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Title: Marketing Analysis of Curly Chili in Touure Village, Minahasa District, Indonesia
Author(s): Franky Reintje Tulungen, Jety Deisye Lempas
Pages: 1-9 Paper ID:171004-2323-IJBAS-IJENS Published: August, 2017
Abstract: Applying new tecnology e.i planting curly chili in Touure village has been emerging problems in its marketing. Many farmers has been forced become a trader, begun as retail trader in local market until as inter-island trader in oversea market. It is interesting to know marketing channels and institutions, marketing margin and marketing cost structure of curly chili of Touure village This research was conducted in Touure village, Minahasa regency with using survey research method. Sampling was determinated by purpusive and data collecting used structured interview and observation to the informan. Data were analyzed by descriptive and margin profit analysis. Result of research shows that: (i) There are three marketing channels of curly chilli in Touure village. The first channel: farmers sell directly to retails trader in local markets, second channel: farmers sell to collecting traders then collecting traders sell to retail traders at Manado city, third channel farmers sell to inter island traders and then they sell to collecting traders in Ternate, Ambon or Jayapura city, (ii) The largest share of the farmer's share is 86.76% on the first channel, and the largest share margin of trader is 16.67% on the inter island trader, the largest total marketing cost is in inter-island traders, and the largest profit margin recived by traders in third channel. (iii) Marketing cost structure for all marketing channels dominated by fruit depreciation cost (72%) and transportation cost (22%) repect and its remains are cost of sorting, retribution, packing and tool depreciation (6%).
Keywords: Marketing, share margin, margin profit, structure cost, curly chili.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 611 KB
Title: Vulnerability Mapping and Pollution Risk of Groundwater in Oyo Township, Southwestern Nigeria
Author(s): Adewoye, A. Olufunmiand Adegbola, A. Adedayo
Pages: 10-34 Paper ID:174303-1704-5252-IJBAS-IJENS Published: August, 2017
Abstract: Growing urbanization characterized by indiscriminate disposal of wastes and the subsequent percolation of leachateimpact on the standard quality of water resources. However, there is a dearth of information on the consequence of dumpsites on water standard quality in Oyo metropolis. Water samples collected from 60 shallow wells, 15 boreholes and 15 streams in addition to stream sediment samples were analyzedfor anions, cations, and heavy metals for dry and wet seasons using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) along with bacteriological analysis. The results were related to World Health Organization (WHO) Standards. The ranges of concentrations of NO3- and Pb2+ in shallow well and borehole water samples were 23.69 – 81.24; 0.00 – 0.70 mg/L and 0.01 - 1.65; 0.00 – 0.02 mg/L, respectively for dry season. Similar values for wet season were 15.97 – 122.06; 0.00 – 6.87 mg/L and 0.82 – 2.35; 0.00 - 0.02 mg/L, respectively. The study indicated that the dumpsite leachates impacted negatively on the quality of water from shallow wells and streams and hence requires protection to ensure sustainability. The borehole water samples are portable with adequate qualities for domestic and agricultural usages.
Keywords: Vulnerability, Health Risk, Dumpsite, Groundwater, Oyo Township.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 2,045 KB
Title: Performance of N-doped Graphene Photoanode Incorporated Dye Sensitized Solar Cell
Author(s): Easter Joseph, Balbir Singh Mahinder Singh, Norani Muti Mohamed, Chong Fai Kait, Mohamed Shuaib Mohamed Saheed
Pages: 35-41 Paper ID:172603-1704-8585-IJBAS-IJENS Published: August, 2017
Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of N-doped graphene (NG) prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on the performance of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The performance of NG based DSSC was compared with the graphene-based DSSC. In this research, the NG and graphene films are integrated with the TiO2 photoanode as blocking layer to form TiO2-NG and TiO2-graphene. The field-emission spectroscopy measurement (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveal a large area of NG with several layer thickness. The N1s peak in X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicates N atoms were successfully introduced in the graphene lattice with 2.29% concentration whereas Raman analysis reveals the existence of graphene that corresponds to 2D-band, G-band and D-band of carbon material. The DSSC with TiO2-NG based photoanode exhibits 7.33% and 45.74% higher efficiency as compared to TiO2-graphene and conventional TiO2. The NGD performs better than graphene when incorporated with TiO2 photoanode due to the n-type doping of NG that accelerated the electron transfer in photoanode. The effect of blocking layer prevents the direct contact of the photogenerated electrons with the I3- ions at the FTO surface and the TiO2/electrolyte interface which improved the VOC of DSSC. The high mobility of NG assists the electro transfer process at the TiO2 photoanode that increased the ISC.
Keywords: ---
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 758 KB
Title: Effects of the Cultural Diversity on the Knowledge Sharing in Construction Project
Author(s): Atif Musbah and Tri Joko Wahyu Adi
Pages: 42-48 Paper ID:172104-6363-IJBAS-IJENS Published: August, 2017
Abstract: In the last decades construction activity has been heavily criticized for its productivity and performance in relation to cultural differences. There were several of studies indicated that the cultural differences have impact on knowledge sharing activities, and that leads to obstacle the knowledge sharing among project team members in the construction projects and impact the project performance. The cultural difference influences the knowledge sharing behavior in project team members due to different ethnic cities, gender, national culture or functions create a context of cultural complexity, which affect knowledge sharing in a negative way. Purpose: - In this research study the influences of cultural differences on the knowledge sharing activity in construction project will be investigated and to what extend theses influences impact the project performance. Approach: - In order to reach the goal of the study a survey questionnaire is assembled to gather the needed information/data. The collected data will be interpreted by development of a causal model simulating in dynamics modeling system, to evaluate the influences of the cultural differences on the knowledge sharing activities in the construction project and its effects on the project performances. The model is developed according to the rules of logic in order to achieve meaningful information. Findings: - The study research reveals, from the simulation results of the system dynamic have proven that cultural difference is one of the major problems in the construction projects, which lower the project performance by hindering or reducing amount of the knowledge flow between the members of the construction project. Conclusions: - In this study the cultural differences will be given careful attention to ensure better project performance is achieved in the construction projects.
Keywords: Cultural Differences, Knowledge Sharing and Project Performance, Note:-the project performance in this study means (safety, quality, and cost).
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 318 KB
Title: Investigation of Heavy Metals in Different Tissues of Domestic Chicken
Author(s): Muhammad N. U, Ahmad M. G, Nuhu Tanko, Nafi'u Aminu
Pages: 49-53 Paper ID:172404-5858-IJBAS-IJENS Published: August, 2017
Abstract: The study was aimed at investigating the concentration and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in the tissues of domestic avian specie chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus ) in Sokoto, Northern Nigeria by using Flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS). Tissues selected include gizzard , pectoral muscle, liver, lungs and kidney. Heavy metals studied are Iron (Fe), Copper (Cu), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn). The mean concentration of Fe, Cu, and Zn were found below the official tolerable/safety limit set by Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO). However the concentration of Pb in lungs and liver are (0.77 ± 0.17mg/kg) and (0.38 ±0.11mg/kg) respectively, all of which were above tolerable limits, likewise the concentration of Cd (0.77±0.35mg/kg) and Cr (3.03±0.10mg/kg) in pectoral muscle. Ni was not detected in liver, lungs and kidneys, whereas concentration of Cr was found very low in liver (2.04±0.01mg/kg) and gizzard (1.04±0.02mg/kg) but absent in lungs and kidneys. The significant elevation in the concentration level of Cd and Pb above the FAO/WHO tolerable limit may expose the consumers to health risk.
Keywords: Tissues; Domestic Chicken; Heavy metals; Investigations; Health effects.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 276 KB
Title: Human Resource Management and Corporate Strategies
Author(s): M. Shahzad Akbar
Pages: 54-58 Paper ID:174404-5959-IJBAS-IJENS Published: August, 2017
Abstract: This is a report on human resource management in corporate Strategies. Human resource management is defined as the management of employee and staffing affairs within an organization. Corporate Strategy, on the other hand, refers to the profitable, sustained implementation of creative ideas and strategies for the sake of a corporate entity. Corporate innovation has been of great importance to organizations due to the growing competition in different fields of business. This paper tries to shed light on the advantages of organizations nurturing cooperate innovation. This paper also highlights the impact of corporate innovation on the growth of organizations and focuses on the strategies adopted by the human resource departments to encourage creativity in organizations. The paper also discusses how ideas developed by employees are implemented, and the advantages and disadvantages of some strategies. It also contains an in-depth analysis on the role played by the human resource managers in building the motivation of employees and encouraging them to come up with innovative ideas. A research arguing that the human resource department is solely responsible for the levels of creativity and innovation in organizations has also been highlighted. The research explains why the human resource department plays the most crucial role in encouraging innovative ideas and providing employees with the necessary resources to ensure that the ideas materialize. Arguments on how to adopt technological change in different human resource environments have also been presented, alongside discussions on how human resource managers can adopt technological innovations to better their organizations. Strategies on how to nature technological innovations in companies have also been included, alongside ways by which these innovations can be used to make some profit for the organizations and develop the company’s output.
Keywords: ---
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 361 KB
Title: An Input of Laterite as an Additive in Cement Manufacturing: a Case Study of Dangote Cement Company, Obajana, Kogi State, Nigeria
Author(s): Obasi, Romanus Ayoola
Pages: 59-69 Paper ID:174604-5858-IJBAS-IJENS Published: August, 2017
Abstract: The geochemistry of laterite and marble used in the manufacturing of cement at Dangote Cement Obajana was studied. The classification and source area weathering of the laterite were also studied. X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) technique was used to determine the geochemical compositions of laterite and marble. The data from the marble analysis show impoverished oxides of silica, SiO2 (0.03 -3.06 wt %), Al2O3 (0.01-0.76), Fe2O3 ( 0.06-0.27), MgO ( 0.10-1.18) and an enriched content of CaO ( 50.04-54.01) respectively. The data for laterite indicate high contents of silica (SIO2) (27.23-53.81), Al2O3 (14.29-22.78), and Fe2O3 (19.44-46.42) and low concentration of CaO ( 0.01-0.44) respectively. The chemical components of marble alone cannot provide the required chemical raw mix for Portland cement manufacturing hence the need to source an alternative additive which for the study area is laterite from Iwaa-Obajana. This study shows that the SIO2 (27.33-44.55), Al2O3 (14.91-22.78) and Fe2O3 (21.78-46.42) contents of laterite meet up with the international standards specified for use in cement manufacturing and therefore fit to be used in the Dangote cement raw materials mix. The classification of laterite shows that majority of the samples are ferruginous while a few minors are aluminous. This can be seen in the plot where the majority of the samples aggregated into the Fe-shale and Fe-sand class fields and a few minor ones falling on quartz arenite field. The ferrugenous nature of this laterite displays its strength that can be used elsewhere apart from its use in cement manufacturing. The indices used in the research show very high degree of weathering of the source rock. To further determine the types of minerals that facilitated the weathering process, a plot of K2O against Al2O3 was made. Almost all the plotting concentrated in the mineral illite environment suggesting that this layered alumino-silicate non-expanding clay crystalline mineral might be a source mineral that was susceptible to an intensive chemical weathering that formed the laterite.
Keywords: Geochemistry, laterite, marble, alternative additive, cement manufacture.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 906 KB
Title: Impact Assessment of Metals in Soils of someVehicle Servicing Centres in Ogbomoso Southwestern Nigeria
Author(s): A. O. Adewoye, Thompson E., Abdulsalam M.
Pages: 70-85 Paper ID:174603-1704-8282-IJBAS-IJENS Published: August, 2017
Abstract: An assessment was made on fourteen different site soils based on mechanic activities in Ogbomoso South- Western Nigeria were analysed. The concentrations of eight heavy metals which are manganese (Mn), Copper (Cu), Cobalt (Co) Chromium (Cr), Cadmium (Cd), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) in these soils were investigated and compared. Soil samples were collected at 30cm. The samples were digested and heavy metal concentrations were determined with atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The study reveals that the concentrations of heavy metals studied in soils of mechanic workshop were higher than those in control site. The concentration of heavy metals Mn, Co, Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn in the soil samples were analyzed. Mn has its highest concentration at Aroje (752.50mg/g), Cu was highest at Takie (210.00mg/g), Pb has its highest concentration at GTB (389.81mg/g), Zn is at its peak in Takie (1675.00mg/g), Co has its highest concentration at Baby (0.63mg/g), Cr is at its peak at Egbeda (61.21mg/g), Cd has its highest concentration to be located in (Taki 0.06mg/g), Ni has its highest concentration at Olope Marun (1.55mg/g). Based on the analysis, the overall concentration of the heavy metals ranges in this order: Zn> Pb > Cu> Mn > Cr > Co > Ni >Cd. This implies that Zinc constitutes the major environmental pollutant in the area.
Keywords: Impact, Metals, Vehicle serving centres, Environment, Soils.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 1,238 KB