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Title: Removal of Copper(II) and Cadmium(II) Ions from Aqueous Solution by Adsorption on Modified Almond Shells
Author(s): Haitham Ahmed El-Araby, Abdel Moneim Mohamed Ahmed Ibrahim, Ahmed Hashem Mangood
Pages: 1-39 Paper ID:191605-4747-IJET-IJENS Published:October, 2019
Abstract: In the present study, adsorption effect of modified almond shells (MAS) on copper(II) and cadmium(II) removal from aqueous solutions was examined. The almond shells (AS) were chemically modified with base (0.1N sodium hydroxide) followed by organic solvent (25% acetone). Characterization of the resultant MAS adsorbent was done using scanning electron microscope and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy. To obtain the optimized adsorption conditions, many parameters were studied as pH, agitation time, dose of MAS adsorbent, initial concentration of adsorbate, temperature and finally speed of rotation. pH 6 was chosen as an optimum pH value for copper(II) adsorption while pH 5 was the optimum pH value for cadmium(II) adsorption. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin–Radushkevich (D–R) adsorption isotherms models were applied to understand the surface nature of the adsorbent. The maximum adsorption capacity (qmax) for copper ions onto MAS was 46.73 mg/g at 298 K while qmax value for cadmium ions was 35.84 mg/g at 298 K. The adsorption thermodynamics, equilibrium and kinetics were investigated and it was found that the adsorption process of copper and cadmium ions onto MAS obeys pseudo second-order model. A comparison between qmax value of MAS for copper and cadmium ions and other chemically modified adsorbents was reported.
Keywords: Modified almond shells; Cu(II) and Cd(II) removal; adsorption isotherms; kinetics; thermodynamics.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,699 KB
Title: Role of Lean Manufacturing in Enhancing Operational Performance of Aluminum Industry
Author(s): Osama M. Irfan
Pages: 40-48 Paper ID:190505-8282-IJET-IJENS Published:October, 2019
Abstract: The complete elimination of waste is the main target of any qualified system. This concept is vitally important since in today’s highly competitive world there is nothing we can waste. Recently, manufacturing companies are pressured by both governmental and non-governmental organizations to operate in a sustainable and economical manner. Aluminum production is considered one of the most important industries due to its widely applications in our daily life. The current paper focuses on the Aluminum manufacturing in Egypt. Data collection of the selected case study in a private sector company indicated losses in takt time and reduction in production capacity. Also the idle time was relatively long. The principles of lean manufacturing were applied with the purpose of eliminating wastes and increasing production capacity. Value Stream Mapping tool (VSM) was used to expose the wastes. The current state was identified and the proposed future state was performed to improve the operational performance. The results achieved in the proposed plan showed reasonable enhancement in the overall performance of the production system, which allowed to be more productive, flexible, smooth and with high quality products.
Keywords: Lean manufacturing, Value Stream Mapping, Takt time, Production capacity, Aluminum manufacturing.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 435 KB
Title: Vibration Education Program (VEP) as an Effective Tool To Solve Mechanical Vibration Problems for Mechanical Engineering Technology Students
Author(s): Serdar Ozlek
Pages: 49-55 Paper ID:191805-2727-IJET-IJENS Published:October, 2019
Abstract: Vibration Education Program (VEP), written in MATLAB was developed to improve mechanical engineering technology student problems solving skills in an undergraduate vibrations course is presented in this work. The complexity of vibration analysis forces most of the course to focus on the theoretical aspects of generating the complex mathematical model, rather than the application of this analysis tool to solve real-world problems. Engineering Technology students improve their learning when the course is less theoretical and find more application. Therefore, VEP can provide an additional tool to teach engineering technology students. The VEP was designed to make the course more challenging to increase interest in students' vibration courses and to overcome the difficulties of the complex mathematical model. By using VEP as the main solution method, students can concentrate more on learning both physical and mathematical modeling the vibration systems. VEP can solve both, the time or frequency response, and provides a graphical solution. In this paper, damping SDOF systems were used with force and without force as examples to demonstrate VEP to the student. Feedback from students’ shows that using the VEP significantly improves students' learning experience in vibration courses.
Keywords: Mechanical Vibrations, Vibration Education Program, VEP.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 838 KB
Title: Theoretical Analysis of a Dual- Pumped Multi-Segment Photonic Crystal Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifier
Author(s): Kumbirayi Nyachionjeka, Hillary Tarus, Kibet Langat
Pages: 56-64 Paper ID:193404-1905-8787-IJET-IJENS Published:October, 2019
Abstract: Further research work still needs to be done in efforts to achieve a practically feasible fiber optical parametric amplifier. Uniform gain in a gain spectrum is still a challenge because of the gain ripples in a given bandwidth. While, the cost and losses of the amplifier due to length, type of the fiber and the pump powers are challenges that still need to be reduced. A dual – pumped multi-section fiber optical parametric amplifier design based on two types of photonic crystal fiber with different dispersion slopes is proposed. Lengths of a photonic crystal fiber with a positive dispersion slope shall be cascaded together with a photonic crystal fiber with a negative dispersion slope to try and achieve uniform amplification over the target bandwidth and shorter amplifiers. The amplifier is theoretically demonstrated and it leads to a gain of 38-dB over a gain bandwidth of 280-nm with a ±0.13-dB flatness and combined fiber length of 82.2-m and reduced pump power.
Keywords: Dual-pump, FOPA, Gain spectrum, HNLF, Multi-section, negative dispersion slope, photonic crystal fiber, segments.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,290 KB