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Title: Bending properties of Mengkulang Glued laminated (glulam) timber and laminated veneer lumber (LVL)
Author(s): Ismail, S., Muhammad N.A, Ahmad, Z
Pages: 1-16 Paper ID:200102-5454-IJBAS-IJENS Published: April, 2020
Abstract: This paper presents the investigation of mechanical properties of glued-laminated timber (glulam) and laminated veneer lumber (LVL) manufactured from a tropical medium hardwood, Mengkulang (Heritiera s.p). The properties included the bending stiffness; local and global modulus of elasticity (MOE local, Em,l and MOE global, Em,g) and the strength (bending strength parallel to grain, fm). Three samples comprising 7 glulam beams, 7 nos. of LVL flatwise beams (for bending flatwise) and 6 nos. LVL edgewise beams (for bending edgewise), were subjected to four-point loading procedures according to Eurocode standards. Results specified Mengkulang glulam had the highest strength and stiffness among the others. The MOE global was higher than MOE local as discovered in the glulam sample, mainly due to the presence of the weak zone at the low bending stiffness. The LVL edgewise sample was proved to have greater values of stiffness and strength than that of the LVL flatwise. The LVL edgewise fracture beam could be observed as grain deviation at the tension zone whereas LVL flatwise exhibited horizontal shear failure. The glulam sample passed the requirement of delamination percentage and the shear strength according to MS 758. The results from experimental also showed that the bending strength and stiffness of glulam and LVL, manufactured from medium hardwood of Mengkulang species (strength group S.G.5) could be improved to the equivalent strength of heavy hardwood.
Keywords: ETP, glulam, LVL, Mechanical properties, Mengkulang
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,694 KB
Title: Efficient Approaches in Ensuring the Active Involvement of Local People in Biodiversity Conservation Projects
Author(s): Dickson Adom, Barbara Sawicka, Krishnan Umachandran, Parisa Ziarati
Pages: 17-31 Paper ID:200602-4343-IJBAS-IJENS Published: April, 2020
Abstract: Local people are very key to the success of every biodiversity project. Sadly, many project officers consider them as a distraction and thus, refuse to consult their views on the biodiversity projects undertaken. This results in less success or eventual failure of the biodiversity project as its sustainability lies in the hands of the local people whose participation was excused. As is demonstrated by nature's pattern, every faction of the society is very important to any nature conservation project. This review paper discusses the theories on biodiversity conservation as well as the relevance of local community participation in biodiversity projects. It explores how project officers can reach out to the local people, attend to their needs and map up strategies in actively engaging them in the biodiversity conservation project. Desk study and document analysis of theses, research papers, and periodicals on local community participation in biodiversity conservation management were conducted. The findings of the review paper revealed that attention must be paid to offering local people alternative sources of livelihood through the creation of enterprises with non-timber forest products, paying of royalties in the form of providing social amenities and other attractive incentives while craftily utilizing their traditional ecological knowledge in every facet of the biodiversity project. The position of the paper is that successes in biodiversity projects largely depends on the active participation of local communities where the projects are undertaken.
Keywords: Local community participation, biodiversity conservation, non-timber forest products, traditional ecological knowledge, ecotourism development.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 462 KB
Title: The Role of the Navy in Supporting the Natuna Regency Government's Policy To Strengthen Maritime Resilience in Natuna Regency
Author(s): Cecep Hidayat, Z. Fanani, Setyo Widagdo, Fadillah Putra
Pages: 32-41 Paper ID:202202-3737-IJBAS-IJENS Published: April, 2020
Abstract: The Natuna region is very strategic sea water, because it borders directly with several countries so that it creates vulnerability because it could become the access to smuggling, illegal activities to steal natural resources and also terrorist activities that enter Indonesian territory. To prevent the occurrence of vulnerability in the Natuna Regency, it must have strong maritime resilience. The Indonesian Navy as a means of defense of the sea dimension has the duty to uphold the law and maintain security in the sea territory of national jurisdictions in accordance to the provisions of national and international law, which has made a significant contribution in strengthening maritime resilience in Natuna Regency. The research method used was descriptive with a qualitative approach. The purpose of this study is to analyze how the conditions of defense and security aspects exist in Natuna and analyze how the role of the Navy in strengthening maritime resilience in Natuna Regency.
Keywords: Role of the Navy, Maritime Resilience, Natuna Regency.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 538 KB
Title: The Role of the Navy in Dealing with Maritime Threats in the Natuna Sea
Author(s): M. Imam Chadafi, Zaenal Fanani, Setyo Widagdo, Adi Kusumaningrum
Pages: 42-51 Paper ID:202802-7575-IJBAS-IJENS Published: April, 2020
Abstract: Nine-dash line claims which carried out by China in the South China Sea in the territorial waters of Indonesia (the Continental Base and the Indonesian Exclusive Economic Zone) in the North Natuna Sea fall within the scope of these claims and are referred to as "traditional fishing ground". There is no agreement on the boundaries of the Exclusive Economic Zone between Indonesia and Vietnam, causing the rise to an "un-delimited area". Illegal activities carried out by foreign warships and foreign government vessels in the jurisdiction of Indonesia must be a particular concern to the government so that they can take firm action on this as a form of upholding sovereignty in the territorial waters of Indonesian jurisdiction. This study uses a descriptive method with a qualitative approach to understanding existing social realities. The purpose of this research is to analyze the threats that exist in the North Natuna Sea and analyze the role of the Navy in dealing with maritime threats in the North Natuna Sea. The results of this study are illegal fishing activities that occur in North Natuna has become a threat to maritime security because it has caused huge losses for Indonesia. In order to deal with this threat, the Indonesian Navy has carried out JARKAPLID action to eradicate illegal fishing activities that occur in the North Natuna Sea.
Keywords: Role of the Navy, Maritime Resilience, North Natuna Sea.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 733 KB