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Title: The Effects of Film/Substrate Properties on Impact Behaviour of Layered Systems
Author(s): Tae Hwan Lee, Kook Chan Ahn, Bong Hwan Kim
Pages: 1-8 Paper ID:162401-7979-IJET-IJENS Published:April, 2016
Abstract: The effects of film/substrate properties on impact behaviour of layered systems subjected to low velocity impact are studied by the coded finite element program. To model and simulate impact behaviour, an effective finite element approach in conjunction with the Sun's higher-order beam theory and Kurapati’s generalized power law is proposed. The mechanical properties of the substrate are fixed with elastic modulus and by changing the mechanical properties of the films, five typical film and substrate combinations, namely, Ef/Es=0.2, 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 are considered. The verification of the numerical model is conducted by compared with the results of Hertzian contact law and wave propagation theory in Ef/Es=1.0 layered systems i.e., homogeneous material, and the present finite element results show a good agreement with open literature results. Impact behaviours in hard film-soft substrate layered systems (Ef/Es=2.0 and 5.0) are more sensitive than those of soft film-hard substrate layered systems (Ef/Es=0.2 and 0.5) in the same film/substrate thickness. And, also, we can observe that in case of soft film-hard substrate (Ef/Es=0.2 and 0.5) and hard film-soft substrate (Ef/Es=2.0 and 5.0) layered systems, the interface and impacted surface unlike occurring in static analysis are prone to more failure risk than the other layer, respectively.
Keywords: Layered systems, Film/substrate, Impact behaviour, Generalized power law, Finite element.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 849 KB
Title: Flow Rate Influence in Relative Permeability Curves: Dependence with Oil Viscosity
Author(s): Domínguez, L. G, Moreno, R. B. Z. L.
Pages: 9-18 Paper ID:156702-1601-3737-IJET-IJENS Published:April, 2016
Abstract: This work aims to evaluate the influence of the flow rate in relative permeability determination, also considering the effect of oil viscosity. Many researchers have focused on flow rate influence in relative permeability curves without obtaining agreement. One of the reasons for that discrepancy is the possible influence of other forces like viscous, capillary and gravitational that can affect the results. Unsteady state displacement experiments were carried out in carbonate core samples, in order to obtain water and oil productions, differential pressure histories. Three different flow rates were used for each oil. Those rates guaranty to balance the forces affecting the flow. Flow rate values were varied in two different sequences, from maximum to minimum and vice versa, to observe if the order of the flow rate variations influences relative permeability curves. Data obtained from the experiments were analyzed using the JBN (Johnson-Bossler-Naumann) method to calculate the relative permeability curves. Under the studied circumstances of this work, it was verified that oil and water relative permeability changes with the flow rate. Residual saturations and permeability corresponding to them also varied with the flow rate. Relative permeability curves showed that flow rate dependency is different according to the oil viscosity used, and this effect generates the different results obtained in the literature.
Keywords: Relative permeability, transient analysis, experimental procedures, carbonate rock.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 966 KB
Title: Accuracy Assessment of Kuka KR210 R2700 Extra Industrial Robot
Author(s): E. N. Semyonov, A. V. Sidorova, A. E. Pashkov, A. S. Belomestnykh
Pages: 19-25 Paper ID:158106-1601-7979-IJET-IJENS Published:April, 2016
Abstract: The results of linear and nonlinear path accuracy assessment of KUKA KR210 R2700 extra industrial robot are described. The equipment used for the study is Renishaw QC20-W Ballbar and API Tracker3TM. Robot accuracy assessment was carried out in three dimensions. Based on the resultant data, the industrial robot accuracy was assessed and practical recommendations were suggested.
Keywords: Industrial robot, diagnostic system, straightness error, roundness error, positioning tolerance.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,512 KB
Title: Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Pitch Angle Controllers (IT2FPACs) for Small Scale Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines
Author(s): Ali Musyafa’, Dwi Aftika, Bambang L. Widjiantoro
Pages: 26-31 Paper ID:163301-8484-IJET-IJENS Published:April, 2016
Abstract: Wind energy is one of the renewable energy sources need to be explored and developed. Wind speed varied wind turbine rotational speed resulted in ever-changing. Production of electricity generated depends on the position angle of the wind turbine blade. To ensure the power production of wind turbines, wind turbine blade position is controlled by Interval Type II Fuzzy Controllers. The results of the controlled system in the form of a round shaft turbine able to work at its optimum. The test results showed that at set point control system 10 pulse per second (pps), has a maximum overshot time 50 %, error steady state (ess), 16.3 %; set point 20 pps, have a maximum overshoot time 35 %, error steady-state 12.65 %; set point 30 pps, have a maximum overshoot time 26.7 %, error steady state 10.4 % and set point 40 pps. Have a maximum overshoot time 12.5 %, error steady state 5 %. The best system response is the response of wind turbine pitch angle controller with set point 40 pps, it has the smallest overshoot and minimum error steady state.
Keywords: Blade, Pitch angle, Wind Turbine, Interval Type-II Fuzzy Controllers.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 701 KB
Title: Evaluation of Environmental Factors for Improving Safety, Case Study on Boiler Instrument Processing Unit IV & VI PT.Pertamina Persero
Author(s): Silvana Da Costa, Hermanto A, Ali Musyafa, Adi Soeprijanto
Pages: 32-36 Paper ID:164001-5959-IJET-IJENS Published:April, 2016
Abstract: Boiler is one of the equipments that has strategic role in a plant, therefore boiler failure should be avoided wherever possible. One of boiler failure causes is environmental factor. The influence of environment and reliability is assessed to get the instrument system performance. Based on maintenance historical data, Mean time to Failure (MTTF), Failure rate (λ) and Probability Failure Demand (PFD) of each instrument can be calculated. From the analysis, it is known that environment condition shave correlation to PFD value. Environmental conditions at RU-VI Balongan, location have greater influence on the PFD compared to the environmental conditions in RU Cilacap. By reviewing three environment variables that are environment temperature, relative humidity and SO2content in the air, the level of SO2 contenting the air has the most impact compared to the other 2 factors. The SO2 content has uncertainty value measurement =0.108 in RU-IV Cilacap and uncertainty value measurement =0.071 in RU-VI Balongan.
Keywords: Instrument , boiler, reliability, safety, environment.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 408 KB
Title: Hazard and Operability Study and Risk Management Case Study: Phosphoric Acid Concentration Process in Petrochemical Plant - Indonesia
Author(s): Ronny D.Noriyati, Anam K., Ali Musyafa, Adi Suprijanto
Pages: 37-42 Paper ID:164401-3838-IJET-IJENS Published:April, 2016
Abstract: A Phosphoric Acid evaporation system happens in concentration process. The biggest potential harm can happen in evaporation system as a result of the leak in the Heat Exchanger, so harm and risk evaluation is needed. Harm evaluation is done by dividing the node into Heat Exchanger, Lower Evaporator, and Upper Evaporator, Guide World that obtained based on Control Chart. Risk appraisal that based on the Risk Matrix is consists of Likelihood and Consequences appraisal. Based on the analysis done, there are two instruments have potential harm and high risk such as Flow Transmitter Steam Inlet and Pressure Transmitter in Evaporator. Both of them five value of Likelihood and three points of Consequences. In order to lower the risk, the replacement of Specification Instrument is needed so that the instrument will be in accordance with the properties of fluid that very corrosive and abrasive. It needs a re-calibration once in every week when the Shut down Cleaning Process happens. It also needs a Redundant System in Heat Exchanger. Emergency Response Plan is about how to handle emergency situation and minimalist the risk.
Keywords: Risk management, heat exchanger, evaporator, HAZOP.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 813 KB
Title: An Optimization Model for Multi-period Multi-Product Multi-objective Production Planning
Author(s): M. S. Al-Ashhab
Pages: 43-56 Paper ID:164601-7575-IJET-IJENS Published:April, 2016
Abstract: This paper presents a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) optimization model to solve the partner selection, and production planning problem in the design of manufacturing chains operating under a multi-product, multi echelon, multi-period and multi-objective manufacturing environment. The proposed manufacturing chain consists of a facility, three suppliers, three distributors and four customers. The performance of the developed model is illustrated by using a verification problem. Discussion of the results proved the accuracy of the model.
Keywords: Production planning, location, allocation, MILP, modeling, multi-products, multi echelon, multi-objective and multi-periods.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 452 KB
Title: Application of 3D Laser Scanning Measurement on CMMs of Highly Precision Progressive Die Process Part
Author(s): Sanya Kumjing
Pages: 57-64 Paper ID:164101-9393-IJET-IJENS Published:April, 2016
Abstract: The goal of this research is the application of the process of laser inspection to three-dimensional parts by coordinating the measurements of a laser probe to produce quality specimens. The complex progressive die was precision manufactured from cold-rolled steel sheet material grade JIS 270-35 with a thickness of 1.8 mm. The results indicated that the specimens produced were similar to the original prototype, as the check points matched accurately. The thickness dimensions were acceptable, with P-values greater than the significance levels of 0.05 (P-Value>α). Advanced CMM-laser measurements resulted in a decrease in the percentage error of the size and thickness by 60.59% and 38.36% compared to conventional measurements, respectively. Moreover, the data are reliable, with a statistical confidence level of 95%; as a result, manufacturers can save time, reduce costs and minimise the risk of errors in the inspection of finished parts using the proposed approach, thereby directly providing quality for the customers.
Keywords: Laser scanner, auto part, progressive, 3D, measurement, CMM.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 947 KB
Title: Optimization of PID Controller Based on PSO for Photovoltaic Dual Axis Solar Tracking in Gresik Location–East Java
Author(s): Abdul Adhim, Ali Musyafa
Pages: 65-72 Paper ID:164901-8080-IJET-IJENS Published:April, 2016
Abstract: To improve the efficiency of electricity production of solar cell panels made by adding a solar tracking system. With a sun-tracking system sectional Photovoltaic (PV) is always facing the sun, so that the optimum electrical energy produced. There is a control technique is offered to solve this problem, among others, conventional PID control. In this study built-PSO PID control system, to optimize existing PID control. Adding algorithms particle swarm optimization (PSO) as tuning PID. PID parameters can be selected so that more precise. Designed by PID control and PID-PSO for PC iteration .For horizontal axis of rotation with a minimum three-stage fitness function final 1:33. Values obtained KP = 212.4, Ki = 27.1, and KD = 152. In the design of control PV vertical axis of rotation at iteration to eight by the end of the minimum fitness function = 8.6801. values obtained Kip = 487.2, Kid = 21.4, and Kid = 732.02, Performance PSO-PID control system of horizontal rotary axis stabilized system with maximum value overshot = 1.69%, settling time = 0.05 sec. Performance PSO-PID control system for rotary axes generate maximum value overshot = 1.83%, settling time = 0.104 seconds. So that the system is designed capable of tracking the position of the sun.
Keywords: Photovoltaic, solar tracking, PID control, PSO, auto tuning.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,006 KB