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Title: Conformity of Gypsum Stabilized Earth- Alker Construction with ‘Disaster Code 97’ in Turkey
Author(s): Bilge ISIK
Pages: 1-5 Paper ID: 110502-3939 IJCEE-IJENS Published: April, 2011
Abstract: Even though 92% of the total area of Turkey lies within seismic zones, earthen construction is very common and widespread throughout the country. Ever since construction materials are industrially manufactured, earthen construction technology is not in the scope of curriculums and research fields. Therefore, earthen buildings are often constructed by people with little technical knowledge of the material and existing earthen buildings are often insufficiently maintained. However, when used as a building material, the contribution that earth makes to a healthy environment is undeniable. Istanbul Technical University, which has been carrying out research projects on earthen construction material since 1978, has determined that earth can be stabilized with gypsum and lime resulting in improved durability, physical and mechanical properties with a compressive strength of 2-4 N/mm 2. This combination is referred to as “Alker.” There are Alker Case-Study buidings in use, with the experience since 1983. This paper examines conformity of 2nd Case-Study Building, consructed with alker at 1995, with Disaster Code’97 issued by the Turkish Ministry of Public Works and Settlements.
Keywords: Alker; Disaster Code; Earthen Construction; Gypsum stabilisation
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science| 510 KB
Title: Conceptual Model of Intelligent Decision Support System Based on Naturalistic Decision Theory for Reservoir Operation during Emergency Situation
Author(s): Wan Hussain Wan Ishak, Ku Ruhana Ku-Mahamud, Norita Md Morwawi
Pages: 6-11 Paper ID: 111102-9393 IJCEE-IJENS Published: April, 2011
Abstract: Emergency situation required fast and accurate decision as every decision is very critical to save human lives. Naturally, during this situation humans made decision based on their past experiences by which their nerves and brain system will perceive the situation and mapped with their experiences to produce action. This naturalistic decision making approach has been one of the attention in emergency management research. In this paper a conceptual model of Intelligent Decision Support System for reservoir operation during emergency situation is proposed. This model simulates human decision based on three models: situation assessment, expectancy forecasting, and decision modeling. Situation assessment is to extract the temporal data from the hydrological and operational databases. This data will be used in the forecasting module, to forecast the future event. The decision module will utilized the temporal and the forecasted data to produce the final decision. Artificial intelligence techniques are utilized in every model. The model is expected to assist reservoir operator in making decision during emergency situation; typically during heavy rainfall when early and fast decision is required to release the reservoir water in order to leave enough space for incoming water and to release the water in the save carrying capacity of the downstream channel. Thus avoiding flood in downstream areas.
Keywords: Emergency Management, Reservoir Management, Intelligent Decision Support System, Soft Computing, Naturalistic Decision Making.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science| 541 KB
Title: Geotechnical Assessment of Road Failures in the Abakaliki Area, Southeastern Nigeria
Author(s): Okechukwu P. Aghamelu, Celestine O. Okogbue
Pages: 12-19 Paper ID: 111502-8383 IJCEE-IJENS Published: April, 2011
Abstract: The impact of the Abakaliki Shale on the incessant road and highway failures in the Abakaliki area, southeastern Nigeria, has been investigated. Soil classification tests conducted on the shale samples which serve both as subgrade and aggregates showed that the shale classifies as A-7-6 and CH soils, according to the AASHTO and USCS classification systems respectively. A comparison of some of the tests results with the Nigerian Specifications and literature reveals that the Abakaliki Shale neither satisfies most requirements as fill and embankment, nor the requirements as sub-base course and base course material. The unsatisfactory behaviour of the shale as road material (as predictable of an A-7-6 or CH soil) is mainly due to its high plasticity, which simply indicates susceptibility to expansion on moisture influx, and high percentage of particles passing No. 200 British Standard sieve, which is significantly above the recommended limit. The shale, however, satisfies few specifications such as maximum dry density, optimum moisture content and soaked California Bearing Ratio, implying that it’s appropriateness for use as road material could be improved by stabilization and prevention from excessive moisture influx. The results of this research will, to a great extent, assist the civil engineers in the area in designing and constructing roads and highways that can stand the taste of engineering time.
Keywords: Abakaliki Shale, Construction material, Geotechnical properties, Road Pavement failure, Nigerian specification.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science| 431 KB
Title: A Statistical Method for Predicting the Axial Load Capacity of Concrete Filled Steel Tubular Columns
Author(s): X. M. Yu, B. C. Chen
Pages: 20-39 Paper ID: 111702-3737 IJCEE-IJENS Published: April, 2011
Abstract: Concrete filled steel tubular (CFST) structures have been used widely in high-rise buildings and bridges due to the efficiency of structurally favorable interaction between the steel tube and the concrete core. In this research, a simplified statistical method based on the results of 663 tests is developed to predict the ultimate strength of circular CFST columns under concentric loading conditions. This method considers the confinement effect on the concrete and the influence of relative slenderness. The standard deviation of the predictions by the current method is very close to those predicted by the Eurocode 4 and the Chinese CECS methods. Therefore this simplified method is a good alternative to other prediction methods. However, the Chinese CECS method tends to overestimate the ultimate load capacity when the compressive strength of concrete is high.
Keywords: Concrete Filled Steel Tubular Column; Confinement Effect; Slenderness Influence; Statistical Method; Ultimate Load Capacity.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science| 446 KB
Title: Incorporating User for Rental Housing Design Case Study: City of Bandung, Indonesia
Author(s): Allis Nurdini and Ismet Belgawan Harun
Pages: 40-44 Paper ID: 115202-3434 IJCEE-IJENS Published: April, 2011
Abstract: Stake-holders participation in the process and evaluation of spatial quality development indicates the existence of collaboration in spatial design. In rental housing design, the collaboration technique is rarely studied. Identification of the renter aspiration and the owner interest, as the key stake-holder with different motives in rental housing development, is essential. One method of renters’ involvement to achieve quality housing is study of renter’s perception about their housing attributes. This method is called effect-based valuation. Meanwhile, the method to acquire value from the owner side is conducted through assessment of rental housing fact, which is called exposure-based valuation. The comparison of the two valuations is important to identify the housing design performance from the user point of view, and to discover the housing form from the owner side. Through these approaches, the spatial quality criteria are combined for future design improvement. Hypothetically, the renter with critical judgment will give good value for maximum condition, and in contrary, they will give bad value for minimum one. This paper describes the combination of two spatial valuations: renter perception and factual measurements as an alternative method of collaboration in rental housing design. For this objective, students’ rental housing in Bandung is used as a case study. It is identified that collaboration for rental housing design potentially hampered by some factors from both renter and owner side. It is also concluded about the concept of rental housing design to meet the renter need and the owner interest, and to reduce the hampered factors from both sides.
Keywords: Collaborative design, factual valuation, rental housing, user perception
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science| 446 KB
Title: Torsional Strengthening of Base-Isolated Asymmetric Structures by Increasing the Flexible Edge Stiffness of Isolation System
Author(s): S. Etedali, M. R. Sohrabi
Pages: 45-53 Paper ID: 116502-3939 IJCEE-IJENS Published: April, 2011
Abstract: In this paper, torsional behavior of asymmetric structures with fixed base and isolated base has been compared. Studied Structures are three-dimensional, three and eight story steel structures whose nonlinear time history analysis was conducted based on the records of El Centro earthquake (1940), Tabas earthquake (1978), and Bam earthquake (2003). Analysis results show the efficiency of seismic isolations to reduce the rotation of asymmetric structure stories. However, increasing the eccentricity reduces the effect of isolations on decreasing torsion. This effect is negligible for large eccentricities. By increasing the eccentricity and the period of the isolation system, displacements of isolations located on the flexible edge will also rise. Practical solutions to strengthen torsional of the base-isolated asymmetric structures have been proposed. To assess the effectiveness of proposed practical solutions on strengthening base-isolated asymmetric structures, four structural models (models A, B, C, D) are defined. For rehabilitation the new Low-rise asymmetric structures or retrofitting the existing Low-rise structures, it is necessary to reduce the torsion of isolation system by increasing the flexible edge stiffness (using model C). To strengthen the torsion of higher base-isolated asymmetric structures, model D (simultaneous increase in flexible edge stiffness of the superstructure system and isolation system) is suggested. In these structures, increasing the flexible edge stiffness of superstructure stories, conditional on approximate the center of stiffness of the base story (isolation system to the center of mass, leads to torsional strengthening and reduces the torsion of stories.
Keywords: Asymmetric structure, Base isolation, Nonlinear time history analysis, Flexible edge .
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science| 933 KB
Title: Lampung Zeolite Utilization as Gas Emission Adsorbant on Charcoal Making Process
Author(s): Yayat Iman Supriyatna, David Candra Birawidha, Slamet Sumardi
Pages: 54-59 Paper ID: 116902-7575 IJCEE-IJENS Published: April, 2011
Abstract: One of climate change cause is factory gas emission that has reached the limit. Therefore people agreed for Go green concept to be applied in any aspect of life. The purpose of this reseacrh is to use Lampung zeolite as gas emmission adsorbant on charcoal making. This experiment was started by preparing 80 mesh zeolite as raw material. Zeolite was moulded into pellet by inserting TiO2 on various concentration (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%) and bentonit as adhesive. This zeolite then being activated by heating on 2000C and placed on adsorber device on the Leucaena glauca making process. Gas emission resulted from the making process is analyzed before and after the process using gas analizer (Autochek Smoke Diesel Meter NFR 10-025). This experiment showed that the zeolite which was used as gas emission adsobance on charcoal making process can adsorb CO, NOx and CO2. Zeolite with 10% TiO2 reduce the highest concentration on CO2 gas emission by 28,17% while the highest NOx gas reducer was reached by Zeolite with TiO2 20%.
Keywords: Adsorber, Gas Analyzer, TiO2, Zeolite .
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science| 359 KB
Title: House Typology from Adjacency Diagram Theory to Space Orientation Theory
Author(s): Emad S. Mushtaha, Mohammad S. Arar
Pages: 60-66 Paper ID: 117402-0606 IJCEE-IJENS Published: April, 2011
Abstract: No attempts, so far, has been made to analyze the indoor spaces of a house from the perspective of geographic direction. There are few studies in a house typology based on indoor space distribution. Many tools like Adjacency Diagram Theory (A.D) and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) were used by the author to typologize architecture. In general, these attempts ignored the true direction of spaces from its hypothesis. Therefore, this paper will develop the Adjacency Diagram Theory to consider the true geographic direction of spaces in the analysis. An experimental case of a corridor-plan has been deeply investigated using both theories. Accordingly, the outcome of the analysis has shown that the number of patterns using Space Orientation Theory is greater than those patterns of Adjacency Diagram Theory by 196:30 respectively. As a result, house patterns based on Space Orientation Theory is more comprehensive and effective, and it is worthy to use it in counting patterns. This approach adds a new room for house typology and helps find the summer, winter, and summer-winter patters easily. It is advisable that decision makers, planners, architects and architecture students study this theory and use it in future house design.
Keywords: Adjacency Distribution Theory; Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), Space Orientation Theory; Corridor-Type Plan, House Typology.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science| 425 KB
Title: Removal of Escherichia Coli through Rapid Depth Filtration by using Burnt Oil Palm Shell (BOPS) as a Filter Media in Water Treatment Process
Author(s): Ali, M. F., Budari, N. M.
Pages: 67-71 Paper ID: 118402-9494 IJCEE-IJENS Published: April, 2011
Abstract: Escherichia Coli is the ubiquitous microorganism contaminating the drinking water. This study is using granular bed filtration as a vigorous, simple and economical method to prevent the penetration of bacterial contamination, by discovering an alternative filter media from local source namely the burnt oil palm shell (BOPS). The result indicated that dual media BOPS/sand were higher reduction and longer total service of time compare to anthracite/sand, whereas BOPS/sand, 65.57% and anthracite/sand, 34.35% removal of E.coli by direct filtration process. The BOPS is identified as a potential filter media that will help in reducing the cost of water treatment and enhancing environmental sustainability. The results from this study were suggested that BOPS as a new biodegradable medium filter in water treatment process specifically for the removal of disease-causing by E.coli.
Keywords: Total Coliform; Escherichia Coli; Burnt Oil Palm Shell; Granular Media Filtration.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science| 1,144 KB
Title: Electronic Environmental Management System (e-EMS) for Malaysian Universities Needs and Procedures for its Development
Author(s): Mirza Munir Ahmed, S. R. M. Kutty, Noor Safwan Muhamad, Hisyam Jusoh
Pages: 72-76 Paper ID: 119802-6363 IJCEE-IJENS Published: April, 2011
Abstract: This research paper sets out a program to raise application and awareness of electronic environmental management system (e-EMS). It identify the need & encourage the applications of electronic Environmental Management System (e-EMS) in improving health & safety standards within Malaysian universities. This will open the new ways of research on various EMS aspects. Electronic Environmental Management Systems (e-EMS) is a computer-based application designed to efficiently and effectively facilitate universities in compliance with environmental impacts. Improving capabilities to meet compliance requirement, minimizing paperwork & facilitating document control, enhancing communication of environmental issues and personal involvement in system are other advantages as well.
Keywords: Computer Based Environmental Management System, Health and Safety, Highlight, Prototype, Universities.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science| 776 KB
Title: Cartography of Major Urban Settlements on Saudi Arabian Peninsula Between 18TH-20TH Centuries
Author(s): M. Cetin, A. S. Al-Dosary, S. Doyduk, B. Celebioglu
Pages: 77-82 Paper ID: 1110202-7575 IJCEE-IJENS Published: April, 2011
Abstract: This paper aims to provide a urban morphological analysis of the transformation of Saudi Arabian cities from the late 18th century onwards through a cartographical urban inventory as its basis. The paper focuses on the cartographical information about the major cities in the Saudi Arabian Peninsula associated with the period between late 18th and early 20th centuries. This study was mainly conducted as a survey through the archives that have hitherto been kept closed for research purposes in Turkey. Therefore, a considerable part of sound and concrete information and evidence on Saudi Arabian town planning and urban design, particularly during the Ottoman era, was missing. This paper intends not only to make an inventory of the available maps and plans produced during the period between late 18th and early 20th centuries available in the Ottoman Archives of Turkey, but also to analyze this cartographical information through methods of the discipline of urban morphology and derive basic principles of transformation for Saudi Arabian cities between the late 18th century and early 20th century.
Keywords: Saudi Arabian Peninsula, urban morphological analysis
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science| 443 KB