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Title: A Numerical Study of Flame Stabilization in Single Channel and Counter-flow Meso Scale Combustor
Author(s): Muhammad Zahir Hassan, Fudhail Abdul Munir
Pages: 1-8 Paper ID: 162004-3737-IJMME-IJENS Published: August, 2016
Abstract: The micro power generation system is one of the potential solutions that provides better energy requirement for small devices as compared to conventional batteries. In recent years, numerous works have been conducted to enhance the combustion stability of meso and micro-scale combustors. The utilization of heat recirculation mechanism is one of the approaches to enhance the flame stabilization limits in micro combustors. In this study, flame stabilization in a single channel and counter-flow cylindrical tube combustors with wire mesh was numerically studied. The wire mesh was located between the unburned and burned gas regions of the tubes. A three-dimensional numerical simulation was performed to establish vital parameters such as gas, wire mesh and outer wall temperature. For the validation of the numerical results, the flame blowout and extinction limits were first obtained and compared with experimental results. The utilization of the numerical model enables the improvement on design of the combustor where a counter-flow tube combustor with wire mesh is proposed. Both gaseous and liquid fuels can be used as the primary source for the tube combustor. In a micro power generation system, a combustor with liquid fuel source is preferred as it solves the mobility issue.
Keywords: Micro power generation, micro-scale combustors, heat recirculation.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 874 KB
Title: A Suggested Analytical Solution for Vibration of Honeycombs Sandwich Combined Plate Structure
Author(s): Muhsin J. Jweeg
Pages: 9-17 Paper ID: 161503-1604-8484-IJMME-IJENS Published: August, 2016
Abstract: In this work, a suggested analytical solution for vibration analysis of honeycombs sandwich combined plate is presented. The differential equation of motion for the vibration analysis of honeycombs sandwich combined Plate is solved to evaluate the natural frequency of the plate with different design parameters . The analytical results are first calculated using the mechanical properties of honeycomb structure such as modulus of elasticity, modulus of rigidity, Poisson’s ratio, and density of honeycomb structure, then finding the effect of honeycomb structural properties on the natural frequency of combine sandwich plate. The results are the natural frequencies of combine sandwich plate with different honeycomb structural dimensions effect as, length, height, thickness, and angle of regular hexagonal honeycomb structural effect. In addition to, the effects of thickness of combined plate , thickness of honeycomb structural , aspect ratio of plate, and other parameters, on the natural frequency of the plate. A comparison between analytical results obtained theoretically by solving the general equation of motion for sandwich combine plate with honeycomb structure and those evaluated with other researchers gave a good agreement, where the largest discrepancy percentage was about (2 %).
Keywords: Honeycombs Sandwich,Vibration, plate.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 667 KB
Title: Modelling of Glass Fibre/Epoxy Composite Pipes Under Multi-Axial Loadings Using Finite Element Analysis
Author(s): Z.S. Nazirah, M.S. Abdul Majid, N.A.M. Amin, A.G. Gibson
Pages: 18-33 Paper ID: 161504-8989-IJMME-IJENS Published: August, 2016
Abstract: The glass fibre reinforced epoxy (GRE) pipes under multi-axial loadings were studied through its performance at various temperatures and different failure criteria. Owing to the orthotropic nature of GRE pipes, it is hard to analyse the stresses generated in them. Therefore, using finite element software, an analysis was conducted to determine the first ply failure of composite pipes, which were subjected to five different stress ratios, ranging from pure hoop to pure axial loadings, at room temperature, 65 °C and 95 °C. The Tsai-Wu, Hashin and Puck failure criteria were used to predict the failure strength of composite pipes. The results were validated with experimental data obtained from previously reported studies. Subsequently, the limits associated with the axial and hoop stress were expressed by failure envelopes graph. There were differences in the results obtained for the various criteria; however, they showed relatively similar trends. During failure analysis, Hashin criterion results in superior predictions for determining the FPF of GRE pipes yielding the smallest % error between the experimental data compared to the other failure criteria. Initial failure stress found decreased at elevated temperatures, except at a 2:1 stress loading, where the initial failure stress increased.
Keywords: Finite element modelling; first ply failure; failure criteria; multiaxial stress ratio; glass/ epoxy composite pipes.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 832 KB
Title: Bearing Fault Prediction using Filter Based Feature Selection Methods and Datamining Techniques
Author(s): S. Devendiran, N Harsha Teja, D N Praveen, C Hoshima Reddy
Pages: 34-47 Paper ID: 164503-1604-7979-IJMME-IJENS Published: August, 2016
Abstract: The present work proposes a vibration signal based intelligent bearing fault diagnosis using various prediction models. It includes different feature selection algorithms ReliefF, Information gain, Gini index and random forest algorithm, subsequently classifiers such as JRip,J48,Reduce error pruning, Logistic model tree (LMT) , decision table and RIDOR were used to predict the bearing conditions .The experiment were conducted for four cases such as Normal Bearing, Inner race fault, Outer race fault and Ball fault, at constant speed and load conditions and the vibration data is obtained . The aim of the paper to identify an appropriate model for that maintains high accuracy with adequate computational time. It was observed that RIDOR possess higher accuracy than other classifiers and LMT given optimum computational time with decent accuracy prediction. Other parameters related to classification process were also discussed.
Keywords: Fault Diagnosis, Statistical Features, data mining techniques etc.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 931 KB
Title: Study and Analysis of the Gait and Legs Angle for Hexapod on the Certain Trajectory Using Fuzzy Logic Approach
Author(s): Mohd Zamzuri Ab Rashid ,Hairol Nizam Mohd Shah , Mohd Shahrieel Mohd Aras, Anuar Mohd Kassim
Pages: 48-56 Paper ID: 161203-1604-7474-IJMME-IJENS Published: August, 2016
Abstract: One of the features of hexapod is the ability of walking in different types of terrains. This paper is concerned with the pattern on how the hexapod walks on certain trajectory using tripod gait movement. In this project, a hexapod with two degree of freedom on each leg is designed and built for the purpose of legs angle research. The movement of the hexapod is guided by four Infrared Sensors (IR) installed which used to track the black line. Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) is applied to create better response of robot behavior than conventional controllers. The controller will be based on the signal input from Infrared Sensors (IR) to control the turning angle of the robot. Leg angle in 10°, 15°, 20° and 25° are tested and analyzed whether it can maneuver the given path successfully or not. In order to get accurate and reliable results, collection of data is programmed in Arduino microcontroller. The experimental data then are collected back to compare the performance of the robot with simulation conducted ealier.
Keywords: Hexapod Robot, Fuzzy Logic Controller, Trajectory.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 883 KB
Title: Flexural Behaviour of Uni-Directional Kenaf Composites Using Experimental and Simulation Methods
Author(s): B. M. Yassin, R. Zulkifli, W. R. W. Daud, S. Abdullah
Pages: 57-64 Paper ID: 167203-1604-7878-IJMME-IJENS Published: August, 2016
Abstract: The use of natural fibres as reinforcement materials in composites has increased significantly due to the various advantages they offer. This paper focuses on the flexural characteristics of kenaf/polyester composites that have a uni-directional fibre orientation. The scope of this research is based on the use of kenaf fibres as reinforcement materials. The reason for the selection of kenaf fibres is because they are biodegradable and allow for the ease of availability as kenaf is cultivated locally. The specimens used in the test are in the cylindrical shape with 200 mm length and 10 mm diameter. The composite specimens are prepared using a pultrusion method with uni-directional long kenaf fibres as reinforcement and polyester resin as the matrix. The specimens are tested using ASTM D790-71 standard at four different temperatures of 27C, 60C, 100C and 160C. 2 different cross-head speed used, 2mm/min and 10mm/min each. Parameters measured in these studies are stress vs. strain, displacement vs. time and displacement vs. temperature. The research findings show that the failure patterns and deformations when compared between numerical analysis and experimental works are practically the same but with minor discrepancies in the values obtained due to different surroundings. The results also reveal that the percentage between the fibres and matrixes plays a vital role in the quality. As the ratio of fibres increases, the ultimate tensile strength of the composites also escalates together with its brittleness. The failure mode and deformation observed from the experimental data have shown that kenaf/polyester composites have good energy absorption capability at room temperature of 27°C, where the strength decreases as the temperature rises.
Keywords: Kenaf fibres, uni-directional orientation, pultrusion process, polymer matrix composites, mechanical properties.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,575 KB
Title: Crushing Performances of Winding Square Kenaf Fiber Reinforced Composites
Author(s): A. E Ismail
Pages: 65-69 Paper ID: 166503-1604-9292-IJMME-IJENS Published: August, 2016
Abstract: This paper presents the crushing performances of winding kenaf square composite tubes under axial compression. As-received kenaf yarn is firstly wetted with polymeric resin and wound around the square mould. Two important parameters are used such as number of layers and fiber orientations. The composite tubes are quasi-statically compressed to obtain their force versus displacement responses. Then, the energy absorption performances and other crashworthiness parameters are determined and analyzed. It is found that both parameters have insignificant effect on the force ratios. However, wall thickness has played an important role in increasing the specific energy absorption performances. It is observed that single layered composite tubes collapsed in stable manner. On the other hand, for three layered composites, the tubes failed catastrophically through of global buckling.
Keywords: ---
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 460 KB
Title: Unique Rotation Tensor Formulation to Predict Three-Dimensional Deformation Behaviour of Aluminum Alloy AA7010
Author(s): M. K. Mohd Nor
Pages: 70-75 Paper ID: 166603-1604-4848-IJMME-IJENS Published: August, 2016
Abstract: The formulation of unique orthogonal rotation tensor R ̂ for rate dependant constitutive model of orthotropic materials is thoroughly discussed in this work. The implementation of this orthogonal rotation tensor is performed by referring to three theorems; the deformation gradient F is invertible, the plastic stretch U is symmetric and positive definite, and finally the rotation tensor R ̂ is assumed orthogonal hence, R ̂^(-1)=R ̂^T. The accuracy and stability of this tensor to define an isoclinic configuration for three-dimensional deformation behaviour of aluminum alloy AA7010 is then demonstrated using Taylor Cylinder Impact test. As adopted in the previous publication, subroutine chkrot93 is used to check the accuracy of the proposed formulation to calculate a proper rotation tensor R ̂. The results proved the accuracy of the proposed rotation tensor and its algorithm to calculate a proper rotation tensor and provide a good agreement with respect to the deformation behaviour of material under consideration.
Keywords: Orthogonal rotation tensor, Orthotropic materials, Three dimensional stress state deformation behaviour.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 615 KB
Title: Optimization of Natural Hydroxyapatite/SS316L Feedstock for Highest Green Density in Metal Injection Molding by using Taguchi Method
Author(s): M. H. I. Ibrahim, N. Mustafa, A. M. Amin, R. Asmawi, Batu Pahat
Pages: 76-82 Paper ID: 166703-1604-1818-IJMME-IJENS Published: August, 2016
Abstract: The developments of Metal injection molding (MIM) process are based on combination of powder metallurgy and plastic injection molding approach but applicable to metals and ceramic .The mixture between metal and binder are called as feedstock. The feedstock is shaping by using metal injection molding technique to produce green parts. Thus this paper concentrates on Taguchi method as a tool in determining the optimum density for Metal Injection Molding (MIM) parameters. In this paper combination of stainless steel 316L (SS316L)/ Natural hydroxyapatite (NHAP) with D50 = 6.553 μm was used with 40 wt % Low Density; Polyethylene and 60 %wt Palm Stearin as a binder system. The feedstock of 63 wt % powder loading consist of 90 % wt of SS316 L and 10 wt % NHAP were optimized with 4 significant injection parameter such as Injection temperature (A), Mold temperature (B), Pressure (C) and Speed (D) were selected throughout screening process. An orthogonal array of L9 (3)4 was conducted. Confirmation test will be done base on Signal-to-Noise (S/N) ratio. The optimum injection parameters for highest green density were found at A2, B2, C2 and D2. . The confirmation experiment result is 13.3146 dB and has archived the minimum requirement of optimum performance.
Keywords: Density; Tilapia Fish Bones; Natural Hydroxyapatite; SS316L; Taguchi Method.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 557 KB
Title: The Influence of Linear Kinematic Hardening and Non-Linear Combined Isotropic-Kinematic Hardening Plasticity Model on Sliding Contact
Author(s): M. Nagentrau, W. A. Siswanto, A. L. Mohd Tobi
Pages: 83-88 Paper ID: 167403-1604-2525-IJMME-IJENS Published: August, 2016
Abstract: This paper addresses the plastic strain and stress behaviour of sliding contact using two different plasticity models and sliding amplitudes. A numerical two-dimensional (2D) cylinder-on-flat contact model subjected to normal loading and sliding is investigated. The elasto-plastic Ti-6Al-4V alloy is examined under quasi-static condition in this simulation. The influence of Linear Kinematic hardening and Non-Linear Combined Isotropic-Kinematic hardening plasticity models for sliding amplitude of 0.05 mm and 0.2 mm are studied based on plastic strain and stress distributions. Contact pressure, von Mises stress, tangential stress, shear stress, equivalent plastic strain, tangential plastic strain and also shear plastic strain are analyzed on selected specific element from the surface and subsurface of the substrate (flat surface). The FE model is validated and verified with Hertzian contact theoretical solution. The Linear Kinematic hardening plasticity model predicts higher stress response, meanwhile Non-Linear Combined Isotropic-Kinematic hardening plasticity model gives higher plastic strain. The higher sliding amplitude effect results in higher plasticity accumulation.
Keywords: Cylinder-on-flat, reciprocating sliding, Ti-6Al-4V, Linear Kinematic hardening, Non-Linear Combined Isotropic-Kinematic hardening.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 594 KB
Title: Process Parameters Evaluation for Direct Investment Casting
Author(s): O. M. F Marwah, S. Sharif, M. S. Shukri, E. J. Mohamad, M. F. Shaari, M. Y. Hashim
Pages: 89-95 Paper ID: 168203-1604-7171-IJMME-IJENS Published: August, 2016
Abstract: The advancement of the rapid prototyping (RP) technologies evolving toward rapid tooling in producing sacrificial patterns rapidly has profoundly benefits the investment casting (IC) process. Direct expendable pattern fabrication via RP techniques in complex and intricate features significantly reduce the cost when associated with single or low volume production. However inappropriate settings of the RP processes and its variables may cause serious defect in the ceramic shell such as cracking during burning out of the patterns, incomplete collapsibility and poor qualities of end products. By implementing the ANOVA at 95% confidence level to study the relative influence of factors and interactions, result shows that Surface Roughness (SR) and Dimensional Accuracy (DA) drastically affected by input variables within 5 % level of significance. Confirmation runs for all responses were carried out to ensure that the models reliability. The error level for ABS P400 was within reasonable range with less than 19%. It is also found that Visijet SR200 acrylate have better variation below than 14%. This study was conducted in an effort to exploit the application of various RP tand materials in the fabrication of IC patterns by utilizing the RP process parameters in minimizing the errors of responses. Moreover, it is expected that this study will provide valuable information and great assistance to the IC manufacturer in producing precise, low cost and rapid patterns using RP technologies.
Keywords: Direct Investment Casting, Fused Deposition Modeling, Rapid Prototyping, Multijet Modeling, RP Process Parameters.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 430 KB
Title: Parameter Optimization of Strategies at CNC end Milling Machine Roland Modela MDX - 40R Cam Against Surface Roughness Made Insoles Shoe Orthotic EVA Rubber Foam
Author(s): P. W. Anggoro, B. Bawono, Andreyas. W, J. Jamari, A. P. Bayuseno
Pages: 96-102 Paper ID: 163804-1919-IJMME-IJENS Published: August, 2016
Abstract: The Quality Optimizing of surface and processing time insole shoe orthotic (iso) that made from EVA rubber foam (erf) is highly dependent on the determination of machining strategies on a CNC milling process. This paper aims to obtain optimal parameters of surface roughness and machining time iso products made erf. Data processing by Taguchi Design of Experiments used to obtain the most significant effect on the Toolpath parameters of machining strategies on software Powermill 2015. The effect of the four parameters (spindle speed, feeding, depth of cut, and types of milling cutter) set out in this experiment would give effect significant surface roughness and machining time iso products made erf. Orthogonal array is L1224, after the output finish analyzed the experimental results. Experimental results showed four of these parameters have a significant influence on the surface roughness approaching iso product N7 (63 μm scale CLA or Ra = 1.6 to 3.00 μm). The iso product processing time in this experiment are in accordance with the request of the shoe industry for approximately 1-1.5 hours/pair iso. The optimal solution for design Experiment: machining setting is 14,500 rpm, Cutter feed is 2000 mm/min, DoC is 2 mm and type of Cutter is End Mill SECO 93060 With RA =2 μm
Keywords: Insole Shoe Orthotic, EVA rubber foam, Toolpath strategy, Powermill 2015, surface roughness, CNC milling technology.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 467 KB
Title: A New 2D Magnetic Induction Tomography System for Phantom Detection and Localization in Medical Applications
Author(s): B. Gowry, Abu B. Shahriman, Z. Zulkarnay
Pages: 103-112 Paper ID: 165103-1604-7474-IJMME-IJENS Published: August, 2016
Abstract: Here we describe a new cost-effective magnetic induction tomography (MIT) system to identify and localize phantoms in biological tissues. The proposed 2D (two-dimensional) numerical simulation detection system consists of 8 transceiver coils. During the simulation process, one of the eight transceivers acts as a transmitter, and the rest act as receivers, thereby yielding 7 receiver readings. This process was repeated, and 56 (8 transmitters x 7 receivers) induced voltage readings (receiver readings) were obtained by activating different transceivers at a time. The induced voltage readings were then used to reconstruct the images of biological samples using a linear back-projection (LBP) algorithm. To assess the quality of the images, 10 frequency-based features and seven image-based features were extracted from the reconstructed images. Artificial neural network (ANN) and extreme learning machine (ELM) classifiers were used to distinguish the presence and locations of phantoms. The proposed method attained best accuracies of 91.90% (ELM) and 100% (ANN) for frequency features. The obtained results indicate that the proposed MIT design and features provide a promising alternative to detect and localize pathological conditions in the biological tissue.
Keywords: ANN, biological tissue, ELM, LBP, magnetic induction tomography, numerical simulations.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 607 KB