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Title: Characterization of Millimetre waveband at 40 GHz wireless channel
Author(s): Syed Haider Abbas, Ali Bin Tahir, Muhammad Faheem Siddique, Hussnain Haider
Pages: 1-5 Paper ID: 130903-5757-IJECS-IJENS Published: June, 2013
Abstract: Over the recent years, there has been increasing demand of broadband multimedia communication. So, an extensive research has started in wireless services such as Local Multipoint Distribution Services (LMDS), Broadband Fixed Wireless Access (BFWA), Backhauls and Next Generation Internet (NGI). Actually the current problem that we’re having with the present architecture is limited bandwidth and as the bandwidth demand is increasing as well for different broadband applications, so for increasing bandwidth requirement, millimetre wave band will be well suited as in millimetre wave band, we have large available bandwidth which can be easily utilized in different broadband application. In addition to this, we also have an advantage of using mm-wave band that the transmitting and receiving antenna sizes are reduced as well as related electronic components. So, we can effectively use mm-wave band to overcome the continuously increasing congestion of the radio spectrum of lower frequencies. Out of the mm-wave bands, 40 GHz wireless channel represents an attractive band to be researched and utilized to achieve those requirements of large bandwidth. The main of this paper is to develop user-friendly software based on LabWindows CVI to provide a high precision control of a positioning system that provides linear displacement of a 40 GHz mobile radio channel sounder and data acquisition using VNA. The system will then be tested for indoor 40 GHz channel characterization.
Keywords: Millimetre wave band, Linear positioning system, High Speed Data Acquisition system
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 363 KB
Title: Low Cost Smart Home Automation via Microsoft Speech Recognition
Author(s): Md. Raihaan Kamarudin., Md. Aiman F. Md. Yusof
Pages: 6-11 Paper ID: 131003-8484-IJECS-IJENS Published: June, 2013
Abstract: The evolution and development in home automation is moving forward toward the future in creating the ideal smart homes environment. Optionally, home automation system design also been develop for certain situation which for those who need a special attention such as elderly person, sick patients, and handicapped person. Thus, providing a suitable control scheme using wireless protocol mode can help them doing their daily routine. Besides, voice control access will be used as command for better purpose. In this paper, we present a smart home automation system using voice recognition. The scope of this research work will include the control and monitoring system for home appliances from Graphical User Interface (GUI) using Microsoft Visual Basic software that use Microsoft Speech Recognition engine as an input source and being control wirelessly. The research methodology involved is application of knowledge in the field of radio frequency communication, microcontroller and computer programming. Finally, the result will be observed and analyze to obtain better solution in the future.
Keywords: Home Automation, Voice Recognition, Microsoft Speech Recognition, Microsoft Visual Basic, ZigBee.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 486 KB
Title: Simulated Response of Input Current for high Power Factor and low THD of SEPIC Rectifier
Author(s): Muhammad, Ashik Ahmed, Md. Ashraful Hoque
Pages: 12-15 Paper ID: 131803-9696-IJECS-IJENS Published: June, 2013
Abstract: Power electronic equipments reliable and stable operation, dc supply should be regulated. The regulation can be performed using buck, boost, Cûk, Flyback regulators. Except single phase rectifier with resistive load all other rectifiers input currents are non sinusoidal in nature. This front end current distortion of rectifier converter leads to low power factor, high THD, distribution system losses, neutral harmonic currents, over rated power equipments in a power system. The aim of this research is to develop a Sepic regulator with improved input current quality for low THD and good power factor to ensure better performance for the system. In this work, a detailed study has been carried out to investigate the effect of ac to dc converter on input current that eventually injects harmonics into the power system. Various topologies of the converter with input and output filter arrangements have been investigated. Finally, the performance of the SEPIC with and without passive filter has been investigated through ORCAD simulation. It is seen that SEPIC with input passive filter provides best performances in terms of THD, input power factor for the diode bridge arrangement.
Keywords: Power Factor Correction, SEPIC, THD.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 347 KB
Title: HVAC Breakdown of R12, R12 – Air Mixtures in Sphere gap Electrodes and Proposed Composite insulating Liquid to Reduce the Amount of Transformer Oil In Transformers
Author(s): Muhammad Junaid, Mehran Tahir, Kamal Haider, Muhammad Aamir
Pages: 16-20 Paper ID: 132603-8585-IJECS-IJENS Published: June, 2013
Abstract: Breakdown behavior of a 10 mm point-sphere gap is investigated for R12, R12 (Dichlorodifluoromethane, CCL2F2), air mixtures for pressures of up to 60psi. It is shown that at high gas pressures, mixtures containing high R12 content can have breakdown voltages higher than the corresponding values in air. Furthermore, these voltages are compared with the SF6. And make a comparison of R12 and SF6 in different scenarios i.e. GWP, cost, dielectric strength. Then Ac voltage breakdown characteristics of various combinations of insulating filler in transformer oil for use in transformers were investigated, with the aim of reducing the amount of oil and thus the cost. Tests were conducted on a sphere–sphere electrode in a horizontal arrangement and a sphere–plane electrode in a vertical arrangement. The Breakdown characteristics were also investigated in a modal in which Nomex paper was inserted between filler and the high-voltage electrode. Based on the experiments, optimum conditions are proposed for the application of transformer oil to transformers. Detailed results of investigations of both gas and composite insulating oil are described and discussed in this paper.
Keywords: High Voltage, R12 Gas, SF6 Gas, Insulation, Transformer, Nomex Paper, Glass Beads
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 710 KB
Title: New Approach of Transforming Lumped Element Circuit of High-order Chebyshev Low Pass Filter Into Microstrip Line Form
Author(s): Liew Hui Fang, Syed Idris Syed Hassan, Mohd Fareq Bin Abd. Malek, Yufridin Bin Wahab, Norshafinash Binti Saudin
Pages: 21-30 Paper ID: 135903-7272-IJECS-IJENS Published: June, 2013
Abstract: A new approach of transforming lumped elements circuit into microstrip line for all high-order Chebyshev low pass filter is presented. The high-order Chebyshev low pass filter operating within UHF range have been designed, simulated and implemented on FR4 substrate for order N=3,4,5,6,7,8,9 with a band pass ripple of 0.01dB. The circuits were simulated and developed using Advanced Design Software (ADS)for both lumped and microstrip filter. Correction factor has been considered due to fringing inductor and capacitor. From ADS simulation results show that the response of microstrip line circuit of Chebyshev low pass filter with fringing correction factor has an excellent agreement with its lumped circuit. This shows that the new approach of transforming lumped element circuit into microstrip line is able to solve the design of high order Chebyshev low pass filter into microstrip line.
Keywords: Microstrip line circuit; Harmonic Filter; Microwave communication; Chebyshev low pass filter.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 721 KB
Title: Review and analysis of MATLAB ® Simulink Model of PEM fuel cell Stack
Author(s): Faheem Khan, Arshad Nawaz, Malik Ansar Muhammad, Muhammad Ali Khadim
Pages: 31-34 Paper ID: 137003-9292-IJECS-IJENS Published: June, 2013
Abstract: Modern world face problems like energy crises, global warming and ozone depletion due to toxic pollutants. The technology of the fuel cell is able to tackle these challenges. That is the reason fuel cell is considered as environmental friendly and efficient technology of future. Among various types of fuel cell, PEM fuel cell is the most diffused and popular type of market due to its sound features such as low operating temperature, quick variation according to load, high efficiency and better power density. In this paper, Matlab®-Simulink model of PEM fuel cell stack is used to analyze the phenomenon occurring in PEM fuel cell stack and the factors that affect the efficiency of the fuel cell stack. Moreover the behavior of fuel cell stack is observed under varying load and varying flow rate of fuel and oxidants.
Keywords: PEM Fuel cell, Matlab-Simulink, Model.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 666 KB
Title: Reduction of High Degree Polynomial Functions Using Generating Functions
Author(s): Slobodan Lj. Radojevic, Zorica A. Veljkovic, Danijel P. Begovic
Pages: 35-39 Paper ID: 138803-7676-IJECS-IJENS Published: June, 2013
Abstract: Creating of the empirical distribution for several independent random variables with a large number of values require the defining high degree polynomial by generating functions. Observation of mutual influence of random variables is equal to product of the corresponding high degree generative polynomial functions. At the example on prediction of malfunction in vehicles, this paper presents new approach for lowering degree of resulting polynomials, using the concentration of appropriate probability through generating functions without loosing of information’s.
Keywords: Polynomial function, concentration of probability, generating polynomial function, malfunction subclass, prediction of malfunction in vehicles.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 382 KB
Title: Improvement Torque Ripple of Switched Reluctance Motor Enhance Decay Time and Dwell Angle
Author(s): Abdal-Razak Shehab
Pages: 40-46 Paper ID: 139203-4646-IJECS-IJENS Published: June, 2013
Abstract: This paper presents the performance of a 6/4-pole configuration switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) drive with fixed turn-off angle control scheme. Turn-off and on angles (dwell angle) plays an important role in developing electromagnetic torque in SRM and leads to stable or unstable operation of the drive. However, this study analyze the effect of decreased decay time for form of wave current by adding resistance in the return path, so that give us a flexibility to tuning the overlap angle (on and off angles) without developing negative torque, finally lead to reduce the torque ripple. The presented method is capable of minimizing SRM torque ripple as shown in addition to accurate average torque control compared with conventional current or voltage control. Torque ripple are intolerable for many high performance applications, especially at low speeds. The advantage of this method is very simple, inexpensive and effective to improvement torque ripple control scheme are emphasized. A 6/4 SRM modeled, simulation results for loaded and unloaded machine shows that the proposed scheme has good performance and practical application prospects.
Keywords: Modeling, performance analysis, simulation, switched reluctance motor, decay time.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 527 KB
Title: Analytical Methods for Earth Surface Potential Calculation for Grounding Grids
Author(s): Sherif S. M. Ghoneim, Kamel A. Shoush
Pages: 47-53 Paper ID: 1310803-7272-IJECS-IJENS Published: June, 2013
Abstract: The grounding resistance (Rg) as well as step and touch voltages determine the performance and quality of grounding grids. The estimation of grounding resistance values and the touch and step voltages is usually carried out by means of formulas and algorithms that take into account the mutual influence between the grid electrodes. Two methods analytical methods are used For Rg and earth surface potential (ESP) calculations. The first one is the charge simulation method (CSM) and the other is the boundary element method (BEM) from commercial software TOTBEM. The validation of two methods is explained by comparing their results and the other results that formulated in IEEE Guide for Safety in AC Substation Grounding (ANSI/IEEE std 80-1986). The soil is assumed to be homogeneous. Vertical rods that added to the grounding grids play an important role in improving the performance of it by reducing not only the grid resistance but also the step and touch voltages to values that safe for human. The paper investigates the effect of vertical rods location on Rg and ESP. A comparison between the addition of horizontal rods and vertical rods to the grounding grids is investigated. Also the paper focuses on the effect of profile location on some parameters on Rg and ESP.
Keywords: Grounding grids, Step voltage, Touch voltage, Boundary element approach, and vertical rod location.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 617 KB
Title: Error-Correction-Code Allocation Using The Chemical Reaction Optimization Algorithm
Author(s): Taisir Eldos, Waleed Nazih, Hamed Elsimary
Pages: 54-57 Paper ID: 1312103-6464-IJECS-IJENS Published: June, 2013
Abstract: One of the fundamental problems in coding theory is to determine, for given set of parameters q, n and d, the value Aq(n,d), which is the maximum possible number of code words in a q-ary code of length n and minimum distance d. Codes that attain the maximum are said to be optimal. Being unknown for certain set of parameters, scientists have determined lower bounds, and researchers investigated the use of different evolutionary algorithms for improving lower bounds for a given set of parameters. In this paper, we are interested in finding the set of maximally distant codes for a certain set of parameters, to provide for error detection and/or correction features. For a practically sized problem, it forms a challenge due to the prohibitively of large solution space. In this work we aim to finding optimal codewords by mapping from the maximal code discovery towards error correcting codes allocation, to the settings of Chemical Reaction Optimization(CRO), a recently developed evolutionary optimization technique, in order to propagate from an initial random state to a final minimal energy state that represents an optimal solution.
Keywords: Error correcting code, optimal code words, chemical reaction optimization.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 395 KB