IJENS Publisher Indexed In SCOPUS


Title: Analysis of Thermodynamic refrigeration cycle: Optimalisation of heat transfer rate by Pilot Control Servo ICS Valve on Pulse Width Modulation Scheme
Author(s): I Ketut Daging, Gunadi, Juniawan Preston Siahaan, Maimun, MH. Simanjuntak, Subroto Alirejo, Teguh Binardi, Bambang Murtiyoso, Yusuf Syam, Basino, Ade Hermawan, Sobri, Rahmad Surya HS
Pages: 1-6 Paper ID:181005-3232-IJBAS-IJENS Published: October, 2018
Abstract: The Proper refrigerant flow settings can improve the overall efficiency of the system. On several refrigeration systems, the load will vary over a wide range, requiring the use of an evaporator heat transfer rate control, one of which is a pulse width modulation scheme. But the scheme faces many problems, as it often implies reliability issues. Some require technical skills to provide the level of efficiency or stability of the system originally assured. The ICS is an valve of Pilot control servo which work on an air conditioner system on vessel. ICS Pilot Control Servo setting is a regulator to set up the refrigerant flows which is certainly analyses through thermodynamic analysis due to a stability category experiment and instability of a refrigeration cycle to obtain the highest optimization value. The result on highest stablitiy by setting up ICS in suction parameter with low pressure between 4 – 6 kg/cm2 where I_comp shows 25 A on electric driver motor with debit of refrigerant of 40.50-43.40 m^3⁄h the room temperature shows 22℃-24℃ di T_wall 10.57℃-11.91℃ with COP range 4.04-3.59.
Keywords: Evaporator Heat Transfer Rate, Servo Control Pilot Valve, Thermodynamic Analysis.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 852 KB
Title: Impact of Different Magnetic Nanoparticles Fe3O4, Co and Ni on P.arguinosa Bacterial Growth
Author(s): Sahar E. Abo-Neima, Hussein A. Motaweh
Pages: 7-18 Paper ID:182405-3737-IJBAS-IJENS Published: October, 2018
Abstract: In this experimental study we focused on the effects of different types of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) impact on pathogenic bacteria. A strain of P.arguinosa (ATCC 27853) was chosen for this investigation. Heavy metals such as Fe3O4, Co and Ni exist in trace amounts as essential elements in biological systems and play important roles in biochemical reactions of living systems. We study the effects of different concentrations of magnetic nanoparticles such as Fe3O4, Co and Ni with low (30µg/ml), medium (300µg/ml) and high (3mg/ml) concentrations, the inhibition % of P.arguinosa bacteria as a function of different Fe3O4, Co and Ni-NPs at the highest used concentrations (3mg/ml) increased to 57%, 81.25% and 93.75% respectively. By studding the antimicrobial activity for different modes of antibiotics action which are inhibitors to cell wall, protein and DNA, the results indicated that the AMC and C antibiotics becomes more sensitive to P.arguinosa bacteria after treated the bacteria with 3mg/ml of Fe3O4-NPs as compared to control bacteria. Also the KZ, C and E antibiotics becomes more sensitive to P.arguinosa bacteria after treated the bacteria with 3mg/ml of Co-NPs, also the CFR, C, S and NOR antibiotics becomes more sensitive to P.arguinosa bacteria after treated the bacteria with 3mg/ml of Ni-NPs but becomes more resistance to the other used antibiotics. The effect of Fe3O4, Co and Ni levels on P.arguinosa biofilm formation was determined. The inhibitory effect of Fe3O4, Co and Ni-NPs on bacterial cells increased as the concentrations of MNPs increased also the number of colony forming unit (cfu) of P.arguinosa after overnight incubation at different concentrations of MNPs was decreased as the concentration increased. In our study we indicated the better utilization of MNPs for specific application and find an alternative treatment with or without the use of antibiotics. The microbial effect of MNPs was compared based on diameter of inhibition zone in diffusion tests. TEM image of treated bacteria observed that MNPs were capable to penetrate the thick cell wall with release of intracellular material and subsequent cell wall deformation and cell wall thickening. The cell wall will be damage and the content of the cell leakage. The density of cytoplasmic components in treated cells was obviously decreased compared with the control. Plasma membranes of treated cells were detached from the cell wall, leaving open spaces between the membrane and cell wall. Furthermore, DNA was condensed. From our results it was concluded that Fe3O4, Co and Ni-NPs at concentrations (3mg/ml) reduce the growth of P. aeruginosa by inhibition % 57%, 81.25% and 93.75% respectively. This types of MNPs can be used in biomedical application, Drugs which developed to diagnose and treat diseases, antimicrobial activity and toxicity for bacterial cells.
Keywords: P.arguinosa, nanoparticles, Heavy metals, inhibition zone, antibiotics, inhibition%.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 812 KB
Title: Acoustical Measurements the Case of Social Gathering Halls Sound Quality of Gathering Halls and Wedding Venues That Are Assigned for Ceremonies and Events
Pages: 19-27 Paper ID:182305-9494-IJBAS-IJENS Published: October, 2018
Abstract: This paper describes sound quantity samples in Jordanian gathering halls, which are used for ceremonial activities. There are more than 100 halls in Amman alone and much more in other Jordanian cities. Most of these halls are built within urban areas, and others are part of almost every hotel. Noise levels were recorded in several halls, represent good samples of gathering halls in Jordan, results were averaged and plotted with maximum DOES levels for 4 & 0.5 hours vs frequencies. The size of these halls varies between 500 m² and 1200 m² and 4- 7 m high, well decorated, furnished with presaged lobbies and entrances. They are used for parties extended between 2- 5 hours, and during summer season for 1-3 times a day. Unfortunately, most halls designers neglect acoustic design. Therefore, the sound field is very high as the result of using multiple huge loudspeakers and the reverberant field resulting from reflected materials inside the halls. Therefore, the sound in these halls is noisy, the audience is subjected to high levels of sound, more than 10 dBA for 2- 4 hours compared to daily DOES. Such noise levels are harmful to human and have physical and psychological effects.
Keywords: Gathering halls, dBA sound level, Noise DOES.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 590 KB