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Title: Capacitor Device for Air Bubbles Monitoring
Author(s): Mawahib Gafare Abdalrahman Ahmed
Pages: 1-4 Paper ID: 93110-7878-IJECS-IJENS Published: December, 2009
Abstract: Emboli or Air bubble detection is vital for many medical procedures involving Extracorporeal Blood Circuits or ECBC e.g. hemodialysis, hemofiltration and cardiopulmonary bypass .This risk has increased as negative pressures are developed between the arterial fistula needle and the blood pump in the ECBC machine. This study suggests a capacitor device to detect the presence of air bubbles by measuring change in the output voltage. The capacitor has two platinum plates with area 0.75 cm2. The distance between the plates is 1 cm and Dextran70 fluid is introduced as the dielectric material between the plates. This solution replaces blood to avoid clotting whilst conducting the experiment. This device is connected with a resistor i.e. 100 kO to form a low pass filter circuit. The change of output voltage is measured when there is a change of dielectric material of the capacitor due to the appearance of an air bubble in the stream. The sensitivity of the capacitor device is found to be 8.28 mV/ nF at 2 MHz
Keywords: Air bubbles; extracorporeal blood circuits; capacitor; dextran70; dielectric material
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 274 KB
Title: Arabic Typography: A Survey
Author(s): Aqil Azmi, Abeer Alsaiari
Pages: 5-10 Paper ID: 93210-6565-IJECS-IJENS Published: December, 2009
Abstract: For many years, tools authoring for e-documents composition has been tailored for the English script’s needs. The localization of these tools to Arabic alphabet based writings is not an easy task, because of the great typographical and structural characteristic differences, and also because Arabic typography needs to process the text and analyze it contextually so that it can be typed according to the strict rules of Arabic calligraphy. Most typesetting tools seek to composite Arabic documents through adaptation of fonts capability to Latin based systems or by adaptation of the tools themselves to Arabic writing rules, and this is not an easy job due to the necessity of complex contextual analysis of Arabic writing and processing algorithms which differ from those in Latin based systems. The main purpose of this survey is to explore Arabic typography rules and to review the current Arabic typesetting systems. Such systems have been adapted to process special Arabic documents such as Scientific, Qur’anic and Multilingual documents. Research trends to date are summarized, and challenges confronting the development of high quality Arabic typography are identified. These challenges include the need for better algorithms for justification of Arabic text without relying on the Kashida, diacritical mark positioning and composition of dynamic fonts.
Keywords: Arabic, Encoding, Font, Typesetting.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 792 KB
Title: Shunt Capacitance for a Practical 380 kV System
Author(s): A. H. Almasoud
Pages: 11-12 Paper ID: 93610-7070-IJECS-IJENS Published: December, 2009
Abstract: It is well known that shunt capacitance is both socially and economically beneficial to power system network. These devices reduce the apparent power (S) which is produced by generators allowing more customers to be served and increasing the income of electrical companies. Shunt compensation units have to be connected to carefully selected substations to result in a high degree of reactive power compensation. This can be done by several methods, such as the Genetic Algorithm (GA), Hybrid of GA or Trial and Error heuristic method. In this paper, we present a comparison of the three algorithms to determine the amount of savings that can be achieved by each algorithm. The system under investigation is a real 380 kV system, operating in the Western Region of Saudi Arabia, and the results reflect experimental data on this system.
Keywords: Reactive compensation, shunt capacitance, 380 kV, substation, Saudi Arabia, saving
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 141 KB
Title: Prediciting Number Of Hops In The Coorporation Zone Based On Zone Based Scheme
Author(s): Ibrahim Saidu, Idawaty Ahmad, Nor Asila Waty Abdul Hamid, Mohammed waziri Yusuf
Pages: 13-17 Paper ID: 93910-4343-IJECS-IJENS Published: December, 2009
Abstract: Due to the unpredictable mobility behaviours of nodes in mobile ad hoc networks, predicting the average number of hops becomes very essential in multi-hop ad hoc networks, which is used as a key metric in predicting the number of hops in cooperation zone. However, most current research derives the average number of hops based on simulations, lacking the mathematical analysis of this essential metric. This research presents a mathematical study of the number of hops in the cooperation zone based on zone based scheme. The proposed mathematical analysis studies the relationship between the average number of hops and other ad hoc network parameters such as server distance , node density , and access pattern .At last Mathematical results shows that the average number of hops is analytically predictable for the zone based scheme.
Keywords: Average number of hops, cooperation zone and zone based scheme.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 322 KB
Title: Performance Evaluation of Columnar Multi-Block Vector Structure
Author(s): Rupam Deb, Kazi Rafiqul Islam, Md. Abul Kashem, Md. Jakir Hossain
Pages: 18-22 Paper ID: 98010-7373-IJECS-IJENS Published: December, 2009
Abstract: Lower storage capacity and slower access time are the main problems of the Database Management System (DBMS). In this paper, we have been compared the storage and access time between the columnar multi-block vector structure (CMBVS) and Oracle 9i server. The experimental results shown that CMBVS is about 31 times efficient in storage cost and 21-70 times faster in retrieval time performance than that of the Oracle 9i server.
Keywords: Comparison CMBVS with Oracle, compression technique, Oracle 9i server compression technique, Oracle database storage space.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 395 KB
Title: Development of a Cell Phone based Remote Control System: an Effective Switching System for Controlling Home and Office Appliances
Author(s): C. K. Das, M. Sanaullah, H. M. G. Sarower, M. M. Hassan
Pages: 23-29 Paper ID: 99310-1414-IJECS-IJENS Published: December, 2009
Abstract: This paper demonstrates a novel method which enable users to control their home appliances and systems from remote using a cell phone-based interface. To access the control unit, the user should send an authentication code (DTMF) along with the required/desired function/action to his/her home control system via Global Sytem for Mobile communication(GSM). Upon being properly authenticated, the cell phone-based interface at home (control unit) would relay the commands to a microcontroller that would perform the required function/action, and return a function completion code that would be sent to the source of the original command (user’s cell phone).
Keywords: Decoder, DTMF, GSM, HACS, Microcontroller.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 391 KB
Title: Investigation of Variable Frequency ISPWM Control Method for an Asymmetric Multilevel Inverter
Author(s): R. Seyezhai, B. L. Mathur
Pages: 30-36 Paper ID: 98810-2323-IJECS-IJENS Published: December, 2009
Abstract: Multilevel inverter is an effective and practical solution for increasing power and reducing harmonics of ac waveforms. Several multilevel topologies are reported and the most popular topology is Cascaded Multilevel Inverter (CMLI). This paper focuses on asymmetric cascaded multilevel inverter employing variable frequency inverted sine PWM technique (VFISPWM). This technique combines the advantage of inverted rectified sine wave and variable frequency carriers for a seven level inverter for balancing the switch utilization. A detailed study of the technique was carried out through MATLAB/SIMULINK for switching losses and THD. Furthermore, a PI controller is used to control the MLI using the proposed PWM technique. The results were verified experimentally and FPGA processor is used for PWM. It was noticed that the proposed modulation strategy results in lower switching losses for a chosen THD as compared to the conventional strategies.
Keywords: Asymmetric Multilevel Inverter, Variable frequency ISPWM, Switching Loss.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 322 KB