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Title: Hybrid Wheel-Legged Robot Mechanism for Search and Rescue Missions and Outdoor Surveillance
Author(s): Sajjad Yaghoubi
Pages: 1-5 Paper ID: 134501-1303-1616-IJBAS-IJENS Published: June, 2013
Abstract: This Robot is a highly mobile robotic system which was developed for outdoor surveillance, remote inspection and security missions in complex environments. The robot can negotiate difficult terrain, overcome obstacles and climb stairs. Robotic drones can support first responders in dangerous situation and provide video stream and sensor information in real time. This robot can carry up to 5kg of payload and can be equipped with multiple application sensors depending on the scenario and type of the mission. The hybrid legged-wheel design helps to the robot to climb stairs and keep the center of mass low on obstacles. Each wheel is individually driven by an electric motor and controlled by high performance custom motor driver electronics. A passive degree of freedom between the front and hind section of the body improves traction and stability on uneven surfaces. The low system weight and the high power lithium polymer batteries allow the robot to move fast and efficiently and achieve runtimes of up to two hours. This robot can be remotely controlled by a joystick via a long range communication channel. The onboard electronic system will detect critical situation and limit the power or disable motors before any damage occurs. The adaptive bio-inspired control approach ensures reliable and stable operation of the robot on stairs and steep slopes.
Keywords: Mobile robotic, Hybrid legged-wheel.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 373 KB
Title: Nickel(II), Cobalt(II), Manganese(II) and Zinc(II) Complexes of 5,6-Dihydro-5,6-Epoxy-1,10-Phenanthroline- Synthesis and Spectroscopic Studies
Author(s): F. A. Oluwafunmilayo Adekunle
Pages: 6-10 Paper ID: 130403-9292-IJBAS-IJENS Published: June, 2013
Abstract: 5,6-dihydro-5,6-epoxy-1,10-phenanthroline (L) reacted with metal(II) perchlorate hydrates in methanol in a 3:1 ligand : metal ratio at ambient temperature. The complexes obtained were characterized by microanalyses, room temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements, infrared, UV-visible spectra, mass spectra and conductivity measurements. The results of the data from the microanalyses agreed fairly well with the calculated values. The room temperature magnetic susceptibility measurement of the nickel complex at 2.87 B.M. reflected the spin-only magnetic moment in an octahedral field. The cobalt(II) compound indicates orbital contribution to the magnet moment (µeff = 4.63 BM) while the manganese(II) complex in a high-spin configuration showed a moment of 5.48 B.M. The fragmentation pattern in the mass spectra data of the complexes is in tandem with other spectroscopic and analytical studies of the complexes. The data obtained from the conductivity measurements, reveal the complexes to be 1:2 electrolytes.
Keywords: Nickel (II) complexes, Spectroscopic Studies
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 143 KB
Title: Association Rules of Data Mining Application for Respiratory Illness by Air Pollution Database
Author(s): Carolyn Payus, Norela Sulaiman, Mazrura Shahani, Azuraliza Abu Bakar
Pages: 11-16 Paper ID: 136503-7474-IJBAS-IJENS Published: June, 2013
Abstract: Exposure to air pollution has been related with vary adverse health effects. This study aims to assess the impact of air pollution to the number of hospitalization for respiratory illness in Kuala Lumpur as the case study. Kuala Lumpur, the capital city of Malaysia, is an urban and industrialized city in the tropical climate of Malaysia that often experiencing has highest record of severe respiratory illness due to air pollution. The effects of air pollution on health triggers oxidative stress and inflammation, and it is plausible that high levels of air pollutants causing the high number of hospitalizations. In this study, an intelligent approach in data mining called association rules has been used based on its capability to search for an interesting relationship among attributes in a larger database and to its ability to handle uncertain database that often occurs in the real world problem. Association rules mining is a discovery of association relationships, frequent patterns or correlations among sets of items or elements in databases. In air pollution and healthcare database, association rules are useful as they offer the possibility to conduct intelligent diagnosis and extract invaluable information and build important knowledge bases quickly and automatically, in order to develop effective strategies to minimize the health exposure to the air pollution. A total of 2102 data were obtained from the Department of Environment Malaysia and Malaysian Ministry of Health. There were six attributes used as input and one attribute as an output for the association rule mining. Data has been through a pre-processing stage to facilitate the requirement of the modeling process. As for conclusion, association rules mining has given a promising result with more than 90% accuracy and the rules obtained have contributing to knowledge for the respiratory illness.
Keywords: Association rule, air pollution, respiratory illness, data mining
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 264 KB
Title: Dynamics Micromagnetic Simulation of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) Disk Array Patterned Ferromagnetic
Author(s): L. Rohman, D. Djuhana, B. Soegijono, W. Nursiyanto
Pages: 17-20 Paper ID: 136903-8585-IJBAS-IJENS Published: June, 2013
Abstract: We have studied the magnetization dynamics of disk array La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 ferromagnetic by means of time-resolved micromagnetic simulation. The coercivity field (Hc) is assumed depend on the interdisk distance. Meanwhile, the distribution of C-states of disk array, in the along of the same diagonal, exhibits an opposite state which is called positive C-states and negative C-states. Along of the same diagonal, these two states make the configurations of S-states. Instead, the demagnetization energy dominates in the magnetization energy systems.
Keywords: Disk array, LSMO (La0.7Sr0.3MnO3) ferromagnetic, coercivity field (Hc), demagnetization energy, dynamics micromagnetic.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 665 KB
Title: Non-isothermal crystallization kinetic behavior of Specific Cu(1-X)ZnX Ferrite Formation in the Flow Injection Synthesis Co-precipitation Reactor
Author(s): Edie Sasito, Bambang Soegijono, Azwar Manaf
Pages: 21-28 Paper ID: 137603-8585-IJBAS-IJENS Published: June, 2013
Abstract: The kinetic behavior of Cu- Zn -ferrite crystallization process has been studied by co-precipitation of chlorine salt and alkaline solution. Either the parameter of temperature rate variation, pH previous of reactant and pH alkaline solution results non isothermal process was described by Avrami Ozawa equation. In the non- isothermal process there are just one experiment can be sufficiency to reveal any crystal forming parameters but in the isothermal needs several different temperature experiments to reveals the parameter of crystal forming . In this research have be done experiments one time of one sample non –isothermal in Flow Injection Synthesis Co-precipitation Reactor complete by data logger acquisition of pH and temperature process . The sampling of experiment data have be done effectively using pH and temperature data logger. As a result the energy forming of the cupper zinc ferrite are about 0.5kcal/mol Characterization have be done by both X-ray Diffraction and EDX quantitative analysis. In this study indicates that making Ferrite material with a co-precipitation method has many parameter and constrain necessary to obtain mono disperse of yield.
Keywords: Co-precipitation of zinc-ferrite, non-isothermal process, crystallization, crystalline mechanism, data logger acquisition system, flow injection synthesis
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 551 KB
Title: Effect of Carboxylic Acid from Palm Kernel Oil for Corrosion Prevention
Author(s): Muhammad Yusri Zulkafli, Norinsan Kamil Othman, Azwan Mat Lazim, Azman Jalar
Pages: 29-32 Paper ID: 137903-9494-IJBAS-IJENS Published: June, 2013
Abstract: The effect of carboxylic acid from Palm kernel oil (PKO) on carbon steel SAE 1045 in 1M hydrochloric acid (HCL) media by using weight loss technique for corrosion prevention. The inhibition efficiency of PKO was calculated using weight loss technique. Weight loss and corrosion rates of carbon steel decreased as the concentration of inhibitor increased. The inhibition efficiency also increases with the increasing of PKO concentration to attain a maximum value of 90.10 % at 4.0 g/L. It was found that the PKO act excellently as corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in acidic medium. The analysis of PKO using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) showed that the existence of C=O at peak 1742.10 cm-1 which is refer to the existence of carboxylic acid.
Keywords: Palm kernel oil, Carbon Steel SAE 1045, Corrosion inhibitor.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 377 KB
Title: Kinetic Modeling And Functional Parameters Evaluation Of Mass Transfer Rate On Bio Coagulant Interface In Pharmaceutical Industry Effluent
Author(s): Ugonabo V. I, Menkiti, M. C. Osoka, E. C, Atuanya, C. U., Onukwuli, O. D
Pages: 33-47 Paper ID: 138903-4747-IJBAS-IJENS Published: June, 2013
Abstract: The kinetic modeling and functional parameters evaluation of mass transfer rate on bio coagulant interface in pharmaceutical industry effluent has been investigated at room temperature. To remove the mass particles (in form of total dissolved and suspended solids, TDSS) from the effluent sample. The experiments were carried out using standard Jar test method at varying pH and coagulant doses respectively, while the bio coagulant processing was based on the work reported by [13]. The functional parameters generated indicate the optimum conditions to be 7, 0.6g/l and 40 minutes for pH, dosage and time, respectively. At the optimal pH, TDSS reduced from 1380 to 218.04 mg/l, equivalent to 84.20% removal efficiency at rate constant (k) of 6.332E – 05 l/g.min and corresponding coagulation period (?1/2) of 0.38mins. Thus confirming the biocoagulant as effective bioflocculant . In comparative terms, the biocoagulant was found to be more effective for TDSS removal than Alum at the conditions of the experiment.
Keywords: Bio coagulant, Effluent, Mass transfer, kinetics, Coag- flocculation.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 601 KB
Title: Geothermal Study of the Airklinsar Geothermal Field Empat Lawang District, Sumatera Selatan Province, Indonesia
Author(s): Suharno, F. Virgo, Wahyudi
Pages: 48-51 Paper ID: 137203-4646-IJBAS-IJENS Published: June, 2013
Abstract: The first geothermal exploration activities in Empat Lawang District, Soth Sumatera Province, Indonesia were carried out in the Airklinsar field, Ulub Musi Sub-District. The discharge test measurements show that wells Airklinsar spring produce predominantly from a single-phase, reservoir (liquid) with a temperature of 225oC and 223oC. The temperature analisys using silica and Na-Mg geotheermometers. The chemical composition of the reservoir water was analyzed by standard methods and subsequently classified using Cl-SO4, HCO3 and Cl-Li-B triangular diagrams. A Na-K-Mg triangular diagram was used to classify waters according to the state of equilibrium at given temperatures. The geothermal waters are of chloride type and from a relatively old hydrothermal system. Thermal fluid is in equilibrium with reservoir rocks. The chemical geothermome-ters were used to predict subsurface temperature. Silica geothermometers give temperature more close to measured temperature whereas cation geothermo-meters show significantly higher Silica geothermometers.
Keywords: Geological, geochemical, geothermometers, geoindicator, Airklinsar geothermalfiel.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 257 KB
Title: Simulation of Colliding NGC4038 and NGC4039 Galaxies
Author(s): Mariwan A. Rasheed
Pages: 52-55 Paper ID: 139503-8484-IJBAS-IJENS Published: June, 2013
Abstract: This paper presents simulation of NGC 4038 and NGC 4039 galaxies by N-body simulation. From the simulation it was found that the two spiral galaxies collided and constructed the antenna shape. The morphology of the antennae was studied which includes the merged discs and the tidal tails. This merging occurred completely at 700 million years. The code of Intergalactic Gravitational Motion Simulator IGMS was used in the simulation.
Keywords: Simulation of antennae galaxies, NGC 4038/4039 galaxies, Kinematics and dynamics of galaxies.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 262 KB
Title: Some Classes of Meromorphic Multivalent Functions with Positive Coefficients Involving Certain Linear Operator
Author(s): Abdul Rahman S. Juma, Hazha Zirar
Pages: 56-78 Paper ID: 1311503-9292-IJBAS-IJENS Published: June, 2013
Abstract: Making use of a linear operator, which is de?ned here by means of the Hadamard product (or convolution), we introduce two novel subclasses and of meromorphically multivalent functions. In this paper, we obtain co- e?cient estimates, distortion theorems, radii of starlikeness and convexity and clo- sure theorems for the class . Several interesting results involving the Hadamard product of functions belonging to the class and are also derived. Also integral transforms of functions in the classes and are studied.
Keywords: Linear operator, Meromorphic, Positive coe?cients, Hadamard product. AMS Subject Classi?cation : Secondary 30C45.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 169 KB
Title: Preliminary Study on Bio Desulphurization of Nigerian Natural Bitumen
Author(s): Olabemiwo, O. M., Adelowo, O. O. , Tella, A. C., Bello, I. A.
Pages: 79-86 Paper ID: 139703-4848-IJBAS-IJENS Published: June, 2013
Abstract: Strict regulations on levels of sulphur and sulphur compounds in petroleum products require that fossil fuels be desulphurized prior to its processing to different products. Hydrodesulphurization is the major technology for achieving this. However, in the recent time, the application of microorganisms in desulphurization of fossil fuels has been on increase as an alternative to hydrodesulphurization because of its alleged efficacy and cost effectiveness. On this basis, we evaluated the ability of six bacteria strains namely: Acinetobacter Baumannii EMB 42, Acinetobacter baumannii EMB 821, Corynebacterian mycetoides EMB 113, Acinetobacter baumannii EMB 62, Corynebacterium Jeikeium EMB 32 and Corynebacterium jeikeium EMB 92 were evaluated for their ability to desulphurize Agbabu natural bitumen. Samples of Agbabu bitumen were obtained from two bitumen wells in Agbabu and Irele. The microorganisms were isolated from coal, spent catalyst and heavy fuel oil contaminated water and soil from Ijora in Lagos.The bitumen samples were used as the sole sources of sulphur in batch cultures, and the extent of desulphurization of the bitumen after treatment was determined using Gas Chromatograph coupled with pulse flame photometric detector. Calibration curve was obtained using sulphur solution as standard for calibration curve. The concentration of sulphur in samples corresponding to individual chromatographic response was evaluated from the standard curve. The degree of desulphurization achieved by the six bacteria strains ranged from 15.95-43.70% for bitumen sample obtained from well 1 (Agbabu) and 11.78-41.22% for bitumen sample obtained from well 2 (Irele). EMB 113 and EMB 821 showed the greatest and lowest desulphurization capacity respectively on bitumen sample collected from well 1, while EMB 113 and EMB 92 showed the highest and lowest desulphurization capacity respectively on bitumen sample collected from well 2. Thus, EMB 113 showed a promising potential of being a useful bacterium and could be employed in biodesulphurization of Agbabu Natural bitumen.
Keywords: Desulphurization, Bacteria, Agbabu, Bitumen and Sulphur.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 554 KB
Title: Levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Grilled/Roasted Maize and Plantain Sold in Ogbomoso Nigeria
Author(s): Olabemiwo O. M.
Pages: 87-93 Paper ID: 1311103-6565-IJBAS-IJENS Published: June, 2013
Abstract: The levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in our environment and foods have been the focus of scientific investigations in the recent time because of the negative health impacts of some of them. Their presence in foods has been linked with the various methods of preparing our foods. Grilled maize and plantain otherwise called roasted maize and plantain are two widely consumed snacks in Nigeria. These snacks are prepared by direct exposure of the fresh forms of these snacks to heat from wood charcoal. As part of efforts to quantify the contribution of methods of cooking to the levels of PAHs in some of Nigerian foods, the levels of PAHs in grilled/roasted maize and plantain were investigated in this study. Nine samples each of grilled/roasted maize and plantain were purchased directly from three different randomly chosen vendors in Ogbomoso, Nigeria. The samples were analyzed for crude protein and fat using standard methods. The PAHs levels of these snacks were determined using GC-FID. The crude protein ranged from 6.94 to 7.29 % in grilled maize and 5.14 to 5.38% in grilled plantain. Crude fat ranged from 3.42 to 3.79 % in grilled maize and 5.15 to 6.32% in grilled plantain. The average total PAHs were found to be 4.732 ± 0.815 µg/Kg and 3.034±0.647 µg/Kg in grilled maize and plantain respectively. Benzo (a) Pyrene, the signature PAH of pyroltic origin was found to be at 2.028± 0.668 µg/Kg and 0.441± 0.049 µg/Kg levels in grilled maize and plantain respectively. The contribution of grilling to the levels of PAHs in these snacks is discussed.
Keywords: Levels, PAHs, Grilled Maize and Plantain, Snacks, Ogbomoso.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 280 KB
Title: Divergence in F3 Segregating Bread Wheat Populations
Author(s): Syed Muhammad Azam, Fida Mohammad, Ijaz Ahmad, Iftikhar Hussain Khalil, Sultan Akber Jadoon, Adnan Nasim
Pages: 94-99 Paper ID: 1311603-7474-IJBAS-IJENS Published: June, 2013
Abstract: Development of crop cultivars with superior performance has always been the prime objective of plant breeding programs. Fourteen F3 segregating wheat populations and their five parental lines were evaluated at the University of Agriculture, Peshawar during 2011-12 to assess correlation, broad sense heritability and expected genetic advance for yield related traits. Experiment was planted in randomized complete block design with three replicates. Data were recorded on days to heading, days to maturity, plant height, flag leaf area, 1000-grain weight, grains spike-1, grain filling duration, vegetative growth rate, grain yield and harvest index. Data for these traits were analyzed statistically. Significant differences were observed in populations for days to heading, days to maturity, plant height, 1000-grain weight, flag leaf area, grain fill duration, grain growth rate, grain yield and harvest index. Grain yield exhibited significant (p = 0.01) correlations with 1000-grain weight (0.464), grain weight spike-1 (0.351), biomass growth rate (0.457), vegetative growth rate (0.454), grain growth rate (0.843) and harvest index (0.617). Broad sense heritability estimates for days to heading, days to maturity, plant height, 1000-grain weight, flag leaf area, grain fill duration, grain growth rate and harvest index varied from low to moderate. Expected genetic advance for various traits ranged from 0.0076 to 3.042. Based on the results of the present study, some segregants like Janbaz × AUP4006, Ghaznavi × Pirsabaq-2005 and Pirsabaq-2004 × Janbaz have a desirable potential for 1000-grain weight, grain growth rate and harvest index.
Keywords: Correlation, heritability, genetic advance, populations, segregants.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 350 KB
Title: Nutrient Composition and Sensory Evaluation of Dry Moringa Oleifera Aqueous Extract
Author(s): Madukwe E. U., Ezeugwu J. O, Eme, P. E.
Pages: 100-102 Paper ID: 131201-1303-7474-IJBAS-IJENS Published: June, 2013
Abstract: This study evaluated the nutrient composition of dry Moringa oleifera leaf aqueous extract and organoleptic properties of dry Moringa oleifera leaf powder. The proximate, mineral, vitamin and phytochemical composition of the leaf extract were analysed. The results showed that the ash, crude fibre, fat and moisture contents of dry Moringa oleifera were 0.04, 0.00, 0.001 and 96.68%, respectively. The protein and carbohydrate contents were 0.66 and 2.63%, each. Iron and calcium were 2.07 and 33.35mg, each. Vitamin C and beta-carotene contents were 6.26mg and 223RE, each, while flavonoids and alkaloids contents were 0.20 and 0.07%, respectively. Organoleptic evaluation revealed that Moringa oleifera beverage was generally accepted but the colour of lipton was preferred against that of Moringa beverage. There was no significant difference in the taste of both beverages (P > 0.05).
Keywords: Nutrients, Moringa oleifera, organoleptic property
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 213 KB