, to determine magnetically and microwave absorption effects on BHF materials. The material preparation was made by milling and high-pressure ultrasonic method. By PSA and XRD analysis, we obtained the particle size of 200-400 nm and the crystal size of < 70 nm. To reduce BHF particle size, the material was being re-milling into 4 hours and after being in a state of powder crystal, followed by sonication process into 6 hours. We obtained the particle size in the composition of x = 0.0 was in the range of 49.21 nm and in the composition of x = 0.6 and x = 0.8 was in the range of 120.2 nm to 209.5 nm. The morphology of the microstructure of the material particles is shown in the SEM results, was in range 200-500 nm. The magnetic properties of the material were analyzed by using Permagraph EP 3 magnetometer. Data obtained by the analysis showing that by increasing the value of the composition of a substitution impaired the coercivity (282,54 kA/m to 9,81 kA/m). The reduction of particle size from 200 to 50 nm through sonication, give the change of magnetic properties from the permanent magnet to soft magnet, which characterized by decreasing the value of coercivity with increasing substitution composition. The properties also have the effect on the absorption of microwaves that the absorption peaks are shifted to a lower frequency as a result of a decrease in coercivity and reduction in particle size.
Keywords: BHF, substitution, crystal size, nanoparticle, absorption.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 452 KB
Title: Effect of Variation in Outlet Air Grilles location on Thermal Comfort and Air Flow Patterns
Author(s): Ala'a Abbas Mahdi, Muna hameed Al tuarihi
Pages: 30-38 Paper ID: 172203-6868-IJMME-IJENS Published: June, 2017
Abstract: In this paper experimental and CFD modeling were performed to obtain the indoor air quality and human thermal comfort by using three direction air supply diffuser with three different locations of return air grilles. The experimental study was performed to investigate how the use of the three different arrangement would effect on thermal environment inside a tested room of dimensions (3×4×3.2) m used as an office room. The results of the experimental study were used to validate the CFD simulations. The boundary conditions for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) study were obtained from the same set-up measurement at a Reynolds number of 12239 for three direction-square displacement ventilation system. Realizable, k-ε turbulence models are evaluated to show how the shape and location of return grilles would affect the air quality and thermal environment in the room. The supply air velocity and temperature for each case study was calculated depending on heat gain inside space under Iraqi climate. The supply air device has been chosen according to the data provided by manufactures depending on supply airflow rate in order to avoid drafts. The results concluded that the arrangements at an office room for both the air supply diffuser and return air grille on the same side wall orientation gives accepted thermal human comfortable depending on the magnitude of air distribution performance index (ADPI) and effectiveness temperature(ɛt) which gives(66.76%) and(1.82) respectively.The percentage of relative humidity which gives approximated converged values between all the three cases.
Keywords: three direction air supply diffuser, return air grille, ANSYS Program-14, Air Distribution Performance Index, effectiveness temperature, relative humidity, temperature distribution.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,225 KB
Title: Modeling & Optimization of Laser Beam Drilling Process Using Genetic Algorithm
Author(s): G. Harinath Gowd, U. Nagaraju, P. Rajesh, T. Vishnu Vardhan
Pages: 39-47 Paper ID: 170303-5656-IJMME-IJENS Published: June, 2017
Abstract: Laser beam machining is one of the modern manufacturing method in this a light can passes to the work material with a high intensity then the material from the stock can be removed and removed molten metal can be ablated by using some gases like Argon, Nitrogen and Oxygen. The execution of any machining operation with best quality is mostly depends on identifying the influenced design variables. The heat affected zone, conical angle of hole, hole taperness, surface roughness..etc. for the desired output responses from the Laser beam drilling operation. In this research, the optimization of hole geometry like as hole diameter at entrance, hole diameter at exit and hole taper are using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Genetic Algorithm (GA). The effects of input variables on the hole diameter at entrance and hole taper are reverse, the problem is expressed as a multi-objective optimization problem.
Keywords: ND:YAG Laser beam drilling, Empirical modeling, Response Surface methodology, Genetic Algorithm.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 847 KB
Title: Numerical Simulation of Forging Process for Steam Turbine Blade
Author(s): Chuan-wei Zhang, Lin-yang Li, Zhi-hui Zheng
Pages: 48-52 Paper ID: 171603-2525-IJMME-IJENS Published: June, 2017
Abstract: AS is known to all, Steam turbine blade boundary layer is very thin, which requires higher surface roughness. In addition, the improper handling of the blade inlet and outlet side has a great influence on the aerodynamic performance. In order to solve the above problems, the blade machining method was adopted. DEFORM-3D and rigid plastic finite element method were used to analyze the forging process of steam turbine blade. Finally we got the maximum stress point tracking, a typical section of equivalent strain and load stroke curve. The results show that: Round section billet is a better choice.
Keywords: Steam turbine blade, Rigid plastic finite element method, DEFORM-3D, Forging process.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 600 KB
Title: Forward Kinematics Modelling and Verification of a 3-DOF Cable Driven Ankle Rehabilitation Robot
Author(s): M. N. Shah, S. N. Basah, K. S. Basaruddin, W. K. W. Ahmad
Pages: 53-63 Paper ID: 173403-6969-IJMME-IJENS Published: June, 2017
Abstract: Ankle injury is one of physical injury that commonly occurs in physical related activities especially in sports. Currently, there are established treatments for ankle rehabilitation at the hospital. This treatment involves range of motion exercise and endurance exercise. However, current treatment requires patients to visit to hospital frequently which is very repetitive in nature. One of the solutions to deal with repetitiveness of the treatment is by introducing an automated device such as a robot to help therapist to perform this repetitive task on the patients. For this task, a concept design for a cable driven ankle rehabilitation robot has been proposed. The focus of this paper is to present forward kinematics analysis of the proposed concept design of the robot. This approach is aimed to determine the feasibility of the concept design. Then, testing and verification through motion capture camera is taken to test the feasibility of the Forward Kinematics calculation. Based on the results, majority of the samples had recorded satisfactory results in verifying the FK calculation. Overall, analysis of forward kinematics of the proposed robot are still important to predict the trajectory paths of the moving platform of the robot in order to determine suitable dimension of the design for fabrication in the later stage of the robot.
Keywords: Cable driven robot, Ankle injury, Forward kinematics.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 662 KB
Title: Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF) Severity Detection by Using Neural Network Technique based on Human Blood Components
Author(s): Dian Pratiwi, Anung Barlianto Ariwibowo
Pages: 64-71 Paper ID: 175303-4242-IJMME-IJENS Published: June, 2017
Abstract: Generally, in the diagnosis of dengue fever, the action taken by the doctor is to see the external symptoms that arise. From these actions, to ensure the disease that arises then will be continued by taking blood samples. From these results can be sure what disease is suffered and as bad as what conditions, where the analysis can be done only by a specialist. This is the basis of the researchers to develop a system to analyze dengue fever, where the severity of the disease is determined based on the value of eight components of cells in the blood through the method of Perceptron Artificial Neural Network. This study consists of three main stages, namely laboratory data collection, data normalization with Min-Max method, and severity of dengue disease measurement through neural network. First, all data collection normalized to change the input value interval from eight different blood components to the same interval, which is between 0 to 1. After that, the data is processed into the network training stage to get the weights. These weights are then used in the testing phase along with the testing data to obtain the diagnostic results of the severity of dengue fever. From the testing result of system using parameter of learning rate equal to 0.3, tolerance value of 0.02, 8 input units, 2 output units, binary activation function with threshold equal to 0.5, and number of training sample as much as 20 data, maximum accuracy reached by system le 80%, which 8 out of 10 data successfully predicted the severity level correctly (according to doctor’s diagnosis). Therefore, it can be concluded that the application system developed can be applied to help doctors or other medical parties in determining the severity of dengue fever based on the results of blood testing with a fairly good percentage of accuracy, so it can be quickly handled as well as appropriate treatment provided.
Keywords: Blood,Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever, Min-Max Normalization, Neural Network.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 805 KB
Title: Experimental and Numerical Investigation of External Geneva Wheel Mechanism with Four Slots Manufacturing from Polycarbonate Material
Author(s): Ali Abdul Hadi Tuama, Majid Habeeb Faidh-Allah
Pages: 72-81 Paper ID: 175503-8484-IJMME-IJENS Published: June, 2017
Abstract: With a view to achieve the aim of this search, the experimental works are divided into three parts. The first part of the experimental work described the manufacturing of Geneva wheel mechanism and photo-elasticity rig made of (ACRYLIC FIBERS) used in the photo-elasticity test to apply appropriate force, fixed Geneva wheel in the test device and to calculate the distribution of stresses in the areas where a failure occurs. The second part was the calibration of band factor of a polycarbonate material type (PSM-5) by pure bending four points because this material over time is damaged and also affects storage. The third part of the experimental work described the manufacturing of Geneva wheel using photo-elastic material (PSM-5) to calculate the stresses in the model and compare them with Ansys results. The photoelasticity method is used for measuring the maximum stress in the Geneva wheel for a different load. The results showed that the 2-D and 3-D FE model using ANSYS software gave a very good prediction for the principal stresses in Geneva wheel. When the results of the 2-D and the 3-D FE model compared with the results of photoelasticity technique, the absolute maximum error percentage was (7.04%) and (7.33%) with respect.
Keywords: Geneva wheel mechanism, four slots, mechanical properties, Ansys version 16.1, photo-elasticity technique.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,279 KB
Title: Implementation of RFID Based Tracking System for Metal Transport Items in an Automotive Industry
Author(s): Huong Yu Chung, Zamberi Jamaludin, Lokman Abdullah
Pages: 82-87 Paper ID: 172403-4949-IJMME-IJENS Published: June, 2017
Abstract: Traditional tracking system on material transport items is conducted manually with aid of workers. Manual data collection and data entry caused possible data error, time delay and labour force consumption. This in turns create chaos in determining inventory level, asset loss, and production scheduling. Automatic identification data capture (AIDC) technology has emerged over time as a strong alternative for material tracking in manufacturing industry. Among the AIDC technologies, radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has proven its effectiveness in item tracking at robust environment. RFID-based monitoring system has been shown to improve decision making on material handling and scheduling. However, for passive applications, its effectiveness is often diluted by the presence of metal and water in the vicinity, and speed of moving objects. This has encouraged the authors to develop and analyse the effectiveness of a passive RFID based tracking system for metal-based transport items. The developed system was validated at flush dock of a manufacturing company producing metal parts for automotive production. The system is used to detect metal transport items, in either empty or fully occupied state passing through a flush dock. The system was analysed for data accuracy and timeliness of the RFID technology. The results showed that metal in vicinity does reduce the data accuracy performance of RFID technology. Results collected showed positive outcomes with reduction in time delay between event time and data entry time. Further studies are necessary to extract optimum performance and ability of the RFID technology.
Keywords: RFID, on-metal application, material handling, flush dock, returnable transport item.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 344 KB
Title: Application of Product Sustainability Evaluation Tool (ProSET) on Car Seat Design Configurations
Author(s): Mohd Fahrul Hassan, Salwa Mahmood, Muhamad Zameri Mat Saman, Safian Sharif, Syarfa Zahirah Sapuan
Pages: 88-97 Paper ID: 175703-6868-IJMME-IJENS Published: June, 2017
Abstract: In current global sustainability trends, so far, measuring on sustainability impacts of a product lifecycle is necessary as a preparation towards more sustainable products in the future. However, most of the proposed tools in literature have not been used effectively as a tool in decision-making on the scale that is needed. This paper reports on the application of Product Sustainability Evaluation Tool (ProSET) that was developed to assess the sustainability level of a product at the design stage. In this study, ProSET was used to evaluate car seat design configurations that taking into consideration various factors required for ensuring sustainability. The ProSET uses weighted decision matrix as the platform and computes the sustainability index, known as Weighted Sustainability Score (WSS) using neural network model. Four alternatives design configurations of car seat were assessed accordingly. Based on the case study presented, it was evident that the application of ProSET at the design stage, facilitates the design engineers to make a quick decision on the future part configurations. In conclusion, the main goal of the ProSET to provide decision-making of measuring sustainability at an early stage in the product development through the application on a car seat has been successfully reported and other engineered products is suggested to be applied for continuous improvement of research.
Keywords: Product development, sustainable product design, sustainability.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 996 KB