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Author(s): Alberto C. Lordsleem Jr., Petronio R. A. Lima
Pages: 1-6 Paper ID:143603-8585-IJCEE-IJENS Published: June, 2014
Abstract:Civil construction causes many environmental impacts, mainly with regard to the widespread use of non-renewable inputs, high energy consumption and major waste production. In the international market there are various systems for assessing the sustainability of buildings, most of which are conceived by the so-called developed countries. Analysis of the origin of such systems gives an idea of the perceived stronger emphasis on environmental aspects. In Brazil special emphasis is on the AQUA regulation, the first tool developed in the country to assess sustainability of buildings. Inspired by the French HQE system, it was launched on April 3, 2008, by Vanzolini Foundation and was the first certification seal of sustainable constructions adapted to the Brazilian reality. This paper present the research of case studies assessed the environmental impact of construction sites using the Brazilian AQUA regulation. The research method included case studies in four companies of the construction industry, two located in the city of Recife and the other two in the city of São Paulo in Brazil, in order to verify the actions taken to improve the sustainability of the construction sites, from which it was possible to describe the key elements needed for establishing the AQUA regulation. Companies based in Recife responded positively to only 59 of 114 questions about taking action for sustainability in construction sites, representing 52% positive answers, while São Paulo companies answered positively to 94 questions, or 83% of positive answers. It is therefore expected to contribute to achieving a construction site with less impact on the environment, according to the scope of a Brazilian regulation with emphasis on how much we have to advance in terms of sustainability.
Keywords: Civil construction, sustainability, aqua regulation, construction sites, Brazil.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 342 KB
Author(s): Moh Azhar, Azwar Manaf, Bambang Soegijono
Pages: 7-10 Paper ID:146103-5959-IJCEE-IJENS Published: June, 2014
Abstract:Have analyzed the mechanical properties of the modified materials, lightweight concrete (LWC) by adding rice husk ash (RHA) and pumice with milling method. Results of the effect of adding these materials obtainable of change the mechanical properties of the material lightweight aggregate concrete (LWAC) indicated by changes in the value of the density and pressure of material LWAC. After doing some mix of materials with different variation obtained from Strength Test conducted lightweight concrete compressive strength value of the greatest (226.67 kg/cm2) on pumice to cement ratio is 0.5, and the values obtained are relatively small density (1776.59 kg/m3) where light weight concrete category type < 2000 kg/m3 , while the density of normal concrete/default is 2300 - 2400 kg/m3.
Keywords: Lightweight aggregate concrete (LWAC), rice husk ash (RHA), pumice, density, and mechanical properties.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 371 KB
Author(s): Ratna Musa, Muhammad Saleh Pallu, Lawalenna Samang, Mukhsan Putra
Pages: 11-16 Paper ID:146903-8585-IJCEE-IJENS Published: June, 2014
Abstract:This research intends to know regional physic characteristic such as rainfall, land use, soil type and regional topography in the frame work for development of hydrograph model experimental based on regional characteristic; hydrograph pattern for various regional factor; synthetic unit hydrograph model applies catchment area parameter; Information of model validity when it is applied in others catchment area. This research in the form of experimental study implemented in the laboratory by using rainfall simulator as a simulation rain. Modelling process is prepared by statistic with regression method. The research is implemented toward a physic factor of the catchment area like rainfall, land use, soil type, large of catchment area (A), the length of the main river (L) river mean slope (S) believed that has effect to hydrograph shape. The result of this study shows that result of the test for cover land, stone, earth, grass, and the average (combination of stone, earth, grass) characterize shape of catchment area tendeng to stretch a long a length, having rising characteristic is faster than recession line (hydrograph rising line < hydrograph recession line). The result of adjustment produces hydrograph parameter value (a*) = 1 - 2,5 whereas for value tg is modified from the orginal formulation tg = 0,21 L^(0,7) becomes tg* = (1/(0,21 vL))*ß * tg . After model constant adjustment be done, the result is more accurate than their measurement unit hydrograph, indicated by value of coefficient of efficiency (CE) more than 0,90 shows that adjustment of model HSS has a good approximation accurateness level, and it is supported by the test parameter value of EV, AEQp, EQp and ETp which have approached or equals to 0 (zero). The result of model validity with measurement data of sub catchment area of Bantimurung has produces good performance. Value of CE for other tested model = 1 (one), likewise for other test parameter so that result in the most satisfication unit hydrograph shape estimation. From this condition indicates that hydrograph of empiric synthetic unit (HSE) have the same shape with the measurement unit hydrograph.
Keywords: Characteristic of Catchment area, synthetic unit hydrograph physic model.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 1,081 KB
Author(s): AbdulRazak H. Al-Maliki, M. Ezzeldin, A. S. Al-Ghamdi
Pages: 17-24 Paper ID:149603-1818-IJCEE-IJENS Published: June, 2014
Abstract:One of the simple and most practical equations that is used in hydrologic and hydraulic routing, is the Diffusion Wave equation. Considering the fact that this equation has an analytical solution only in a specific condition, using numerical methods for solving it has been common and finding a good numerical method for solving this equation, has been the focus of many researchers. The differential quadrature method (DQM) is one of the numerical methods that because of its stability . Finite difference method (FDM) is the most practical method that is used in solving partial differential equations . It is shown that use of the (DQM), with (FDM), yields a good convergence of results. The results have been compared with numerical schemes available in literature and it shows good agreement with them. In this research, we have used the features of both methods for solving Diffusion wave equations. This research shows that the DQ method is not very sensitive when it comes to choosing a test function. But when it comes to distribution of grid points, the cosine distribution gives a much better result than a uniform distribution. In general the coupled DQM and FDM method gives an accurate result in solving the diffusion wave equation, even with few grid points and the numerical model prepared is very stable. Results shows that the normal error are 1.3084 , 1.259489 and 0. 96009498 for McCormack , DQ and coupled (DQ) with (FD) methods , respectively , it is clear that using coupled (DQ) with (FD) method is providing 21.7 % decreased in normal error .
Keywords: Flow routing, Diffusion wave equation, Numerical Solution, Differential Quadrature.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 742 KB
Author(s): Danilo A. Bomfim, Walter Libardi, João B. Baldo
Pages: 25-35 Paper ID:146902-1403-2727-IJCEE-IJENS Published: June, 2014
Abstract:In this work it is presented a simple method for Portland cement concrete dosing procedure. It is based on particle packing first principles together with a concise way of treating separately the needs for admixture water for each individual concrete constituent (coarse, medium and fine aggregates and the cement), as well as to the void content. The procedure is also supported by a specific mixing sequence of the raw materials. The verification of the model efficiency, was made by comparing the strength development at various ages of concrete specimens produced by means of the new dosing procedure, with that presented by conventional portland cement concrete specified for 35MPa ? 5,076 psi of compressive strength, using the Brazilian Portland Cement Association (ABCP) method. After 28 days, the new dosing method provided a concrete with average compressive strength value of 54MPa ? 7,832 psi. Conversely the one produced under ABCP method reached an average compressive strength of 43MPa ? 6,236 psi at the same age, containing however 30% higher cement content.
Keywords: Concrete, dosing, concrete composition, concrete strength
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 371 KB
Author(s): Siswanto, Joko Jinca M. Yamin
Pages: 36-42 Paper ID:148503-1717-IJCEE-IJENS Published: June, 2014
Abstract:In traveling, each rider will choose the route that gives the minimum fare. The journey can be expressed in terms of monetary cost, travel time, distance, safety, comfort, and cost is not borne by the traveler (social cost). Attributes are specific to each road segment (link), so it can’t be aggregated for a more long. Attribute segment in transport modeling approach behavior (behavioral), including 2 primary system, the system of activity attributes and attribute the traveler service systems. Pretty much the traveler who wants to use mass transit transportation. This research was conducted in the city of Semarang Metropolitan Indonesia : identify the purpose and perception of public transport user behavior on the network and create a model for user behavior on public transport network. The combined value of the coefficient of determination of the overall model is 0.931 This means that the model is able to explain 93.1% user behavior. Behavioral characteristics of users of public transport in the intermodal network in the form of the number of activities that a lot, have enough funds, enough users mature age, education level is high enough, is not associated with gender, the limitations of private vehicle ownership. Perception of public transport user behavior on the network inter-linked with the comfort, safety, convenience, capacity, quality and quantity of a good network, and reasonable travel expenses, as well as inter-disciplinary operator.
Keywords: Behavior, Public transport.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 954 KB