Title: The Potential Effectiveness of the Coffee Shop Business on Economic Behaviour in South Sulawesi
Author(s): Rustan
Pages: 1-10 Paper ID:211601-9393-IJBAS-IJENS Published: February, 2021
Abstract: The type of qualitative research through the phenomenological approach, the results showed that the existence of coffee stalls become an attraction for the community, where the function is not merely drinking coffee but also serves as a place Rest also as a place to receive the guests, in the development of the coffee shop experienced developments where the menu is presented has begun to vary, and already many are equipped with life music, the development of coffee stalls that were initially Only for the general public experienced a shift in the economic level of the upper class, so that the existence of coffee shop is needed in every corner of the city in South Sulawesi.
Keywords: E conomics, coffee shop, break, community
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 350 KB
Title: Synergity of Poverty-Based Independence Local Economy in South Sulawesi
Author(s): Zuchri Abdussamad
Pages: 11-21 Paper ID:211701-8484-IJBAS-IJENS Published: February, 2021
Abstract: The type of qualitative research through the phenomenological approach, the results showed that poverty is an issue that needs to be systematic, well-planned, and need to be addressed in holistic, meaning Involvement of all fields and departments should move simultaneously both from the aspect of education, economic aspects, social aspect and need to involve all stakeholders, poverty management should be based on aspects of self-reliance social economics.
Keywords: Holostil, phenomenology, poverty, issues, economics
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 300 KB
Title: Effectiveness of Chloramphenicol Versus Ciprofloxacin in the Treatment of Typhoid Fever at the Redemption Hospital
Author(s): CHEA, Sampson K. P., BOLEY Jr., David Nyewah
Pages: 22-26 Paper ID:211301-5858-IJBAS-IJENS Published: February, 2021
Abstract: Liberia is a typhoid-endemic country, with more than 7,400 cases estimated per year. While typhoid is rarely fatal, the recovery is long and difficult. The disease takes time, money, and productivity from those infected and their families and is associated with numerous long-term complications. It is estimated that, in 2016, there were at least 7,401 typhoid cases (160 cases per 100,000); 84 typhoid deaths; and 5,906 disability-adjusted life-years lost to typhoid. Redemption Hospital, one of the heavily challenged public hospitals, has reported to the Ministry of Health 683 new cases in 2017, 453 new cases in 2018; and 806 from January 2019 to present. The increasing number of new cases has prompted concerns in both the method of diagnosis and treatment of choice. Strains of Salmonella resistant to chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin have been isolated in several countries. This study compares treatment of Salmonella infection using ciprofloxacin to chloramphenicol. Data collection was done by health care providers who were administering treatment and recording data on content and frequency of drugs. Males or females of all ages with suspected typhoid fever on the basis of histories of fever for 4–15 days were considered and examined for the presence of two or more of the following features: oral temperature > 38.5°C, abdominal tenderness, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, and rose spots, coated tongue with sparing of margins, toxic physical appearance or relative bradycardia. Patients with the following conditions or symptoms were excluded, namely, pregnancy or lactation, allergies to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin or other macrolide antibiotics, major complications of typhoid fever, treated with antimicrobial drugs within 7 days, and having serious underlying disease affecting bone marrow, kidneys, liver, heart, lung or nervous system. Stool cultures were conducted and only nine patients showed true positive Salmonella spp. and they were further processed for both qualitative and quantitative testing. Additionally, sample of stools were viewed using electronic microscope. Zone Diameter test for Chloramphenicol sample ID were A001, A002, A006, A007; and A008 showed sensitive, while A003, A004, A005 were resistant; and A009 was intermediate. As for Ciprofloxacin, A002, A004, A005, and A007 showed sensitive, while A003 was resistant: and A001, A006, A008, and A009 were intermediate. The Minimum inhibitory Concentrations for Chloramphenicol were A001, A002, A006, A007, and A008 showed sensitivity, while A003, A004, A005, and A009 were resistant. For Ciprofloxacin: A002, A004, A007 were sensitive, while A001, A003, A005, A006, A008, and A009 showed resistant. Antibiotic resistance of the two tested drugs can occur in all ages, and gender. It was also observed that the two species of salmonella identified during the research are prone to resistivity based on the individual patient. Chloramphenicol is more sensitive than Ciprofloxacin from the qualitative test, while Ciprofloxacin is more sensitive than Chloramphenicol from the quantitative test. The switch in sensitivity between both drugs during the two tests showed individual challenges of each drug.
Keywords: Quantity Test (MIC), Zone Diameter, Typhoid, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 447 KB
Title: Antibacterial Effect of Zingiber officinale Roscoe and Citrus aurantifolia Linn Crude Extracts against Selected Pathogenic Bacterial Species
Author(s): CHEA, Sampson K. P. MOMO, Harris S., YABA, Karn
Pages: 27-30 Paper ID:212901-3838-IJBAS-IJENS Published: February, 2021
Abstract: Since Pre - historic times, plants have been the basis for medical treatment of diseases. This is because they have the ability to synthesize hundreds of chemical compounds for functions including the defense against insect, fungi, and diseases. Zingiber officinale, Ginger, is a fleshy, branched, aromatic perennial herb which grows from underground rhizomes, and Citrus aurantifolia, Lime, is a natural plant that grows in tropical climate. This work was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial potency of lime and ginger on two selected pathogenic bacterial species, namely, Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli. The antimicrobial efficiency of the aqueous, methanol, ethanol and n-hexane extracts of Zingiber officinale Roscoe, ginger, and Citrus aurantifolia Linn, lime juice were tested against and Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi . Antibiotics and other chemical agents are most commonly used to treat common infections. However antimicrobial resistance is due to overuse of these drugs. However herbal plants with medicinal value have be used for therapeutic purposes. The maceration technique was used for extraction and the agar well diffusion for antimicrobial assay. The results showed undiluted lime juice to have potent antimicrobial effect on both Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli, and the extracts of ginger did not inhibit any of the tested bacteria species. The highest inhibition zone,24mm, was observed from a combination of lime and ginger ethanolic extract on Escherichia coli. In conclusion, the results of this study have provided the scientific verification for the therapeutic potential of lime on salmonella typhi, ginger-lime ethanolic extract combination on Escherichia coli and they could be used to control infections associated with these organisms.
Keywords: Physiochemical, Bacteriological, Sachet Water, Analysis, Safe Drinking Water.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 507 KB