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Title: Annajaf City Naphtha as a Commercial Alternative Fuel for S.I. Engines in Iraq
Author(s): Aimen Rashad Noor
Pages: 01-10 Paper ID: 121004-4747-IJMME-IJENS Published: August, 2012
Abstract: Considering pollution problems today, investigations have been concentrated on lowering the concentration of toxic components in combustion products.
The purpose of this project is to experimentally study of using Naphtha which is produced in Annajaf city refinery as an alternative fuel instead of the commercial gasoline which is imported to Iraq from the neighborhood countries. In this project, experiments have been done to measure the performance and emissions of a 4-stroke S.I. Engine, one by using the commercial imported gasoline, another by using the Annajaf city naphtha, and finally by using the naphtha-methanol blends. Results showed that; the use of 7 vol. % of methanol blending with the naphtha appears to be a good option for replacing any oxygenate additives in the naphtha, where the CO, CO2, and HC are minimum and the fuel consumption of the blend is lower than of the commercial gasoline. Also, the noise results showed that; the engine runs smoother at 7 vol. % methanol blend than the commercial gasoline. That is mean increase in engine life due to the lowering vibration.
Keywords: Noise, Pollution, Naphtha, Methanol, Fuel Economy
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 2609 KB
Title: Maximization and Modeling Matching of Convective Heat Transfer with Nanofluids and Non-uniform Fin Distribution
Author(s): N.I. Abdulhafiz, A.-R.A. Khaled, A. Y. Bokhary
Pages: 11-23 Paper ID: 121104-9898-IJMME-IJENS Published: August, 2012
Abstract: In the present study, a numerical model has been developed to investigate thermal performance and optimization of relevant thermogeometric parameters involved in a convective cooling system. The heat removal system comprises of flow of fluid or nanofluid through a rectangular channel with its lower surface subjected to constant heat flux and the upper surface equipped with pin fins having variable distributions. The governing energy equation and momentum equation have been solved to find an optimum profile for variable fin density. Comparison of Nusselt numbers for non-uniform fin distribution with those for uniformly distributed fins reveals 2.7% improvement in heat transfer rate for the former case. This increase was associated with Peclet umber of Pe=1.5, No=0.9, Nf=0.001 and θα= –0.5 for a variable fin density profile with B=0.045 and Φo=0.6. Furthermore, two nanofluids one containing copper oxide nanoparticles dispersed in water and the other in a base fluid of 60:40 (by mass) ethylene glycol and water mixture (60:40 EG/W) have been used in present computations with particle volumetric concentration ranging from 0 to 6%. Since heat flux is provided at the lower surface of the channel, Nusselt numbers were calculated only at the lower surface. The analyses reveal about 65% increase in average Nusselt number at low Peclet number (Pe=1.0) and about 27% increase in that at high Peclet number (Pe=200). Moreover, Effort has also been made to explore the possibility of using some published dispersed model for nanofluids to fit a published experimental thermal conductivity model of nanofluids. It is shown that both models can be excellently matched based on equal local or average Nusselt numbers at specific dispersion model constant coefficients. These coefficients are mainly depending on nanoparticles material, particles volumetric concentration and Peclet number. Finally, a correlation for the dispersion model coefficients as functions of the relevant parameters has also been proposed.
Keywords: Heat transfer; convection, nanofluid; Modeling; numerical
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 2293 KB
Title: Isothermal analysis of Elliptic Bore Journal Bearing considering Isotropic Roughness
Author(s): Prakash Chandra Mishra
Pages: 24-31 Paper ID: 121804-6565-IJMME-IJENS Published: August, 2012
Abstract: Finite journal bearing of elliptic bore and circular bush is analyzed considering the isotropic roughness in the bearing surfaces. The angle of inclination of the major axis of the sleeve to the load line and the attitude angle are kept constant while evaluating all the performance parameters. Film shape due to the rough elliptic bore is defined through the stochastic model of asperities distribution. The performance parameters such as load carrying capacity, friction force, flow into the bearing and side leakages are plotted and analyzed   against the non-circularity for the various roughness parameters and eccentricity ratios.
Keywords: Finite Difference Method, Journal Bearing, Elliptic Bore, Isotropic Roughness, Eccentricity ratio, Non- Circularity, film thickness, friction, flow-in and side leakage
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 624 KB
Title: A study Of Salt-Finger Convection In a   Nonlinear Magneto-Fluid Overlying a Porous Layer Affected By Rotation
Author(s): M.S.Al-Qurashi
Pages: 32-40 Paper ID: 129604-7171-IJMME-IJENS Published: August, 2012
Abstract: This work examines salt-finger convection in a model of a nonlinear magneto-fluid overlying a porous layer affected by rotation. Flow in the fluid layer is governed by Navier-Stokes’s equations and in the porous medium is governed by Darcy-Brinkman’s law. We show that the nonlinearity in this model does not have any effect on the stationary instability case. However, the nonlinearity has a profound effect on the overstability case.
Keywords: Navier-Stokes equation, Darcy-Brinkman law, legendre  polynomials, nonlinear magneto-fluid, overstability
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 297 KB
Title: Development of Low Cost “GloveMAP” Based on Fingertip Bending Tracking Techniques for Virtual Interaction
Author(s): Nazrul H. ADNAN, Khairunizam WAN, Shahriman A.B. , M. Hazwan ALI, M. Nasir Ayobb, Azri A. AZIZ
Pages: 41-51 Paper ID: 129704-5858-IJMME-IJENS Published: August, 2012
Abstract: The development of a new low cost GloveMAP based on fingertip bending tracking techniques for measuring the sign language is presented. Nowadays, the communication between two parties has always been a huge obstacle in the context to convey their conversation information. The project specification significant requirement is to facilitate people with verbal disabilities to communicate and interact with the normal people. This research study used the flexible bend sensor in order to obtain the output resistance values of each bending fingers of patient. The sensors are located at the upper fingers and physical of the GloveMAP made by the universal stretchable and covered with lycra fabric known for wearing comfort. The evaluation of the prototype GloveMAP was designed to distinguish in deferent size of human hands to be functioning as the tools to measure the Degree of Freedom (DOF) of fingers orientation. The main propose of developing the GloveMAP is to provide the natural input control of interaction in virtual circumstances, multimodal and tele-presence environments as an input devices provide as they can monitor the dexterity and flexibility characteristics of the human hand motion.
Keywords: Degree of freedom (DOF), flex sensor, fingers orientation, DataGlove, GloveMAP
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 624 KB
Title: Study of Cyclic Variability in Diesel-Hydrogen Dual Fuel Engine Combustion
Author(s): Widodo Budi. Santoso, Rosli Abu. Bakar, Sugeng. Ariyono, Nur. Cholis
Pages: 52-56 Paper ID: 1210904-3838-IJMME-IJENS Published: August, 2012
Abstract: Among the alternative fuels, hydrogen shows great potential in the near future. In the present study, the cyclic variability of a diesel engine fueled with hydrogen and ignited by diesel spray was studied. To investigate the combustion characteristics of this dual fuel engine, a single cylinder diesel research engine was converted to utilize hydrogen as fuel. Hydrogen was introduced to the intake manifold using a mixer before entering the combustion chamber. The engine was run at a constant speed of 2000 rpm and variable loads. At each load step the flow rate of hydrogen was varied. An engine indicating system was used to measure and record the cylinder pressure up to 160 consecutive combustion cycles. The combustion data for each operating conditions were analyzed for the maximum cylinder pressure and indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP). The cycle-by-cycle variation is expressed as the mean value, standard deviation, coefficient of variation of these two parameters. It is found that cyclic variability is reduced at higher engine load operation.
Keywords: Diesel, hydrogen, dual fuel, cyclic variability
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 572 KB
Title: Finite Element Computational approach of fracture toughness in composite compact-tension specimen
Author(s): Y. Mohammed, Mohamed. K. Hassan, A. M. Hashem
Pages: 57-61 Paper ID: 1215104-9797-IJMME-IJENS Published: August, 2012
Abstract: For composite structure, fracture toughness is a dominant parameter when using cohesive laws to predict the nominal strength. In the present study the compact tension test is performed on composites structures and is simulated using FEM. The process of fracture takes places in two sequential stages, crack initiation and crack propagation. The critical energy release rate is determined using the FE modeling through J-integral calculation then is validated by available references experimental data.  By comparing the model predictions and experimental data, a good correlation is obtained.
Keywords: Critical energy release rate, fracture toughness, fiber failure, J-integral, Polymer-matrix composites, Fracture Mechanics, crack initiation
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 414 KB
Title: Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Mechanical Properties for Reinforcement Fiber Types of Composite Materials
Author(s): Muhsin J. Jweeg, Ali S. Hammood, Muhannad Al-Waily
Pages: 62-75 Paper ID: 129304-5959-IJMME-IJENS Published: August, 2012
Abstract: In this research, experimental and theoretical study of composite materials reinforcement fiber types are presented. The experimental work and the theoretical investigation covered the study of modulus of elasticity for long, short, woven, powder, and particle reinforcement of composite materials types with difference volume fraction of fiber. In addition the compare it the experimental results with theoretical results of modulus of elasticity for difference composite materials types. The results show that the effect of fiber and resin types on modulus of elasticity for composite materials are presented. In addition the effect of volume fraction of fiber and matrix materials on modulus of elasticity for composite materials shown a presented. The results show have good agreement between experimental and theoretical study for different types of composite materials. The results having that shown the best modulus of elasticity for reinforcement composite is unidirectional fiber types in longitudinal direction and the woven reinforcement fiber types for transverse direction.
Keywords: Mechanical Properties, Composite Materials, Powder Composite Materials, Reinforcement Fiber
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 1718 KB
Title: Vibration Analysis of Hyper Composite Material Beam Utilizing Shear Deformation and Rotary Inertia Effects
Author(s): Luay S. Al-Ansari , Muhannad Al-Waily, Ali M. H. Yusif
Pages: 76-87 Paper ID: 1216104-8383-IJMME-IJENS Published: August, 2012
Abstract: This paper presents an analytical and numerical vibration analysis of hyper composite material beam utilizing shear deformation and rotary inertia. The hyper composite material used in this research is consists of long reinforcement fiber and composite matrix which is components are resin with short fiber. The vibration analysis of this hybrid composite material beam using development theory for the beam which the effect of transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia included. Where the results are the natural frequency and general equation of motion. Also the effect of volume fraction and types of short, long fiber and resin material on the natural frequency are investigated. The results shows the natural frequency of the hyper composite material beam increases with increase of the strength of fiber and with the increases of volume ratio of the long fiber (when uses short fiber and long fiber of the same kind).
Keywords: Vibration of Beam, Composite Materials, Vibration of Composite Materials, Hyper Composite Materials Properties, Vibration of Beam with Rotary Effect
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 791 KB
Title: Characterization of Palm Kernel Shell Powder for use in Polymer Matrix Composites
Author(s): Dagwa, I.M. , Builders , P.F.  and J. Achebo
Pages: 88-93 Paper ID: 120904-3838-IJMME-IJENS Published: August, 2012
Abstract: The use of biomaterials as fillers/reinforcing agents in thermoplastics /thermosets   materials is increasing nowadays due to economic reasons and environmental awareness. This work was aimed at characterising the powdered palm kernel shell for use in composite materials formulation. Properties such as powder porosity, hydration capacity, moisture sorption, particle size distribution,  bulk density, tapped density, powder flow, pH of powder dispersion as well as differential scanning calorimetry thermal (DSC), X-ray diffraction (X-RD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were evaluated. The following results were obtained; pH was found to be 4 ± 0.0, average true density, powder porosity and hydration capacity were; 1.58 ±0.07g/cm3, 6.76 ±0.42%, and 150.08 ±76.91%, respectively. The average values of the moisture content and moisture sorption were; 11.16±016% and 2 ±0.54%, respectively. The average angle of repose for the palm kernel shell (PKS) was found to be 34.09±4.77o .The scanning electron microscopy showed that PKS powder had spherical shape.  Based on EDX analysis PKS has a high carbon content of about 63 wt %. The XRD pattern for the PKS powder showed that the PKS powder was more of amorphous material with small amount of micro crystalline materials. PKS is therefore suggested as filler to be used in polymer composite production.
Keywords: Palm kernel shell powder, physico-chemical properties, thermal characterizations
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 277 KB
Title: A Finite Element Approach to Predict the Stress Concentration Factors in Cold Formed Corners
Author(s): Assad Anis, Timo Bjork, Sami Heinilla
Pages: 94-98 Paper ID: 129104-6868-IJMME-IJENS Published: August, 2012
Abstract: This paper presents the extensive investigation of stress concentration factors in cold formed steel hollow tubes made up of steel. The stress concentration in cold formed sections is due to the corner radii and notches present at inside corners of cold formed members. These investigations has been done by performing two-dimensional linear static analysis by modeling cold formed rectangular hollow section (CFRHS) with different notch shapes and sizes in Ansys software. Three different kinds of notches with two notch sizes i.e. n1=t/5 and n2=2t/5 have been modeled while the outer radius to thickness (ro/t) ratios of 3, 4 and 5 have been used. As a result of this work, stress concentration factors (Kt) have been computed for all kinds of notches and results have been compared and reported in this paper.
Keywords: Cold formed rectangular hollow sections (CFRHS), Notches, Outer radius to thickness ratio (ro/t), Stress concentration factor (Kt)
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 288 KB