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Author(s): Cindy SUPIT, Koichiro OHGUSHI
Pages: 01-05 Paper ID: 120103-9797-IJCEE-IJENS Published: June, 2012
Abstract: Kase River Basin in Saga Prefecture is one of the most important rice production bases in Kyushu Island, Japan.  A new multi-purpose Kase River Dam has been constructed just downstream of another old agricultural dam, Hokuzan dam in Saga Prefecture, Japan.  Forest and agricultural areas have been changed from artificial coniferous forest and rice field to water area. This study is to evaluate the future potential impacts of dam construction on stream nutrient transport for a 197.735 km2 mountains dam watershed in Kase River basin using SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model. The SWAT model was calibrated and validated using 2 years (2008-2009) daily stream flow data with the coefficient correlation = 0.86 and Nash-Sutcliffe index = 0.84. To describe effects on hydrological process from operating dams, various scenarios were examined, using the calibrated model. The set of scenarios tested the impact of the existence or nonexistence of dam reservoirs in the watersheds. The result of this study indicates that excessive dams in Kase River basin has changed dramatically the stream flow regimes by a decrease of monthly stream flow rates in the watershed up to 29.3% from the disappeared dam scenario.  Impoundments have less efficient on stream nutrient transport, based on results at Furuyu point. The future change of monthly stream and nutrient transport gave us the clue to be suggested for future adjustment of dam operation rule to optimize water resources and pollution control in Kase River basin.
Keywords: Dam construction, Stream flow, Nutrient transport, Kase River Basin
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 399 KB
Author(s): Akmaluddin, Pathurahman
Pages: 06-13 Paper ID: 126903-7878-IJCEE-IJENS Published: June, 2012
Abstract: This work investigated the deflection of 9 beams that were reinforced with twisted bamboo cables. The beams were simply supported and tested under two symmetrical points load monotonically.  The beams with three different amount of bamboo reinforcement were considered. The beam section was 150x250 mm and clear span of 2750 mm.  Cracking moment and crack moment of inertia values were affected significantly by the presence of bamboo reinforcement in the beam. Experimental results showed that cracking moment varies from 0.3 to 0.7 of ultimate moment. Ratio of experimental to theoretical cracking moment varies ranging from 0.90 to 1.42. A modified form of cracking moment of inertia was proposed. Thus an effective moment of inertia used for predicting deflection of bamboo reinforced beam was introduced. The model produced in this study gave better prediction than that of both the existing model and ACI equation in terms of reinforcement ratio between 0.72 % and 1.88 %.
Keywords: Effective moment of inertia, reinforced concrete, beam, bamboo, deflection
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 248 KB
Author(s): H.Y Katman, M.R Ibrahim, M.Y Matori, S. Norhisham, N. Ismail, R. Che Omar
Pages: 14-19 Paper ID: 128103-6969-IJCEE-IJENS Published: June, 2012
Abstract: This paper compares the performance of the reclaim asphalt pavement (RAP) mixes prepared with the foamed bitumen. Four different percentages of foamed bitumen namely 1%, 2%, 3% and 4% were used in preparation of the mixes. Mixes prepared with 50% RAP and 50% crusher run (Mix B) were compared with mixes prepared with 100% crusher run (Mix A) which performed as a control sample. Performance of the mixes based on indirect tensile strength test (ITS) in different conditions namely cured at 40oC for 72 hours and soaked for 24 hours at 25oC was evaluated. The test results indicated that incorporating RAP to the mixes shows insignificant difference in ITS value but also increase the resistance to moisture damage. However ITS value is significantly affected by the foamed bitumen content which 2% of foamed bitumen results in optimum ITS.
Keywords: Reclaimed asphalt pavement, Foamed bitumen, Indirect tensile strength, Tensile strength retained
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 89 KB
Author(s): Maria do Rosário T. de Abreu, Francisco Cláudio de F. Barros, Giselle S. C. Raulino, Cícero P. Moura, Ronaldo F. do Nascimento
Pages: 20-25 Paper ID: 129003-4848-IJCEE-IJENS Published: June, 2012
Abstract: In this study synthetic zeolite 4A was used for metal ions removal from synthetic aqueous solutions and produced water samples of oil platforms in Ceará state-Brazil. The pH effect on the metal ions removal using zeolite 4A was investigated for 1.0, 5.0 and 7.0 values. Experimental data obtained with synthetic solutions showed that at a pH 1.0 value strontium and potassium ions are removed almost 100% and 90% respectively, while for other metal ions the removal was around 60%. In contrast, the metal ions removal from producer water on the zeolite was lower due to presence of several matrix effects.
Keywords: Produced Water, Wastewater treatment; Adsorption; Zeolites
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 169 KB
Author(s): M.Cetin, S.Doyduk
Pages: 26-31 Paper ID: 129603-2828-IJCEE-IJENS Published: June, 2012
Abstract: The urban fabric of Ayvalik, which has a unique Aegean identity, displays one of the rare examples of water-town relationship in Turkey. The urban history of Ayvalik, like many other waterfront towns, is associated with the story of water, i.e. Aegean Sea. The local culture, which is based on water in Ayvalık, has also been the major determinant of social life. The physical reflection of this social fabric is easily read on the urban structure as well as in the waterworks. This whole can enable us to follow the traces of a morphological formation, which is a reminiscent of a “net” constituted by waterworks. Today, a gap can be observed in the relationship between Ayvalik and water. This relationship has been limited to the waterfront level by the impact of tourism. The vehicular road lying along the coast and the serving buildings, which altogether exhibits a wall effect, seem to have caused the nodes of above-mentioned network, in other words, the points where waterfront is connected to the water elements within the city, to break up from each other. However, the path lying along the coast has always been a coastal line emphasizing the connection rather than being an obstacle. Identifying the connection between coastal water and inner water elements, their clarification and revitalisation in daily life could be a preliminary step in the renewal of urban and water culture in the town. Should such a network and its nodes could be re-interpreted in connection with the historical, urban and architectural characteristics; it would contribute to the unique urban tissue. Such a re-interpretation should focus on the concept of “net” and its “nodes”, which can be accepted as a metaphor to complete the urban tissue. In this study, the waterworks, which act as the generators of urban regeneration proposal are analysed with specific reference to Ayazma building. The contribution of these buildings to physical and social stock, their location within the projected network, and their physical relationship with each other are scrutinised. Nets of building, life and water are reconciled with the proposed scheme in Ayvalik.
Keywords: Water-town relationship, metaphor of water-net
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 1915 KB
Author(s): Anas Puri, Hary Christady Hardiyatmo, Bambang Suhendro, Ahmad Rifa’i
Pages: 32-40 Paper ID: 129903-8585-IJCEE-IJENS Published: June, 2012
Abstract: Nailed-slab System is a proposed alternative solution for rigid pavement problem on soft soils. Equivalent modulus of subgrade reaction (k’) can be used in designing of nailed-slab system. This modular is the cumulative of modulus of subgrade reaction from plate load test (k) and additional modulus of subgrade reaction due to pile installing (∆k). A recent method has used reduction of pile resistance approach in determining ∆k. The relative displacement between pile and soils, and reduction of pile resistance has been identified. In fact, determining of reduction of pile resistance is difficult. This paper proposes an approach by considering tolerable settlement of rigid pavement. Validation is carried out with respect to a loading test of nailed-slab models. The models are presented as strip section of rigid pavement. The theory of beams on elastic foundation is used to calculate the slab deflection by using k’. Proposed approach can results in deflection prediction close to observed one. In practice, the Nailed-slab System would be constructed by multiple-row piles. Designing this system based on one-pile row analysis will give more safety design and will consume less time.
Keywords: Soft clay, Nailed-slab System, friction pile, tolerable settlement, modulus of subgrade reaction
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 413 KB
Author(s): A.M.Arif Bijaksana, , M.Sjahrul, Nadjamuddin Harun,Rudy Djamaluddin
Pages: 41-47 Paper ID: 120603-2727-IJCEE-IJENS Published: June, 2012
Abstract: One of the major users of fuels is a Steam Power Plant (PLTU) as a provider of electricity to the primary needs of people living in the city/county in Indonesia. Energy sector, especially the activities of burning fossil fuels (petroleum) is the largest contributor to greenhouse gas emmisions. The analysis used to assess the effect of power plat emmisions (PLTU) of the housing surrounding the model dispersion (spread) gas in the air (Screen View) is a mathematical simulation to calculate the spread of gas emissions in the air around the power plant. It is made by computer programs that generated mathematical equations and algorithms which simulated the spread of pollutants. And perceptions with statistical analysis.The results on PLTU Tonasa II Pangkajene Regency the dispersion of gas emissions (S02, CO, C02, N02, TSP) spread from the source after 60 minuts with concentration 0,0054 µg/m3) at the average distance 1158 m, with dimensions (average) plume is x = 61,65 m, y = 70,59, and z = 41,32 m, which is formed in the direction of the wind. And the results of people's perceptions aspect of human basic needs about PLTU Tonasa II have affected and unaffected. Similary the standarts aspects of a healthy home.
Keywords: Effect, flue gas, the concentration and dispersion emissions
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 225 KB
Author(s): T.C. Nwofor
Pages: 48-67 Paper ID: 125403-6868-IJCEE-IJENS Published: June, 2012
Abstract: The splitting failure of brickwork under compressive loads has in general been associated with the transverse strain of the mortar joint due to the difference in the elastic properties of the brick and mortar.  While the load causing failure is compressive, the stresses initiating it would appear to be tensile.  The magnitude of such tensile stresses in this research was seen to depend on the elastic properties such as modulus of elasticity (E) and poisson’s ratio (n) of the two materials concerned.  Thus by carrying out an elastic analysis of the brick-mortar couplet and taking into account the different elastic properties of the brick and mortar elements, a relationship between the interface tensile stress and elastic properties was obtained.  This relationship shows the controlling influence of brick-mortar elastic properties on the splitting failure of brickwork.
Keywords: Finite element method, masonry, brick-mortar couplet and interface stresses
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 123 KB
Author(s): Hengki D. Walangitan, Budi Setiawan, Bambang Tri Raharjo, Bobby Polii
Pages: 68-75 Paper ID: 129503-3737-IJCEE-IJENS Published: June, 2012
Abstract: Preservation of lake’s ecosystem and increasing productivity of dry land of Lake Tondano is a form of socio-economic and ecological conflict in the use of land resources associated with sedimentation rate control of Lake Tondano due to erosion of the lake in one side and farmer income and agricultural employment in the other side. Therefore, a solution is needed to ensure optimal use of land for sustainable agriculture. Within this conceptual framework, we conducted a study aiming to analyze the optimal allocation of land use type in order to ensure sustainable agriculture in the catchment of the lake Tondano The soil erosion was evaluated using USLE model. The farming analysis was carried out to evaluate agricultural income and employment. The analysis on optimal land use type allocation was performed using goal programming. The result showed that the optimal land use type allocation with erosion control priority could be achieved in all scenarios, whereas the maximum employment target could not be achieved in all priority scenarios. The priority on achievement of farming income to support the needs of decent living for farmers and farm workers could be attained by using forest land for plantation of non-timber crops such as palm trees to produce sugar and local alcoholic beverage, which contributed significantly in increasing the income, employment, and acceptable erosion level of the catchment area.
Keywords: Sustainable agriculture, goal programming, optimal land use allocation, priority scenarios
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 150 KB
Author(s): Misliah, Lawalenna Samang, Rahardjo Adisasmita, Ganding Sitepu
Pages: 76-83 Paper ID: 1210103-4747-IJCEE-IJENS Published: June, 2012
Abstract: Stacking yard is one of seaport’s main facilities to store containers and to prevent from ship’s delay risk which affects in decreasing of loading and discharging productivity and increasing of ships and cargoes time in seaport. One of the indicators used for Port development plan is by using stacking yard utilization level (YOR). PT (Persero) Pelindo IV manages 19 seaports in Indonesia East Region which serve 10 provinces such as 5 provinces in Sulawesi, one province in east of Kalimantan, and 4 provinces in Maluku and Papua Island. Total area for those provinces are 865.284 km2, equal with 45.76% from Indonesia total area or almost half of total area of Indonesia. During 1999-2010, containers’ traffic rate of PT (Persero) Pelindo IV has increased 15,61% per year (average). During period 2000-2010 general cargo type is decreased from 33.9% in 2000 became 7.16% in 2010, as for container type is increased from 11.18% in 2000 became 41.91% in 2010. The purpose of this research is to analyze optimum stacking yard’s level of utilization based on operator and user. This research carries out optimization methods by minimizing total cost expenses for operator and user. The result of this research shows that the average of stacking yard’s level of utilization in 2010 is 58%, while the average of optimum stacking yard level of utilization is 85%.
Keywords: Stacking yard, level of utilization, optimum
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 88 KB
Author(s): A.M.A.Budiea, N. Yahaya, N. M. Nor
Pages: 84-88 Paper ID: 1210403-5959-IJCEE-IJENS Published: June, 2012
Abstract: Pipelines those have been buried under seabed sediment are at risk of corrosion due to the corrosiveness of this particular environment. Hereby, corrosion experimental study has been conducted to highlight the importance of near shore sediment as an aggressive environment towards steel structures. Coupons made from API X70 steel of actual pipe have been considered to calculate the corrosion rate by means of weight lost determination at both near shore and offshore areas. The results show that the corrosion rates of coupons buried at near shore area were higher than corrosion rates at offshore. Convincingly, near shore environment has shown a significant influence on corrosion rates of steel pipelines.
Keywords: API X70 Steel; Corrosion; Near Shore Sediment; Weight Loss Coupons
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 610 KB
Author(s): Abiola, O. S; Ayodeji, J. D
Pages: 89-99 Paper ID: 125602-03-2929-IJCEE-IJENS Published: June, 2012
Abstract: University campuses have unique transportation requirement that may be characterized with a high concentration of trips during multiple peaks periods. These campuses are often of the largest employers in small to medium size cities. It is therefore critical to examine the factors that are significant to campus travel demand models. One of the major roles of transportation modeling is to forecast travel demand based on changes in the transportation system. The models are used to predict changes in travel and utilization of the transportation system in response to changes in land-use, demographics and socio-economic conditions. This paper presents the result of a research on developing travel demand model for a typical Nigeria University using Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta as a case study. Models based on Multinomial logit (MNL) were used to model both the number of trips and the choice of mode to campus. The results showed that 52% of student population makes a single trip per day and about 40% make two trips per day. Moreover, 54% of the student lives very close to campus which is comparable with North Dakota University student with 52.6% living within 3.2km of the campus. The model showed that cost to school, location, income and number of stop trips were the significant variables for the number of trips made by the student. The MNL model for mode choice to campus showed that location, waiting time at bus stop, number of trips, cost to school and time to bus stop are the significant variables.  This research can be used for transportation planning and policy decision.
Keywords: Student, trips, cost to school, model, travel mode, location
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 76 KB