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Author(s): Nse U. Essien, Edoho D. Bassey
Pages: 06-19 Paper ID: 120404-8585-IJBAS-IJENS Published: August, 2012
Abstract: The New Netim Formation located in the Calabar Flank, South Eastern Nigeria is made dominantly of bedded / nodular marlstones interbedded with thin beds of shales. In the Calabar Flank, this marl unit forms extensive ridges and hills from the Mbebu village in the Southeast to Ikot Nyong in the Northeast. This carbonate build up is being investigated to elucidate its lithostratigraphy, microfacies, sequence stratigraphy and depositional environment. Being located between the Gulf of Guinea and the Aptian Salt Basins in the South Atlantic, this study will give a clue on the rhythms of the Coniacian transgression in the South Atlantic. Carbonate analysis reveal the predominance of three major microfacies type, which recur continuously both vertical and horizontally. The identified microfacies types are: biomicritic mudstone – wackestone, micritic mudstone and pelmicritic mudstone microfacies. Sequence stratigraphic analysis based on inferred sea level changes, shows that the marl unit is an aggradational sequence stratigraphic unit with continuous “pendulumic” fluctuations in sea levels between shallow and deep marine environment during the Coniacian transgression in the South Atlantic. This is evident by monotonous repetition and similarity of facies composition in each successive parasequence with relatively minor facies shift and no clear long term trend. Inferred depositional environment based on microfacies and sequence stratigraphic interpretations indicate deposition in a low energy, lagoonal / protected bay environment with continuous and repetitive sea level changes between shallow and deep marine.
Keywords: Lithostratigraphy, carbonate microfacies, depositional environment, sequence stratigraphy, New Netim Formation, Marlstones
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 16617 KB
Title: Optimal Urinating Position in Function of Urinary Tract Diseases
Author(s): Fikret Veljovic
Pages: 20-24 Paper ID: 120504-6767-IJBAS-IJENS Published: August, 2012
Abstract: We analyzed three urinary positions (standing, seating and squatting) through mathematical model and real condition of tested subjects, and concluded that male subjects has the biggest bladder discharge in squatting position. With new recommended habits for bladder discharge, the number of urinary tract infections is decreased.
Keywords: Biomechanics, ergonomics, bladder anatomy, urinary tract infections, intraabdominal pressure
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 1715 KB
Title: Discontinuous Quantum Stochastic Differential Equations And The Associated Kurzweil Equations
Author(s): S. A. Bishop
Pages: 25-31 Paper ID: 1210603-04-4848-IJBAS-IJENS Published: August, 2012
Abstract: Quantum stochastic differential equations (QSDEs) of systems that exhibit discontinuity are introduced with the Kurzweil equations associated with this class of equations. The formulations are simple extensions of the methods applied by Schwabik [10] to ODEs to this present noncommutative quantum setting. Here the solutions of a QSDE are discontinuous functions of bounded variation that is they have the same properties as the Kurzweil equations associated with QSDEs introduced in [1].
Keywords: QSDE; Impulsive; Kurzweil equations; Lebesgue Stieltjes measures; Discontinuous Noncommutative stochastic processes
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 7755 KB
Title: Improvement of Fertilizer N Recovery by Allocating More N for Later Application in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)
Author(s): Tang Hao-yue, Yang Guo-zheng, Zhang Xian-long, Siddique Kadambot
Pages: 32-37 Paper ID: 121904-4848-IJBAS-IJENS Published: August, 2012
Abstract: In the Yangtze River Valley in China, 300 kg N/ha is normally applied to cotton crops in three splits: pre-plant application (PPA, 30%), first bloom application (FBA, 40%) and peak bloom application (PBA, 30%). However, low plant fertilizer N recovery (FNR) (30–35%) was accompanied with the negative effects on the environment. Two-year field trial has proven the feasibility of obtaining the same cotton yield by allocating more N for later application (PBA) with lower N rate. A pot experiment was carried out to testify if there was any improvement in N absorption and FNR in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv Huazamian H318) plants by fixing 40% of 225 kg 15N/ha for FBA. The results showed that both total N and fertilizer 15N accumulation in cotton plants responded positively to N split ratio resulting in a (curve) meeting point at 80 DAE (days after emergence). The total N and fertilizer 15N amount (mg/plant) increased from 1526 and 1194 to 2143 and 1924, respectively, as the ratio of N allocated to PBA increased from 20% (N42) to 60% (N06). Cotton plants absorbed N the most during flowering, but N06 had the highest 15N uptake rate (mg/plant/d) (33) during boll setting, which was almost the same as that during flowering; whereas N42 dropped drastically to 5 from 38. Total FNR (plant and soil) increased greatly from 54% (N42) to 88% (N06). It suggests that allocating N fertilizer from PPA to PBA would ensure faster accumulation of fertilizer N during boll setting, and benefit the improvement in FNR.
Keywords: Cotton (G. hirsutum L.); N later application; fertilizer N recovery (FNR); split ratio
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 819 KB
Title: Influence of Sawdust Size and Ratio of HDPE Waste on the Physical Properties of Wood-Plastics Composite
Author(s): Endra Gunawan, Anom Indra Adhyaksa, Reinardus L. Cabuy
Pages: 38-42 Paper ID: 122204-5757-IJBAS-IJENS Published: August, 2012
Abstract: This study investigated influence of wood-dust from three types of wood waste that are  Intsia bijuga, Pometia sp. and mixed-wood from local timber industries with the ratio of plastic adhesive waste or high density poliethylena (HDPE). Apart of that, the research would like to find out the possibility in using such a waste as a particle board material by identified the mechanical property which includes moisture content, density, water absorption and thickness swelling in 2 and 24 hours submersions. The activity carried out at the forest product laboratory and wood processing the state university of Papua. Method used is descriptive by experimental observation. Result exhibit that combination between wood dust and recycled plastic adhesive has potentially used for raw material particle board. Moisture content of particle board ranging between 3.9651% at Ma 80 (40%) up to 7.1100% at Ca 60 (20%) and thus has met the Japan Standard (JIS) A 5908 (2003) wherein < 13%. The density ranged from 0.9304 gr/cm3 at Ma 80 (20%) up to 1.0843 gr/cm3 at Ma 60 (30%) by which the results exceeding the expected target of 0.9 gr/cm3 based on JIS standard and 0.7 gr/cm3 at the Indonesia standard. Swelling property of plasticboard in 2 hours submersion ranging between 5.7420% at Ma 80 (40%) up to 25.5757% at Ca 60 (20%). Whereas in 24 hours submersion ranging of 7.5675% at Ma 80 (30%) up to 28.5305% at Ca 60 (20%). Relatively the thickness swelling of plasticboard has not met the required standards of a maximum of 12% for JIS A 5908 (2003).
Keywords: High density poliethylena, plasticboard, wood-sawdust
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 103 KB
Title: The Role of Dielectric Constant in Fractional Separation of Alkali Metals Salts from Aqueous Solutions
Author(s): Mutasim I. Khalil, Reem A.H.Al-Yami, Amani H.Al-Khabbas
Pages: 43-46 Paper ID: 123704-8989-IJBAS-IJENS Published: August, 2012
Abstract: The effect of dielectric constant (e) on the  precipitation of Lithium, Sodium and Potassium chlorides has been investigated. At e≈35 , 100%KCl, 58% NaCl , and 0.0%LiCl is separated from an aqueous solution mixture . Repeated procedures at selected dielectric constants achieved complete fractional separation of the three salts. Results are correlated to dielectric constant, cation size and hydration energies.
Keywords: Alkali metals chlorides, Fractional separation, Dielectric constant, Desalination, Cation size, Hydration energy
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 198 KB
Title: Daily Activity Budget of Long-tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Kuala Selangor Nature Park
Author(s): Kamarul Hambali, Ahmad Ismail, Badrul Munir Md-Zain
Pages: 47-52 Paper ID: 124404-6767-IJBAS-IJENS Published: August, 2012
Abstract: Long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) are widely distributed animals around the world that require special attention from the research and management perspectives. Daily activity budget of M. fascicularis were studied near the Kuala Selangor Nature Park as one part of study on its behavior and ecology. The study location was based along the M. fascicularis trails starting from the ticket counter of the local train station to the main entrance of KSNP and their daily activity budget were studied from February 2011 until July 2011 inclusive of intensive direct observation using the scanning method. Observations revealed that long-tailed macaques use most of the their time for moving (20.27%), followed by feeding (18.78%), being inactive (17.05%), grooming (10.84%), playing (10.50%), vocalization (10.36%), mating (7.42%) and the last is fighting (4.78%). Qualitative results found that the interaction between the long-tailed macaques group with silvered-leaf monkeys are fighting and grabbing food. The long-tailed macaques also cause disruption in this area such as disturbing the visitors. There is a strange behavior that is rarely seen which is mating behavior between the long-tailed macaque with a cat that was found in the study area. Chi-square test demonstrated that daily activity budget differed significantly among the behaviors.
Keywords: Daily activity budget, long-tailed macaque, Macaca fascicularis, Kuala Selangor Nature Park, Peninsular Malaysia
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 15052 KB
Title: New Types of Transitive Functions and Minimal Systems
Author(s): Mohammed Nokhas Murad
Pages: 53-58 Paper ID: 121204-5858-IJBAS-IJENS Published: August, 2012
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to give new types of topological b-transitive functions and new types of b-minimal functions. We obtain their characterizations and investigate some of its properties. The main results are the following propositions:
  1. Every topologically b-transitive function is a topological transitive function as every open set is b-open set but the converse not necessarily true.
  2. Every b--minimal function is a minimal function as every open set is b- open set, but the converse not necessarily true.
Keywords: Topologically b- transitive, b- minimal functions, b- continuous, b- irresolute
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 228 KB
Title: Serum Levels of Male Oligospermia Glycoconjugate Inhibin B hormone and α-L-Fucose in Kurdistani (Iraq) populations
Author(s): Govand Ali Ahmed, Hamid Ghaffoori Hasan,  Aso Omer Rashid
Pages: 59-66 Paper ID: 124704-5858-IJBAS-IJENS Published: August, 2012
Abstract: Objectives: To assess the role of inhibin B in the evaluation of male factor infertility as a  prospective study.  To determine normative levels of inhibin B and examine levels in relationship to FSH, sperm count, and motility in a cohort of fertile and infertile men from the Kurdistan region of Iraq.
Materials & methods: Semen analysis was performed according to World Health Organization guidelines. An ELISA technique were applied for serum levels of inhibin B (ng/L), LH (mIU/L), FSH (mIU/L), and testosterone (ng/ml) assays. A colorimetric procedure was followed for the fucose and protein bound fucose levels determination.
Results: A total of 55 infertile (oligospermia) and 87 presenting for fertility (normal) evaluations were recruited. The mean serum inhibin B level was significantly (P<0.05) lower in the oligospermia (18 ng/L) than normal group (24 ng/L). No significant differences were found in determination levels of fucose in both groups. Serum FSH and LH levels were significantly higher in oligospermia than in normal.   Conclusion: Inhibin B levels in fertile men and infertile men in Kurdistan region were similar but not identical to those reported in other geographic regions. Both inhibin B and FSH are useful markers of spermatogenesis.
Keywords: Inhibin B, FSH, LH, fucose, male infertility, spermatogenesis
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 282 KB
Title: Evaluation of Serum Chromium Levels in Patients with Type1 and 2 Diabetes Mellitus and insulin resistance
Author(s): Hamid Ghaffoori Hasan, Parween A. Ismael, Nazk Mohammed Aziz
Pages: 69-73 Paper ID: 124804-5656-IJBAS-IJENS Published: August, 2012
Abstract: Chromium is one of the essential nutrients whose metabolism changes in diabetes. It has been shown that there is a relationship between serum chromium and both kinds of diabetes [non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)]. The aim of the present study is to investigate the serum chromium (Cr) status (In Type-1 DM patients, Type-2 patients, and insulin resistance. The study was conducted on 50 type-1 DM subjects, 50 type-2 DM subjects, 50 patients with Insulin resistance and 50 control subjects. Glucose, HbA1c and Cr were analyzed in fasting serum of all subjects. Serum chromium (Cr) levels were decreased in all three patients groups, respectively Type-1 DM, Type-2 DM and insulin resistance group (p<0.05, p=0,001, p<0,001). There were strong negative correlation between serum Cr and HbA1C levels respectively ( Type-1 DM patients, Type-2 DM patients, insulin resistance) (r =-0 .67, p <0.05) (r= -0.75, p<0,05) (r= -0.64, p<0,05).
Keywords: Serum Chromium, Type-1 and 2 DM, Insulin resistance
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 140 KB
Title: A Review on Prominent Techniques on the Determination of Colloidal Particle Surface Charge
Author(s): Suparno
Pages: 74-78 Paper ID: 129504-8585-IJBAS-IJENS Published: August, 2012
Abstract: A device being capable of measuring particle surface charge has not been found yet. Therefore, no one is able to measure particle charge directly. A well known ammeter is only able to measure electric current, but not charge. Most physics students and teachers have not understood how to determine the particle surface charge. Fortunately, there are several techniques which can be used to determine the particle charge, yet they have not been incorporated into Indonesian physics books and curriculum. The basic technique to determine the particle surface charge is called electrophoresis. This technique was then developed to become Laser Doppler Electrophoresis (LDE) by exploring the fact that the frequency beat of the Doppler Effect is related to the velocity of the particle which was then used to determine the particle charge. On the other hand, a more sophisticated technique called Phase Analysis Light Scattering (PALS) explores the relationship between phase shift of the scattered light and the velocity of the particle to determine particle charge. The above three techniques are summarized in this paper.
Keywords: Electrophoresis, Laser Doppler Electrophoresis (LDE), Phase Analysis Light Scattering (PALS)
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 233 KB
Title: Existence and uniqueness solution of an inverse problems for degenerate differential equations
Author(s): Mahmoud M. El-borai, Osama L. Mostafa, Hoda A. Fouad
Pages: 79-84 Paper ID: 1211204-0707-IJBAS-IJENS Published: August, 2012
Abstract: In this paper we concerned with study existence and uniqueness of solutions for a class of inverse problems of degenerate di erential equations.The main tool perturbation theory for linear operators. Consider the inverse problems for degenerate di erential equations of the form
dBu(t)/ dt = Au(t) + Bɤ(t)f(t);
with the initial condition
u(0) = u0
and the overdetermination condition
(u(t); v) = w(t)
where A and B are closed linear operators in a Hilbert space H,f is a given abstract function with values in H,v is a given element in H,u0 is an initial value,and {u, ɤ} are the unknown functions.
Keywords: Perturbation Theory of Linear Operators; Linear a c0- Semigroup ; degenerate differential equations
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 657 KB
Title: Antioxidant Activities of Extracts of Trengguli Stem Bark (Cassia fistula L.)
Author(s): Hermien Noorhajati, Mulyadi Tanjung, Nanik Siti Aminah, Ami Suwandi J.S.
Pages: 85-89 Paper ID: 129404-1717-IJBAS-IJENS Published: August, 2012
Abstract: This research is conducted to examine the antioxidant activity on the  extract of stem bark C.fistula. The antioxidant activities of C.fistula stem bark extract were evaluated with lipid peroxides test using ferric thiosyanat method (FTC) and  2.6-di-t-butyl-4-metilfenol (BHT) as standard equivalent antioxidant capacity.  C.fistula stem bark maceration successively used solvent  normal heksane (non polar), ethyl acetate (semi-polar) and methanol (polar). The etyl acetate extract (Ea) shows higher antioxidant activity than the n.hexane extract (Hx) and methanol extract (MeOH). Therefore, the sequence of antioxidant activity is as follows ethyl acetate extract  > methanol extract > n.hexane extract, with antioxidant activity  consecutively at 5 hours: 65.98%, 58.19% and 32.66%. Those amount are equivalent to the standard synthetic antioxidant BHT (100 ppm), which causes 95.7% antioxidant activity (in 5 hours) inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation. There is a connection between antioxidant activity of an extract with the content of the total phenol in each extract. From the assay of phenolic extracts with the method of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR) and also using afzelechin standard as a comparision, we find that the ethyl acetate extract has the highest total phenolic where the entire sequences are as follows: Ea> MeOH> Hx. with total phenol content consecutive 177.55, 123.2167, 7.433333.
Keywords: Cassia fistula, Antioxidant, Lipid peroxide, Total Phenolic
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 159 KB
Title: Isolation of Artemisinin as Antimalarial Drugs from Artemisia annua L. Cultivated in Indonesia
Author(s): Deliana Dahnum, Haznan Abimanyu, Ahmad Senjaya
Pages: 90-95 Paper ID: 1211704-4545-IJBAS-IJENS Published: August, 2012
Abstract: Malaria disease is endemic in developing countries like Indonesia. This disease is caused by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium infection that is easily recognizable from the symptoms of prolonged fever. Some of the methods taken to stop spread of this disease. Artemisinin is a sesquiterpene lactone found in the leaves and flowers of plants Artemisia annua L and have different chemical structures and higher efficacy than others. Artemisia annua L. is originated from subtropical and can be introduced into the tropics such as Indonesia. The content of artemisinin itself is very small at around 0.01 to 1.4% of dry weight of plants. The first step in this research is solvent extraction using methanol. Step followed by partition using hexane and column chromatographic separation process with ethyl acetate / hexane as eluent. Isolates were characterized using TLC, FTIR, UV spectrophotometer, and HNMR spectroscopy. Through the process is obtained S4 as a result of isolation hexane fraction which has a character similar to artemisinin with 2.0 mg (0.016% w / w).
Keywords: Artemisinin, Artemisia annua L., malaria, methanol extraction
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 191 KB
Title: Inverse Cauchy Problem for some Stochastic Fractional Integro differential equations
Author(s): Mahmoud M. El-borai, Khairai El-Said El-Nadi, Hanan S. El-Hoety
Pages: 96-101 Paper ID: 1211404-3838-IJBAS-IJENS Published: August, 2012
Abstract: In this paper we shall study the solution of Cauchy problem in a Hilbert space H for a stochastic fractional integro-differential equations of the form….



Keywords: Inverse Chauchy Problem, Stochastic integro- differential equation, fractional order
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 745 KB
Title: Novel Procedure For Minimizing The Emission of Nitrogen Dioxide in Manufacturing of Azote Fertilizer Using ASWAN Bentonite as Filler
Author(s): Kamal Abou Elmagd, Gharib M. Taha
Pages: 102-107 Paper ID: 1212504-8080-IJBAS-IJENS Published: August, 2012
Abstract: In one of the natural and green chemistry approach, effective reduction of the emitted nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was achieved using 20% bentonite as filler through production of ammonium nitrate (AN) fertilizer. Furthermore, this application serves in minimizing the production losses and make the process more eco-friendly. The final product is neutral (pH = 7.36), so it can be used in any type of soil. The new product is identical in grain size and granular form to the usual fertilizer coated with limestone, and does not require any technological modification in the plant systems. Laboratory tests indicate that the emission of NO2 gas during AN fertilizer manufacturing is effectively decreased with increasing of bentonite filler ratio to about quarter of its original value. Mineralogy and chemical composition of Ca-bentonite were assayed using XRD and XRF techniques. Bentonite reduces the tendency to caking of AN to about 60% and hence, reduces the need for anti-lithification agent during fertilizer manufacturing by the same ratio due to bentonite inflexibility.
Keywords: Ammonium nitrate (AN) fertilizer, bentonite filler, Nile sediments, nitrogen dioxide, slow released fertilizer
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 446 KB
Title: Tumoricidal Effect of Photofrin and Nanomaterials in Human Glioblastoma Cell Line
Author(s): Muhammad Asim –ud-din, Muhammad Fakhar-e-Alam, S. Karim, Z. Wazir, Hajra Sadia, Waqar. A. A. Syed
Pages: 108-111 Paper ID: 124004-5959-IJBAS-IJENS Published: August, 2012
Abstract: The uses of Nanoparticles (NPs) and nanorods (NRs) in Photodynamic Theapy (PDT) have tremendous multiple clinical applications in diagnostic as well as antitumor and in many microbial nonmicrobial treatments due to their high quantum yield, size dependent tunable emission of wavelength over wide spectrum of light. ZnO nanorods due to many attractive features might be used as an efficient drug vehicles and its intrinsic and broadband emission spectrum may provide the threshold dose required in cell necrosis mechanism. We have studied the toxicity of different NRs and NPs alone and complex with different photosensitizers (PS) including aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and Photofrin® using human brain cancerous cell lines as an experimental model. Mechanism of cytotoxicity triggers the generations of ROS/singlet oxygen inside the labelled cells. The novel findings of cell apoptotic toxicity indicate a potential application of given iron oxide nanoparticles producing the cytotoxic effects for the suggested cell line. The affectivity of intracellular NRs conjugated PS, systematic drug delivery technique has been introduced in current experiment. Cell viability has been determined by neutral red assay (NRA) and MTT assay, the results has been verified by microscopic analysis (visualization) of cell morphology.
Keywords: Photodynamic therapy, ZnO nanorods, Photofrin®, Cell Necrosis
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 354 KB
Title: ICT Technologies, Robotic and Automation in Construction
Author(s): Sajjad Yaghoubi, Mohammad Reza Kazemi and Mahsa Sakhaii far
Pages: 112-116 Paper ID: 1213904-5959-IJBAS-IJENS Published: August, 2012
Abstract: We are all witnesses that the beginning of the 21st century in technological terms is dedicated to mobile communications - they are everywhere: smart phones, IPods, readers, and many other wireless devices. Once a fiction today is a reality – music on demand, video on demand, and live video conversation via IP on a tablet. What will be the next technological achievement that will have such huge impact on human living? I dare to predict that the second half of this century will by highly influenced by mobile robotics – robots will become ubiquitous décor in everyday life.
Keywords: Technological, Mobile Communication, Human Living, Mobile Robotics
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Sciences | 302 KB