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Author(s): W. A. Amneera, Nor Wahidatul Azura Zainon Najib, Siti Rawdhoh Mohd Yusof, S. Ragunathan
Pages: 1-6 Paper ID: 132102-9595-IJCEE-IJENS Published: April, 2013
Abstract:Water pollution was viewed as crucial issue nowadays and if not properly managed and improved can threat human health, aquatic life as well as the environment. Aware of the importance of water quality, this study conducted to characterize the quality of Perlis River specifically Kangar, base on the Water Quality Index (WQI) calculation method. Water samples from three sampling stations sampled from January until March 2012. The three stations marked as Kangar City (Station 1), Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID) monitoring station (Station 2) and Kangar wet market (Station 3). WQI was calculated based on the six parameters which were dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), pH, total suspended solid (TSS) and ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N). The finding from the study shows that Station 3 was the lowest in quality compared to others due to wastewater produced from nearby activity, namely wet market. It was classified from Class IV to V meanwhile Class II to IV for Station 1 and 2. Based on Department of Environment (DOE), Station 3 was identified as polluted range whereas Station 1 and Station 2 classified as slightly polluted.
Keywords: River water quality, water quality index, water quality parameters.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 487 KB
Author(s): H. M. Rasel, M. R. Hasan, S. C. Das
Pages: 7-11 Paper ID: 139402-0707-IJCEE-IJENS Published: April, 2013
Abstract:Bank erosion is the worst calamities that adversely affect the economy by reducing agricultural land, houses etc. Bangladesh with its repeated cycles of flood, cyclones and storm surges has proved one of the most disaster-prone areas of the world where river bank, coastal erosion and embankment failure happen continuously. Resistance of vegetation may have a considerable effect in controlling flow velocity that makes overtopping erosion. Now-a-days vetiver grass is well-known as bioengineering and establishment of this technique to rigid or hard structures accepted all over the world for riverbank stabilization and embankment erosion control due to its low cost and longevity. Therefore, to minimize the impact of natural disasters and to achieve the aim of agricultural production, sustainable and cost-effective maintenance of those embankments is prerequisite for Bangladesh. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the effects of different vegetation density for controlling flow velocity during overtopping flow and their related hydraulic characteristics. Experimental results revealed that vegetation markedly reduced the overtopping and sloping velocity and also revealed no supercritical flow condition both on the d/s slope and bed of embankment model which is the main influencing factor for causing overtopping erosion.
Keywords: Earthen embankment, vetiver grass, overtopping flow, vegetation, erosion.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 386 KB
Author(s): D. S. Agustawijaya
Pages: 12-16 Paper ID: 136002-8484-IJCEE-IJENS Published: April, 2013
Abstract:This paper presents a review on hazard reduction systems, and a reliability estimate of a dredging system established into the Lusi mud eruption in Sidoarjo, East Java. The eruption has displaced about 30000 people from the area since May 2006. A number of methods had been applied to stop the eruption, but all operations failed due to various geological problems. A dredging system has subsequently been introduced in 2010, including six units of dredgers and other supporting equipment. The system was intended to flow mud from the ponds to the Kali Porong River.A reliability estimate has been employed for analyzing the capability of the system. Results show that the system had a reliability value of 52%, being capable in reducing mud hazard risk; although in some stage the reliability of the system could deteriorate when alterations occur into the system. Therefore, the system needs to be optimized to gain a higher reliability value.
Keywords: Dredging, eruption, flow, hazard, mud, reliability.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 268 KB
Author(s): Rini Kusumawardani, Kabul Basah Suryolelono, Bambang Suhendro, Ahmad Rifa’i
Pages: 23-28 Paper ID: 137702-8585-IJCEE-IJENS Published: April, 2013
Abstract:On May 27th 2006, a 6.3 Richter scale earthquake struck Yogyakarta, Indonesia. It caused a huge damage particularly to the city´s structure and infrastructure. The soil behavior affected by the earthquake load as a dynamic loading has been considered the importance of this research. This work focuses on implementing the modulus degradation parameter, shear modulus and the relationship between mean effective principal stress and axial strain to demonstrate the soil dynamic behavior. Various parameters such as effective confining stress, number of cycles loading, relative density of soil and amplitude of cyclic shear strain, have been successfully revealed the effect of the soil dynamic behavior toward soil behavior: on the loose soil in comparison to dense soil, it is required more force to resist the shear stress which is subjected on the soil during the cyclic loading. Subsequently, as a consequence, for loose soil is required lesser number of cycles loading to reach the soil failure condition. This study underlines that an effective confining pressure parameter has been effectively contributing to the enhancement of soil resistance to the shear stress.
Keywords: Sand, dynamic loading, cyclic triaxial testing.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 657 KB
Author(s): Nahesson Hotmarama Panjaitan, Ahmad Rifa’i , Agus Darmawan Adi, P. Sumardi
Pages: 29-34 Paper ID: 138502-7979-IJCEE-IJENS Published: April, 2013
Abstract:The movement of electricity resulting from the process of electrokinetics, have the ability to pass through any media, including layer of clay soil that has level very high plastisiticity. Some research that had been done, indicated that during the process of electrokinetics on clay soil used as media, also occurred some process like electrochemical, electroporosis and electroosmosis process. A series of experimental that have been done show that processes that occur during a process of electrokinetics has the potential to be developed as an alternative to stabilization of expansive clay soils. This research was conducted to find out the process of cation exchange on expansive clays soils by utilizing the electrokinetics process. In this research was conducted testing the exchange of cations of clay soil by using the ion Ca2+ that originating from a liquid of lime which is used as an ion exchanger or ingredients stabilizer. An increase in the concentration of the ion Ca2+ known by performing testing chemically molecules of soil clays with AAS methods. The results of this experimental showed that occur an increase in the concentration of the ion Ca2+ on molecules of soil during process of electrokinetics. In testing the consistency of ions Ca2+, by means of leaching the sample of soil with a pure water (aquades), and a reversal of an electric current, the results of this experimental showed that the concentration of ions Ca2+ still some remain in molecule of clay soil. Expected results achieved on this research can be developed for the process of stabilization of expansive clay soils.
Keywords: Process of cations exchange, electrokinetics, expansive clay soil, stabilization.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 557 KB
Author(s): Agus Nugroho, Tanit Tongthong, Takano Shin–ei
Pages: 35-41 Paper ID: 1310902-4848-IJCEE-IJENS Published: April, 2013
Abstract:In developing countries, construction waste becomes a serious problem in the future. Nowadays, the construction manager is difficult to quantify the waste production at the construction site. The waste quantity is known from the number of trucks carrying the waste. The quantity is important for the environmentalist to manage the landfill. This paper proposes a system to quantify the waste. The system was constructed based on images as data and digital image processing as a technique. To obtain the objectives, a set of technique was chosen and tested for evaluating the system. Measurement of volume is based on the geometric shape of the waste stack. It was tested on conical and validation using the truck capacity. The system showed the difference of volume was 0.53 cubic meters (the percentage error about 11.71%) compared to the truck capacity. Analysis uses the 95% limit agreement that the system showed 60% accurately.
Keywords: Construction waste, quantification, measurement, volume.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 707 KB
Author(s): Wardah Tahir, Hafizul Aimme Che Hamid
Pages: 42-46 Paper ID: 133202-5757-IJCEE-IJENS Published: April, 2013
Abstract:A modified Tank model was developed and calibrated for Sg. Gombak catchment. The Tank model uses hydrological and meteorological data such as rainfall, stream flow, and water level as an input to develop the model. A trial and error method was used to calibrate this tank model with a set of parameters that suit the tank configuration. The average Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Root Mean Square Error (RMS) for the tank model are 0.025 m and 0.065 m while the Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency is 96.3% after the autoregressive corrections to improve the simulated flood level at Jalan Tun Razak. The research also investigated the use of WSR data as rainfall input to the Tank model
Keywords: Tank Model, Weather Surveillance Radar, Sg Gombak Catchment, Flood forecasting.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 440 KB
Author(s): H. M. Rasel, M. R. Hasan, B. Ahmed
Pages: 47-53 Paper ID: 139502-8484-IJCEE-IJENS Published: April, 2013
Abstract:Now-a-days groundwater crisis of the projected area is highlighted. Water plays an important role in development of agricultural facilities in all parts of the world. Ground water condition of an area is mainly depending on geology, hydrology, hydrologic parameter, soil properties, recharge and discharge, hydraulic characteristics of aquifer. An important component of water balance equation is ground water recharge. This paper focuses mainly on the causes of groundwater fluctuation and the trend of groundwater level fluctuation as well as to determine the amount of recharge in Barind area by rainfall infiltration. The fluctuation of ground water level, variation of monthly rainfall, its infiltration and runoff data are analyzed in the barind area under greater Rajshahi district (North Western Part of Bangladesh) namely Niamatpur, Nachole, Gomostapur, Nawabgong and Shibgong in different month of year. The vertical change in storage is not same through the year due to rainfall & infiltration for characteristics of soil in study area. The maximum and minimum depth of water table found in month of April–May and August–September respectively. Monthly variation of rainfall follows the usual pattern of monsoon with heavy rains from June to September. The maximum infiltration as well as runoff also occurred from June to September due to maximum rainfall and the infiltration and runoff is negligible due to very little rainfall during the rest of the year.
Keywords: Fluctuation of groundwater level, hydrologic parameter, infiltration, rainfall, and runoff.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 621 KB
Author(s): Nuryazmeen Farhan Haron, Wardah Tahir, Lee Wei Koon
Pages: 54-58 Paper ID: 1312002-5656-IJCEE-IJENS Published: April, 2013
Abstract:The objective of this paper is to explain the extent of estuarine flooding to estuary transverse flow salinity intrusion. Water quality along the estuary is influenced by salinity intrusion during normal flow condition. However, during the extreme estuarine flooding, the water quality will deteriorate, due to the effect of the transverse flow salinity intrusion. This will reduce the productions of aquatic life. Animals, humans, and plants will also be affected. This paper also discusses a preliminary study on transverse flow salinity intrusion model in estuarine systems due to estuarine flooding. This paper is part of water quality aspects and flood risk management to keep water clean, especially in estuaries.
Keywords: Estuarine flooding, transverse flow, salinity intrusion, estuary
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 573 KB