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Title: Heuristic Based Approach for BI-Criteria Optimization of Minimizing Makespan and Total Flow Time of Flowshop Scheduling
Author(s): R. Balasundaram, D. Valavan, DN. Baskar
Pages: 1-11 Paper ID: 140102-8383-IJMME-IJENS Published: April, 2014
Abstract: This work proposes bi-criteria optimization of minimizing makespan and total flow time for permutation flowshop is considered. Multi-objective problems are solved by assigning uniform weight to each objective function based on its preference or finding all efficient solutions (non-dominated solutions). This work considers the equal weight for makespan and total flow time. Since these problems are known to be strongly NP-hard, Decision Tree (DT) based heuristic methodology is proposed. The advantages of DT’s are that low-level data is represented into high-level knowledge in the form of IF-THEN else rules which are easily understood by shop floor people. Computational experiments are performed with standard benchmark problems and compared against existing literatures. The statistical tests of significance are used to verify the solution quality.
Keywords:Heuristics, bi-criteria, data mining, flowshop scheduling.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 602 KB
Title: Energy Performance Assessment of R32/R125/R600a Mixtures as Possible Alternatives to R22 in Compression Refrigeration Systems
Author(s): N. Suguna Ramu, P. Senthil kumar, M. Mohanraj
Pages: 12-22 Paper ID: 140202-7575-IJMME-IJENS Published: April, 2014
Abstract: In this work, the energy performance assessment of compression refrigeration systems has been theoretically assessed with R22 and the ternary mixtures composed of R32, R125 and 600a as alternative refrigerants. The energy performance assessment of the air conditioner was made for three different condensing temperatures such as 35, 45 and 55oC with evaporator temperatures between -10 and 10oC (which covers the medium temperature refrigeration and air conditioning applications). The assessment was made in terms of standard energy performance parameters such as coefficient of performance (COP), compressor power consumption, compressor discharge temperature and volumetric cooling capacity (VCC). Total equivalent global warming impact (TEGWI) of the air conditioner was assessed for fifteen years life time. The results obtained showed that the VCC of new refrigerant mixture composed of R32/R125/R600a (in the ratio of 0.4:0.4:0.2, by mass) is closer to R22. Hence, new refrigerant mixture can be used as drop in substitute in existing R22 systems. The COP of the mixture was found to be lower than that of R22 by about 16-20% at all condenser and evaporator temperatures. The compressor discharge temperature of the new refrigerant mixture was observed to be 6-11oC lower than that of R22, which confirms that improved compressor life can be expected with new refrigerant mixture. TEGWI of new refrigerant mixture was found to be higher than that of R22 by about 20% due to its higher compressor power consumption. The results confirmed that the new refrigerant mixture is an ozone-friendly alternative to phase out R22 in the existing refrigeration systems to extend its life without modifications. Additionally, the suggestions to improve performance of the system are discussed.
Keywords:R22, R32/R125/R600a mixture, Compression based refrigeration system, Total Equivalent Global Warming Impact.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 629 KB
Title: An Alternative Use of Crude Glycerin in Canadian Wood Pellet Industry
Author(s): Murari Mohon Roy, Antonio F. G. Da Silva
Pages: 23-34 Paper ID:141102-8383 IJMME-IJENS Published: April, 2014
Abstract: With the biofuel mandate and government incentives in different countries, there is a sharp rise in world biodiesel production that has created an excessively abundant supply of crude glycerin, which is a by-product of the transesterification process. Although pure glycerin has many valuable uses in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries, crude glycerin from biodiesel production cannot be directly used for these purposes. This study investigated an alternative use of crude glycerin in Canadian wood pellet industry. Crude glycerin is produced as a by-product of biodiesel production from canola oil, and is soaked in four different types of wood pellets available in Canadian market at different soak temperatures and times to test the rate of glycerin soaking by the wood pellets. Physical properties such as bulk density, durability, fines, etc. are tested according to the Pellets Fuel Institute standard specifications for residential/commercial densified fuel. Fuel properties are measured by ultimate and proximate analyses for wood pellet samples without and with glycerin-soaking. Finally, a wood pellet stove is tested to compare the emissions of CO, HC, NOx and CO2 between pure and glycerin-soaked wood pellets.
Keywords:Crude glycerin, Canadian wood pellet industry, Glycerin soaking in wood pellets, Fuel characterization, Wood pellet stove, Emissions.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 653 KB
Title: Review of Research on Vehicles Aerodynamic Drag Reduction Methods
Author(s): Mohd Nizam Sudin, Mohd Azman Abdullah, Shamsul Anuar Shamsuddin, Faiz Redza Ramli, Musthafah Mohd Tahir
Pages: 35-47 Paper ID:145302-6868-IJMME-IJENS Published: April, 2014
Abstract: Recent spikes in fuel prices and concern regarding greenhouse gas emissions, automotive design engineers are faced with the immediate task of introducing more efficient aerodynamic designs vehicles. The aerodynamic drags of a road vehicle is responsible for a large part of the vehicle’s fuel consumption and contribute up to 50% of the total vehicle fuel consumption at highway speeds. Review on the research performance of active and passive flow control on the vehicle aerodynamic drag reduction is reported in this paper. This review intends to provide information on the current approaches and their efficiency in reducing pressure drag of ground vehicles. The review mainly focuses on the methods employed to prevent or delay air flow separation at the rear end of vehicle. Researches carried out by a number of researchers with regard to active and passive flow controls method on vehicle and their effect on aerodynamic drag in terms of drag coefficient (CD) was highlighted. Passive methods i.e. Vortex Generator (VG), spoiler and splitter and active flow controls i.e. steady blowing, suction and air jet are among the methods had been reviewed. In addition several attempts to couple these flow control methods were also reviewed. Several aspects of aerodynamic drag that need for further investigation as to assist for vehicles aerodynamic design and for practical reasons were highlighted. Progressive research on active flow control was observed due to its flexibility for wide range of application without body shape modification.
Keywords:Aerodynamic drag, drag coefficient, active control, passive control, vehicle aerodynamic.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 718 KB
Title: Extracting Features Point of Lip Movement for Computer-based Lip Reading System
Author(s): Kamil S. TALHA, Khairunizam WAN, Viratt Chittawad, S.K.Za’ba, M. Nasir Ayob, Zuradzman M. Razlan, Shahriman AB
Pages: 48-53 Paper ID:146102-8585-IJMME-IJENS Published: April, 2014
Abstract: Lip reading is a technique of communication used by a hard hearing person in their conversation between themselves or with the normal person. Sometime the word they understand is not the same as what the other speaker talk. Computer-based lip reading system may help them to track those words based on the movement of the lips. When speak, lip make a movement that may differ between several words. For the computer to recognize the spoken word, feature from the lip need to be extracted and is stored in the database. A surface area of the lip is proposed as the feature of the lip movement. The horizontal and vertical distances of the lip are extracted to determine the surface area. Data from the lip feature then been resample to estimate some parameter and their reliability. Result from the resample then will be initialized to reduce memory usage in the database. In the experiments, several spoken words at the hospital have been chosen. The experimental results show that the ellipse feature could be employed to train the computer understands the spoken word from the human.
Keywords:Speech, image processing, lip tracking, ellipse.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 468 KB
Title: An Improved DTC of an Induction Motor Drive with Neural Network Controller
Author(s): Wahyu Mulyo Utomo, Sy Yi Sim, Zainal Alam Haron, Azuwien Aida Bohari, Nooradzianie Muhammad Zin, Roslina Mat Ariff, Waluyo Adi Siswanto
Pages: 54-59 Paper ID:147202-8585-IJMME-IJENS Published: April, 2014
Abstract: A space vector modulation based direct torque Control strategy is suggested and an intelligence controller design based on this strategy is presented. A neural network controller is proposed to replace the conventional PID controllers to improve the drive’s performance since the performance of an electric drive really depends on the quality of a speed controller. The neural network controller was trained and realizes for a speed controller. The controller was utilized in the feed-back loop of the control system. The control system renditions as well as the online learning technique of the neural network are described in this paper. The comparison with the conventional PID direct torque controller reveal the effectiveness of the proposed scheme by improved the performance of transient response is presented. A simulation model representing the complete neural network based direct torque control scheme of induction motor drive is developed and verified using S-Function Simulink block program.
Keywords:Direct Torque Control, Induction Motor Drive, Neural Network Control.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 569 KB
Title: Vision-based Path Estimation for the Navigation of Autonomous Electric Vehicle
Author(s): Hasri Haris, Khairunizam WAN, Kamil S. Talha
Pages: 60-65 Paper ID:147902-4545-IJMME-IJENS Published: April, 2014
Abstract: Making an Autonomous Electric Vehicle (AEV) and able to operate “unmanned” requires extensive theoretical as well as practical knowledge. An AEV must be able to make decisions and respond to situations completely on its own. Buggy car are used a as Electric Vehicle (EV) and set up with several equipment and sensor as an AEV. A camera is installed in front of the AEV and is used to obtain image information of the road. On the other hand, users or drivers do not have to directly contact with the main system because it will autonomously control the devices by using fuzzy information of the road conditions. This paper focuses on experimental used on vision system of AEV. From the experimental results, the AEV has demonstrated a robust performance for moving in straight line on line detection vision navigation.
Keywords:Autonomous Electric Vehicle (AEV), Vision System, Line Detection.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 618 KB
Title: Modelling, Simulation and Synthesis of three Degrees of Freedom Triglide Parallel Manipulator for Positioning and Orientation.
Author(s): C. Dhandapani, R. Sivaramakrishnan
Pages: 66-76 Paper ID:147102-9494-IJMME-IJENS Published: April, 2014
Abstract: This paper presents simulation and kinematic synthesis of a new type of three degrees of freedom triglide type parallel manipulator actuated by screw pairs and spherical pairs. The manipulator model is constructed with a fixed base and a movable platform which are linked through three rigid links of equal lengths spaced at equal angular distances from each other. One end of each link is provided with a spherical pair and is attached to the movable platform and the other end to a lead screw through a nut with revolute joints. The three screws are individually actuated to translate the nut which in turn moves the corresponding link to achieve the desired position and orientation of the top movable platform. Experimental analysis were carried out to find the angular tilt of moving platform. The rotations of screw and the position and orientation of the moving platform are used to perform the kinematic analysis of the manipulator. In order to validate the model the software package Pro-E is used to simulate and perform dimensional synthesis. The results obtained from experimental, analytical and simulation methods are verified and found to be closer in all the three cases and the behaviour of angle of tilt is analysed. The proposed triglide type manipulator may find its application in positioning and orientation of an end effectors for drilling inclined holes and angular machining and positioning of models inside a wind tunnel with considerable payload capacity and quickness.
Keywords:Parallel Manipulator, Kinematics, PRO-E, ADAMS, Dimensional Synthesis, Simulation,Triglide.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 769 KB
Title: A novel Approach for Thermal Error Modeling in CNC Turning Centre
Author(s): V. Prabhu Raja, S. Ramesh Babu, Devara Venkata Krishna, J. Kanchana, P. R. Thyla
Pages: 77-84 Paper ID:148502-3737-IJMME-IJENS Published: April, 2014
Abstract: In CNC machine tools, transient temperature variation in the headstock assembly and ball screw system are the major contributors for spindle thermal error. A high-speed ball screw system naturally generates more heat and results in greater thermal expansion, adversely affecting the accuracy of positioning. Consequently, the present study focuses on the development of new thermal error model, to reduce the thermal error in spindle lateral direction (X-Component of the spindle). The proposed novel approach is based on the development of a net thermal error model by the integration of individual error models developed for the headstock assembly and ball screw system. The individual models are developed using multi linear ridge regression technique. The contribution of each heat source on net thermal error is evaluated by the use of net thermal error and the mean thermal error. The developed net thermal error model is validated to examine the accuracy and robustness under different experimental conditions. From the performance analysis of developed model, it has better accuracy and robustness and hence it can be used effectively for real-time thermal error compensation in CNC machine tools.
Keywords:CNC Machine tools-Thermal error-Headstock assembly-Ball screw system-Ridge regression-Net thermal error, tool centre point (TCP).
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 643 KB
Title: Optimal Path Forecasting of an Autonomous Mobile Robot Agent Using Breadth First Search Algorithm
Author(s): M. Bala Subramanian, K. Sudhagar, G. RajaRajeswari
Pages: 85-89 Paper ID:148702-4343-IJMME-IJENS Published: April, 2014
Abstract: Predicting and identifying an optimal navigational forecasting for a mobile robot agent is considered to be one of the key challenges for researchers in the field of AI and robotics. A mobile robot agent participating for wide range of mission critical application will explore into an unknown environment will be challenging criteria, considering its contraints such as time, cost, energy, exploration distance etc.. When the autonomous mobile robots agent decides its action, it is necessary to plan its movement more precisely and optimally. This paper presents the use of search algorithm in optimal path forecasting with its navigation controlling mechanism of a autonomous mobile robot agent navigational systems. The autonomous mobile robot agents are modelled to work independently through its intelligence without any human intervention. This paper aims on studying the movement details of an autonomous mobile robot agent participating in dynamically changing environment using Breadth First Search (BFS) algorithm. The system evaluation is validated using Graphical User Interfcae (GUI) based test bed for robots called Robosim and the efficiceny of the system is measured via simulation resutls through a defined complex arena. Simulation results proven that the applying the BFS algorithm in a unknown envirnoment explores much faster then heuristic based other path palnning algorithms
Keywords:Autonomous Mobile Robot Agent, Path Planning, BFS algorithm, A* algorithm, RoboSim.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 639 KB
Title: Optimization for Hierarchical Production Planning of Industrial Processes
Author(s): Asmaa A. Mahmoud, Islam H. Afefy, M. Abdel-Karim
Pages: 90-103 Paper ID:149902-5757-IJMME-IJENS Published: April, 2014
Abstract: In this paper, a generalized mathematical model formulation for cellular manufacturing system (CMS) using hierarchical production planning (HPP) approach is proposed. The model is applied to two different real case studies and is solved by using operation research optimization software (Lingo (12.0) program). The model is divided into three main steps as follows: data collection, mathematical model formula, and results. The proposed mathematical model of the optimization can solve the problems of the system under utilizing the limited resources in a production plan. The results show that the proposed mathematical model can be used to minimize manufacturing total costs of products for similar cases. To prove the work, two case studies are introduced; for the first case (electric water heater with capacity 50 liter (EWH1)), the results show that the total cost decreases by 8.46 % for the optimum conditions. For the second case, (electric water heater with capacity 80 liter (EWH2)), as global results, the total cost decreases by 3.7% for the optimum conditions.
Keywords:Hierarchical Production Planning (HPP), Cellular Manufacturing System (CMS), Group Technology (GT) and General Manufacturing Company (GMC).
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 697 KB
Title: Performance Improvement of Total Knee Replacement Joint through Bidirectional Functionally Graded Material
Author(s): Tawakol A. Enab
Pages: 104-113 Paper ID:1411402-8383-IJMME-IJENS Published: April, 2014
Abstract: Total knee replacement (TKR) has become one of the most critical debates in orthopedic due to the simultaneous growing number of replacement and revision surgeries. The introduction of the knee prosthesis reduces stresses in nearly all regions of tibial bone due to the difference in Young’s modulus between implant material and bone. Therefore, Young’s modulus of the prosthesis materials is a critical design variable, because it largely determines how the load transferred via cement to bone. Moreover, functional gradation is one characteristic feature of living tissue. Consequently, the functionally graded materials (FGM) developed as a potential tibia tray material of TKR due to its improved capability of stress distribution. The current investigation evaluates and discusses the feasibility of using FGM tibial prosthesis by predicting knee implant biomechanical behavior using finite element analysis. We developed two-dimensional finite element models, which include the artificial knee and portions of the surrounding biological materials. These models compare the performance of four different tibial prostheses (titanium, CoCrMo, unidirectional and bidirectional FGM). We found that the use of FGM tibia trays will improve the performance and will increase the life of the total knee prosthesis.
Keywords:Total Knee Replacement (TKR); Tibia tray; Stress shielding; Biomaterials; Functionally Graded Material (FGM); Finite Element Analysis (FEA).
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 824 KB
Title: Influence Calcium Carbonate Nano-particles CaCO3 on Mechanical Properties for NR Compound
Author(s): Zaid Ghalib Abdulkadhim
Pages: 114-117 Paper ID:1410402-8383-IJMME-IJENS Published: April, 2014
Abstract: The aim of this work was to study the influence of Calcium Carbonate CaCO3 nanoparticles (N-CC) in preparation NR compound . Four compositions of NR/ CaCO3 nanocomposites with filler loading Calcium Carbonate of [ 0, 3, 5, 7 and 10 ] hpr, the compositions were prepared in Laboratories Inc. Tires Babylon. The tests included the tensile, compression, hardness, density and Rheometric properties of NR/ CaCO3 nanocomposites compound using a vulcanization system [ASTM D3182]. Carbon black (N326) was used as a filler (50 hpr). To determine the tensile strength, M300 (tensile stress at 300% elongation) and elongation at break a tensile test device called (Tensilmete) was used According to ASTM D412, operating at strain rates of 500 mm/min. The compression test (ASTM D395B) shown that the compression is decreased when the percentages of CaCO3 nanoparticles is increased Finally, by using a device (Hardness), to determine the Hardness IRHD of NR compound.
Keywords:Calcium Carbonate CaCO3 nanoparticles(N-CC), filler loading, NR compound, M300 (tensile stress at 300% elongation.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 391 KB
Title: Optimum Sound Absorption by Materials Fraction Combination
Author(s): M. H. Zainulabidin, M. H. Abdul Rani, N. Nezere, A. L. Mohd Tobi
Pages: 118-121 Paper ID:146802-7474-IJMME-IJENS Published: April, 2014
Abstract: This paper describes the investigation and analysis on the two materials in which one material is a relatively good sound absorber at low frequency range and another is a relatively good sound absorber at high frequency range, combined together in pieces to form a better sound absorber for a wider range of frequencies. The fractions combinations of the materials are varied and the values of Sound Absorption Coefficient, a, Noise Reduction Coefficient, NRC and Sound Absorption Average, SAA are measured experimentally by using impedance tubes. The values obtained are compared in terms of the fractions combinations of materials for each sample. The combinations of materials have a significant influence on the sound absorption properties. Combined materials with balance factions of material has relatively better a values over wider range of frequency. Combined materials with more fractions of dominant material have higher NRC and SAA values. These observations indicate materials fraction combination will produced optimum sound absorber at wider frequency range.
Keywords:Sound absorption, material combination, wide frequency range.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 562 KB
Title: Design a Robust PID Controller of an Active Suspension System
Author(s): Hayder Sabah Abd AL-Amir, Ali Talib Abd Al Zahra
Pages: 122-127 Paper ID:1410302-7474-IJMME-IJENS Published: April, 2014
Abstract: The objective of control of the suspension system is to improve the ride comfort and road holding ability under different road conditions. The main contribution in this paper is to present a method, to design a robust control strategy in an active suspension system for one-quarter car model. The methodology for calculation the control gains by making a PID as a function of mass and velocity vehicle. The robust PID controller is tested at different road profiles (bumps). Good results for robust PID controller against passive system, the average reduction in peak overshoot for all road types that taken were 78%. The performance of robust and unrobust PID controller in active suspension was compared. Finally, it means that robust PID controller is the best for active suspension system.
Keywords:Quarter car model, active suspension system, robust PID controller.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 441 KB
Title: Forming Technology to Produce Very Thin 5052 Al-alloy Ribbons by Direct Casting from Liquid State
Author(s): Ali S. Hammood, Ahmad. K. Jassim
Pages: 128-131 Paper ID:1411502-3737-IJMME-IJENS Published: April, 2014
Abstract: In this paper, single roll melt spinning technique is used to produce rapidly solidified ribbons with micro thickness. Different orifice diameter, nozzle-roll wheel gap, and melting temperature are used as operation conditions to study their effect on the product geometry. The process has a direct impact for saving laber, time, money, and energy compared with conventional forming technology due to their ability to produce very thin ribbons by direct casting from liquid state. The results indicated that there is a possibility to produce ribbons with thinkness in the range of 60 to 240 µm and width in the range of 0.97 to 7.4 mm. Moreover, the process was modifying the mechanical properties of 5052 Al-alloy due to improve the hardness of alloy to about twice the original hardness of alloy.
Keywords:Melt spinning, Ribbons, Non-conventional forming, Rapid solidification.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 337 KB