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Author(s): Tatheer Zahra, Yasmeen Zehra, Noman Ahmed
Pages: 1-7 Paper ID:150202-8383-IJCEE-IJENS Published: April, 2015
Abstract:In this investigation, a study was conducted to compare the design of a high rise reinforced concrete building in different seismic zones. A 30 storied building was modelled in ETABS software and analysis was done for forces in low (seismic zone 1), moderate (seismic zone 2a, 2b) and high (seismic zone 3, 4) categories and applied forces were compared. The building had a dual frame comprising of shear walls interacting with moment resisting frame to provide lateral resistance. All structural members were designed for moderate zone 2b (Karachi where the building is situated) and the capacity was compared for all the above mentioned categories. The results showed that the members designed for moderate seismic zone were inadequate for higher seismic zone categories. Some of the beams and columns which were found adequate in low and moderate categories were found to be deficient for resisting loads for high seismic loadings. Similarly shear wall in critically loaded areas that were performing well in low and moderate zone needed to be re-designed for high seismic zone categories. The RC buildings which are analysed and designed to sustain low and moderate seismic events are not safe for seismic events of higher category and run the risk human lives and massive devastation.
Keywords: Buildings, structures & design; Reinforced concrete structures; Seismic Zones.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 418 KB
Author(s): Ahmed M. Abdelbaki
Pages: 8-14 Paper ID:153802-7474-IJCEE-IJENS Published: April, 2015
Abstract:Drainage water management (DWM) is the drainage system in which the drain outlets are partially closed to reduce drainage volumes. The effect of DWM depends on many factors such as soil type, weather condition and crop type. This research studies the effect of using DWM on drainage and crop production in three sites in USA at NC, IL and IA in the dry weather conditions. The hydrological model DRAINMOD has been used to simulate two drainage systems; conventional drainage and controlled drainage. The results showed that the efficiency of DWM system increases in the dry and very dry conditions. In the NC site, the crop yield increased by 9% in the very dry years , 5.33% in the dry years and 0.63% in the long term average. The drainage outflow was reduced by 26.4% in the very dry years and by 23.6% in the dry years. In the IL site, crop yield increased by 5.4% and 4.6% and the drainage was reduced by 33.33% and 32% in very dry and dry years respectively. In the IA site, crop yield increased by 2.22% and 2.91% and the drainage was reduced by 46.5% and 32.2% in very dry and dry years respectively.
Keywords: Controlled drainage, relative yield, dry conditions, DRAINMOD, subsurface drainage.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 389 KB
Author(s): D. A. Wulandari, D. Legono, S. Darsono
Pages: 15-20 Paper ID:153202-7474-IJCEE-IJENS Published: April, 2015
Abstract:The Wonogiri Reservoir problem is not only rapid decreasing in the reservoir capacity, but also spatial sedimentation problems. Regular sediment monitoring or measurements need to be performed for determining the pattern and estimating the rate of sedimentation. An evaluation of reservoir sediment inflow and spatial reservoir sedimentation is required when the sedimentation rate exceeds the rate of sedimentation plans. Therefore the objective of this study is to evaluate the deposition pattern of Wonogiri Reservoir due to spatial sedimentation problems by using monitoring of reservoir bottom elevation. This study used the monitoring of reservoir bottom elevation of Wonogiri Reservoir year 1980, 1993, 2004, 2005 and 2011 base on measurement by Balai Besar Wilayah Sungai Bengawan Solo, JICA and Perum Jasa Tirta I. Deposition pattern of Wonogiri Reservoir sedimentation evaluates and discusses. Base on the result, Wonogiri Reservoir is a unique reservoir, because the reservoir water inflow came from river mouths that located around the reservoir. Therefore, sediment input will deposit at the river mouth around the reservoir and the deepest part of the reservoir at the center. Intake location occupies the deposition area with a high rate.
Keywords: Reservoir sedimentation, deposition pattern, Wonogiri Reservoir.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 872 KB
Author(s): Caroline de G. Sampaio, Flávio A. de Freitas, Francisco T. C. de Souza, Edy S. de Brito, Helena Becker, Maria T. S. Trevisan
Pages: 21-31 Paper ID:155102-4848-IJCEE-IJENS Published: April, 2015
Abstract:In this present study, the adsorption of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) ions from synthetic aqueous solution was investigated using noni seeds (NS). The biosorbent was characterized using FTIR, X-ray fluorescence, BET, TGA and DSC techniques, PZC, superficial groups and organic matter content. The effect of various process parameters such as the initial pH, adsorbent dosage, initial concentration of Cr(VI), the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) and contact time has been studied in batch-stirred experiments. Maximum removal of Cr(VI) ions in aqueous solution was observed at pH 1.0 for NS. The removal efficiency of Cr(VI) ions from the aqueous solution was found to be 100% for initial metal ion concentration of 10 mg L-1. Various isotherm models were studied and the distribution coefficient show that the adsorption could be described by Langmuir isotherm model which maximum adsorption capacity of 7.94 mg g-1. The pseudo-second-order kinetic of the adsorption process was validated with experimental data. The results indicate that noni seeds proved to be a promising adsorbent for the removal of Cr(VI) ions from aqueous solution.
Keywords: Chromium (VI), adsorption, reduction, noni, seeds.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 441 KB
Author(s): Carlos Eduardo Sanches de Andrade, Márcio de Almeida D’Agosto
Pages: 32-37 Paper ID:159602-7474-IJCEE-IJENS Published: April, 2015
Abstract:The transport sector is responsible for a significant portion of global emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), due to the generation of electricity and the burning of fossil fuels required for the movement of vehicles. The measurement of such emissions, when held in grams of CO2 per passenger-kilometer, enables more significant results, considering the passenger load. This work aims to analyze emissions from passenger transportation systems of integrated subways and buses, compared with private cars, establishing a procedure for calculating these emissions. The procedure was applied to Rio de Janeiro Subway and its fleet of buses, called Surface Subway, throughout 2012. The results obtained indicate that the electric trains of the system had an average emission of 4.5 grams of CO2 per passenger-kilometer, a result ten times lower than the emission of buses, which in turn emitted three times less than the private cars. The integration of train and bus systems, thus, provided the city with significant reduction of carbon dioxide emissions produced by the transport system.
Keywords: CO2 emissions; passenger transportation; subway
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 261 KB
Author(s): Nivaldo Benedito Ferreira Campos, José Maria Campos dos Santos
Pages: 38-44 Paper ID:1511202-4848-IJCEE-IJENS Published: April, 2015
Abstract:In the mid-frequency range, numerical methods such as the finite and boundary element methods are not the most suitable for structural dynamic analysis as mesh refinement leads to models that are often too large. Other methods that can be considered as semi-analytical, such as the spectral element method, do not need that at higher frequencies a mesh refinement be done, but they are limited in the geometries that can be modeled and some of its formulation cannot treat arbitrary boundary conditions. This work develops a spectral element for thin plates based on a high precision finite element proposed by Kulla, which can be applied on modeling plates with arbitrary boundary conditions. The results obtained are compared with others from different methods presented in the literature.
Keywords: Spectral element method, plate, vibrations, numerical methods, frequency response functions.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 368 KB