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Title: Micellar Catalytic Effect of Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide on O-Allylation of Eugenol by Allyl Bromide
Author(s): Hernawan, Bambang Purwono, Tutik Dwi Wahyunngsih
Pages: 01-04 Paper ID: 122401-7979-IJET-IJENS Published: February, 2012
Abstract: A simple and effective O-allylation reaction controlled micellar catalyst system was designed and synthesized. In this system, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was used for micellar catalytic O-allylation of eugenol. The reaction was carried out at room temperature to avoid Claisen rearrangement product. The results showed that the optimum concentration of CTAB as a catalyst was 1.21 × 102 mM with a yield 81.10%. GC-MS chromatogram revealed the major product is 4-allyl-1-(allyloxy)-2-methoxybenzene with 93.30% conversion. The applications of CTAB on the micellar catalytic O-allylation of eugenol were effective to reduce the reaction temperature and diminish the Claisen rearrangement product.
Keywords: Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, eugenol, micellar catalytic, O-allylation
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 121 KB
Title: Advantages of Prewashed 100 % cotton knit fabric over Scoured – Bleached fabric in deep color Reactive dyeing process
Author(s): Asma Begum
Pages: 05-15 Paper ID: 121201-6969-IJET-IJENS Published: February, 2012
Abstract: Natural fibre like cotton contains oils , fats , waxes , minerals , leafy matter and motes as impurities and natural color , all are removed by scouring and bleaching process from cotton knit fabric  which reduces fabric qualities and other properties. So it is possible to achieve similar or better results from deep color Reactive dyeing of prewashed fabric to dyeing of Scoured–bleached fabric. Prewash is done with Oleic acid based wetting agent which is biodegradable, low foaming, lubricant with leveling, dispersing and emulsifying properties. Examinations have shown higher values of color fastness to wash, similar rubbing fastness, higher color strength as well as reduction in weight loss, better strength and softness of fabric can be achieved from prewashed dyed fabric.
Keywords: Prewash, Burst strength, Bending length, Wash fastness to color, Rubbing
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 133 KB
Title: The New Quantitative Method For Analysis Of The Fine Structure Of The Fraunhofer Lines Profiles
Author(s): D.M.Kuli-Zade, R.Sartibzade, M.M.Tairov
Pages: 16-21 Paper ID: 123201-0909-IJET-IJENS Published: February, 2012
Abstract: The quantitative method for measurement and analysis of the fine structure of the weak and moderate Fraunhofer lines profiles are considered. The digital spectral materials obtained by rapidly scanning double monochromators high dispersion and high resolution have been used. The new quantitative method offered by the author are discussed . The new physical values of the differential , integral, residual and relative asymmetries have been introduced in first. These quantitative values permit to investigate the dependence of asymmetry on microscopic (atomic) and macroscopic (photospheric) values. It is shown that with increasing of the equivalent widths of the lines integral and residual asymmetries of the profiles noticeably grow. The average effective depths of the formation of used Fraunhofer lines in the photosphere of the Sun are determined. It is shown that with the increasing of the effective formation depths of the lines integral and residual asymmetries of the lines profiles noticeably decrease. It is in fine agreement with the results of intensity dependence of asymmetry. The above-mentioned methods are critically compared and the advantages of author’s method are shown.
Keywords: Solar spectrum, Fraunhofer lines profile, Fine structure, Quantitative method
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 418 KB
Title: Increasing of Oil Field Productivity by Implementation of Re-entry Horizontal Injection Well, Case study
Author(s): G.N.Jreou
Pages: 22-41 Paper ID: 123301-7474-IJET-IJENS Published: February, 2012
Abstract: Water flooding is one of the most important methods used in enhanced production; it was a pioneer method in use, but the development of technology within the oil industry, takes this subject toward another form in the oil production and application in oil fields with all types of oils and oil reservoirs. Now days most of the injection wells directed from the vertical to re-entry of full horizontal wells in order to get full of horizontal wells advantages. This paper describes the potential benefits for using of re-entry horizontal injection wells as well as combination of re –entry horizontal injection and production wells. Al Qurainat productive sector was selected for study, which is one of the four main productive sectors of South Rumaila oil field. A simulation model – named as SRFQ was used in the present work to predict the re-entry horizontal wells performance. Four scenarios were suggested to cover the full scope of the study; those scenarios are different in manner of wells combinations. Cumulative oil production, ultimate recovery percentage are two criteria were used to predict the performance and comparison of scenarios. Results from simulation model (SRFQ) runs revealed that the productive sector can be continue to gain 1564.331 MMSTB till 2020, without changing to any existing injection and production wells status, which is called the base scenario. While scenario no.1 needs some of work over and remedies jobs, which gives more cumulative oil production reaches to 1698.481 MMSTB till 2020. On another side, scenarios no. 2 and 4 are the most important scenarios because re-entry horizontal injection wells were implemented. Very good and encourage results were gained over the bas scenario from the sector under study. At last, scenario no.3 was suggested just to predict the production capacity of the Al Qurainat sector with re-entry horizontal production wells and existing vertical injection and production wells, while the cumulative oil production reaches 3398.481MMSTB.
Keywords: Horizontal, reservoir management, increasing production, re-entry
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 638 KB
Title: Introduction to Bitmap-based 3D Model and Its Machining Problems. Case Study: Brooch Machining
Author(s): Paryana Puspaputra, Indra Nurhadi, Yatna Yuwana Martawirya, Arif Basuki
Pages: 42-49 Paper ID: 124401-8383-IJET-IJENS Published: February, 2012
Abstract: This paper deals with an attempt to introduce new terminology in 3D modeling as a result of an effort to increase the speed of machining process and surface finish quality of jewelry master. The effort is addressed two terminologies for CAD CAM data type, those are bitmap-based 3D model and undetermined complex surface. Some issues on jewelry manufacturing problems are related to the effect of those data types.  Unlike in common manufacturing technology, art and jewelry are made in custom order and fabricated manually due to focusing on its beauty and uniqueness. In addition, the demands of exclusive jewelry sharply increased above the productivity of jewelry expert. The application of particular CAD/CAM technology is promising to solve the complexity of jewelry model and its productivity. At this research, a case study of brooch machining has been carried out to show problems. The result showed that machining method achieved  ten times faster than manual and three times faster than rapid prototyping. In addition, the cost for creating jewelry master by applying the method is approximately one tenth cheaper than those in manual or by rapid prototyping machine. However, CAD data characteristics should be well understood in order to achieve successful machining.
Keywords: Bitmap-based 3D model, micromachining, relief model, mathematically undetermined complex surface
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 761 KB
Title: Liquid metal flow behavior during vacuum consumable arc remelting process for titanium
Author(s): Hongchao Kou, Yingjuan Zhang, Zhijun Yang, Pengfei Li, Jinshan Li, Lian Zhou
Pages: 50-56 Paper ID: 125301-7474-IJET-IJENS Published: February, 2012
Abstract: To better understand the vacuum arc remelting (VAR) process, a 3D finite element model is established to analyzing the electromagnetic, temperature and flow fields of titanium alloy ingot during steady state melting process using ANSYS software. The research results show that the current flows from the crucible to consumable electrode. The magnetic field induced by current is rotary on axial line, which increases firstly and then decreases from the center to edge of crucible. The buoyancy, self-induced and stirring Lorentz forces are three main motion forces in molten pool. The molten pool is strongly influenced by fluid flows which in turn are driven by buoyancy and Lorentz force created by the melting current without stirring magnetic field. The flow velocity vectors resulted from buoyancy and self-induced Lorentz forces are opposite. The buoyancy dominates the liquid metal flow at lower current, but the self-induced Lorentz force becomes dominant with the increasing current. A transition from the buoyancy to self-induced Lorentz force dominant fluid flow occurs in the molten pool atop the ingot between 1.6 and 2.6 kA for size ingots. The stirring Lorentz force leads to a rotary flow of the molten pool in horizontal direction with stirring magnetic field.
Keywords: VAR, FEM, electromagnetic field, fluid field
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1839 KB
Title: Improving the Performance of Temperature Model of Economizer Using Bond Graph and Genetic Algorithm
Author(s): A.N. Aziz, P. Siregar, Y.Y. Nazaruddin, Y. Bindar
Pages: 57-61 Paper ID: 126701-5858-IJET-IJENS Published: February, 2012
Abstract: The mathematical model of economizer, based on physical laws is derived using bond graph methodology.Pseudo multi-energy bond graph, which employs mass flow-rate and enthalpy flow-rate as flow variables, as well as pressure and temperature as effort variables, is used in achieving that.Overall heat transfer coefficient of economizer is obtained by using logarithmic temperature mean difference between flue gas and boiler feed water.A modification of overall heat transfer coefficient in the form of parameterized polynomial is also done by using the help of genetic algorithm technique.A step simulation of the model at maximum, continuous, and minimum boiler operating condition demonstrates, that model’s performance has been improved.
Keywords: Bond graph, genetic algorithm, mathematical model, heat transfer coefficient
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 131 KB
Title: Non-Parametric Bilinear Approach for Modelling of a Non-Linear System
Author(s): Kahtan I. Aziz
Pages: 62-68 Paper ID: 123901-8686-IJET-IJENS Published: February, 2012
Abstract: A non-linear modelling technique is presented which uses a non-parametric bilinear representation in the form of a linear and a series of bilinear impulse coefficients.  The technique is applied in simulation to the identification of a non-linear continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and the resulting model is shown to satisfy correlation based non-linear validity tests.  It is also compared with linear modelling techniques and is shown to offer significant advantages.
Keywords: Bilinear identification, non-parametric, process modelling
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 119 KB
Title: Worldwide Trend of the Industrial Robot Applications in the Welding Processes
Author(s): Isak Karabegović, Edina Karabegović, Sead Pašić, Safet Isić
Pages: 69-74 Paper ID: 121501-0909-IJET-IJENS Published: February, 2012
Abstract: The paper analyzed the annual and total application of industrial robots per continents: America, Asia/Australia, Europe and Africa, in the period 2005 to 2010, in all areas of application. It is shown the annual application of industrial robots in the world since 1998 until 2010. In the period 2005-2008 years there was no significant difference in the annual application of industrial robots. In the 2009, due to the financial crisis, the industrial application of the robot has reached the lowest point in the last 13 years. It was carried out an analysis of industrial robots application in the welding process in the world since 2005 to 2010, for the following welding processes: arc welding, spot resistance welding, laser welding and other welding processes: ultrasonic welding, gas welding, plasma welding and brazing. Analysis of the application of industrial robots in the welding process is shown that at all continents: Europe, America, Asia/Australia and Africa, from year to year, have a growing trend from 2005 – 2010.
Keywords: Welding processes, applications, industrial robots
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 228 KB