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Author(s): Suwardo, Madzlan Napiah, Ibrahim Kamaruddin
Pages: 1-11 Paper ID: 100702-4949-IJCEE-IJENS Published: April, 2010
Abstract: Bus service demand generally raises when bus service quality attractively increases achieving viable and reasonable standard. There are many important aspects to be considered in the increasing bus service demand include the changes of bus service elements and characteristics of ridership factors. The study aims to evaluate the change in ridership factors and to assess the bus service demand sensitivity with respect to ridership factors change. Primary data on bus services are collected from the regular stage bus operated in the mixed traffic at a corridor level and secondary data are compiled from some resources with respected institution. The study concludes that the bus service demand responses most sensitive on travel time elasticity. Meanwhile, some other factors such as ticket fare, fuel price, per capita income, service frequency, and headway indicate inelastic factors in the change of bus service demand. Therefore, especially for current bus system and based on the short-term period, the bus service demand is not sensitive with respect to the change in ticket fare, fuel price, per capita income, service frequency, and headway. It may change based on those factors and some circumstances for long-term period.
Keywords: Ridership factors, bus service demand, elasticity, demand sensitivity, fixed-route bus service, short-term action plan
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 559 KB
Author(s): Saleh A. Al-Hassoun
Pages: 12-17 Paper ID: 101002-9595-IJCEE-IJENS Published: April, 2010
Abstract: A Multitemporal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data collected in two-years have been used to monitor the affected soils by salinity in an arid region north of Saudi Arabia. Results of various remote sensing image techniques of (TM) data were used to show the spectral classes and the corresponding areas of the different land uses covering the region, and to delineate and map those areas that are salt-affected, and finally to monitor the temporal changes in salinity in terms of its severity and real extent for the period under investigation. Results of the study have indicated that a serious salinity problem exists and it is getting worse. Moreover, it calls for an urgent salinity management program to control the spread of salinity and to reclaim the damaged areas to be used for economic agriculture.
Keywords: Salinity, remote sensing, ERDAS, arid region, Landsat satellite.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 204 KB
Author(s): Md. Wahid Ferdous, Kamrun Nahar, Shaikh Md. Nizamud-doulah, Khaleda Ferdous
Pages: 18-25 Paper ID: 105002-8787-IJCEE-IJENS Published: April, 2010
Abstract: The paper reports theoretical analysis of the beam (concrete, steel and composite) with any condition of support stiffness under concentrated loading acting at any point on the beam. Equations are available only for simply supported and fixed condition. But for the intermediate support condition (in between pin and rigid) the existing equations are not valid. Using area-moment theorem and assuming elastic behavior; equations have been derived for end moment, maximum deflection and location of maximum deflection for different position of loads and different support conditions. Then with the help of EXCEL workbook the design chart have been prepared. Finally the results obtained by the derived equations are checked with standard equations.
Keywords: Moment, Deflection, Support stiffness, Area moment.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 322 KB
Author(s): Kamrun Nahar, Md. Wahid Ferdous, Syed Abdul Mofiz, Khaleda Ferdous
Pages: 26-30 Paper ID: 105202-3838-IJCEE-IJENS Published: April, 2010
Abstract: Now-a-days geo-textile materials have been used worldwide for solving geotechnical engineering problems associated with soil and water conservation work. Among the various properties of the geo-textile, the hydraulic properties are of major importance from the engineering point of view. This paper presents a simplified mechanism for the design and fabrication of vertical permeability test apparatus to determine the vertical permeability of geo-textile. The vertical permeability test apparatus has been fabricated and installed as per ASTM standard D 4491-99. The test apparatus has been manufactured in the department of civil engineering using locally available materials. After installation of the apparatus, the cross-plane permeability test for the geo-textile material has been performed. The permeability of geo-textile for different thickness obtained from this apparatus satisfies the standard values of permeability.
Keywords: Geo-textile. Vertical permeability, Fabrication, Rotating discharge pipe, Head measuring pipe, Lower unit, Upper unit.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 426 KB
Author(s): Abdullah S. Al-Ghamdi
Pages: 31-35 Paper ID: 105802-6464-IJCEE-IJENS Published: April, 2010
Abstract: This contribution presents a numerical simulation of water temperature fluctuations in overhead water tanks commonly used in intermittent water supply systems. Two types of over head tanks with different sizes were modeled; fiberglass tank and galvanized steel tanks. The numerical calculations were based on the actual outside tank temperature measured during the summer of 2009 in the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The numerical and measured water temperatures were in a good match in both tanks. The field and numerical investigations indicate that the water temperature in overhead tanks exceeds safe and comfortable temperature range for regular use in mid-day hours and it is expected that a considerable amount of valuable water will be wasted as the residents draining out the hot water from the plumbing system. Besides it is quite possible that scalding in sensitive skins may occurs to some consumers. This valuable water can be saved and possible scalding can be avoided by changing the current plumbing practices in hot regions. This may be achieved by providing the overhead tanks with a temperature controlled valve that allows the hot water to circulate from overhead tank and the external piping system to the underground water tank and maintain an acceptable water temperature in overhead tank. A better control of the water temperature can be achieved if the overhead tank is completely eliminated from the system by installing a booster pump that pumps water directly from underground tank into the plumbing system and eliminating all the external pipes from the plumping system.
Keywords: Numerical simulation, Hot water, water conservation, intermittent water supply.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 558 KB
Author(s): Tarek H. Almusallam, H. M. Elsanadedy, H. Abbas, T. Ngo, P. Mendis
Pages: 36-42 Paper ID: 107002-8989-IJCEE-IJENS Published: April, 2010
Abstract: Recent historic events have shown that buildings that are designed in compliance with conventional building codes are not necessarily able to resist blast effects. It was observed in the past events that progressive or disproportionate collapse generally occurred due to deficient blast performance of the structure, albeit in compliance with conventional design codes. In the past, safety of structures against blast effects was ensured, to a limited extent, through perimeter control; which minimizes damage by preventing the direct impact of the blast effects on the building. With the emergence of blast resistant structural design, methodologies to inhibit progressive collapse through the structural components performance can be developed, although there are no available adequate tools to simulate or predict progressive collapse behaviour of concrete buildings with acceptable precision and reliability. This paper presents part of an effort to find an affordable solution to the problem. State of the art review of the blast analysis and progressive collapse analysis procedures will be presented. Preliminary analysis has been carried out to establish the vulnerability of a typical multi-storey reinforced concrete framed building in Riyadh when subjected to accidental or terrorist attack blast scenarios. In addition, the results of the blast vulnerability assessment will be used to develop mitigation approach to control or prevent progressive collapse of the building.
Keywords: Progressive Collapse, Blast load, LS-DYNA, Finite element model.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 698 KB
Author(s): S. N. Çabuk, H. Uyguçgil, A. Çabuk, M. Inceoglu
Pages: 43-54 Paper ID: 108002-3636-IJCEE-IJENS Published: April, 2010
Abstract: Man has mostly preferred to live in communes and settle in particular areas to survive. Together with the growth of population and immigration, these settlement areas have developed into cities in time. Depending on the rapid growth in science and technology, the economical, cultural and social structures of the cities and so their physical appearances change continuously. Within this rapid and non-ecological structural change and growth, the necessity of open green areas is usually ignored. In fact, open green areas have significant positive effects on man’s psychological renewal, as well as social and cultural development. From this point of view, open green areas are one of the most important spaces in the urban environment that should be considered during the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) process of urban planning. In this study, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) techniques were used for determining suitable lands for open green areas within SEA process in Eskisehir city centre. In addition, the importance of GIS and RS technologies for handling multi-data sets in EIA and SEA studies are also discussed. As a result, environmental and ecological planning studies are performed by analyzing and overlaying hundreds of different data sources. Therefore; the RS and GIS based methodology described in this manuscript is very useful for environmental and ecological planning studies compared with traditional assessment methodology.
Keywords: Environmental Impact Assessment, Geographic Information Systems, Open Green Areas, Strategic Environmental Assessment.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 526 KB
Author(s): Erdal Akyol, Gulmustafa Sen, Salih Yilmaz, Y. Selim Tama, Hasan Kaplan
Pages: 55-58 Paper ID: 108802-1414-IJCEE-IJENS Published: April, 2010
Abstract: Groundwater can cause destructive effects both on concrete and reinforcement material. A reinforced concrete building Foundation of examined building located in southwest of Turkey. Foundation was below the groundwater level and there was massive water seepage into basement storey during winter seasons. Four water pumps were not enough to drain the seepage water and building was prepared to sacrifice. Quaternary aged soil which consists of 66% gravel and 34% sand was very permeable. Compaction grouting was employed to minimise soil permeability. 1:3 ratio cement-water mixture was injected into soil. The grouting was enforced from bottom to up and 25 kPa pressures were applied. Evenly distributed twenty grouting holes were drilled 6 meters in depth. It was sealed successfully and there was no seepage during last three winter seasons. The method can be employable to all existing buildings with groundwater isolation problems.
Keywords: Foundation, groundwater, waterproofing, grouting.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 526 KB