IJENS Publisher Indexed In SCOPUS


Title: Coconut Milk’s Fat Breaking by Means of Ultrasound
Author(s): Siti J. Iswarin and Beni Permadi
Pages: 01-05 Paper ID: 120101-8686-IJBAS-IJENS Published: February, 2012
Abstract: The effects of ultrasound on coconut milk homogenization were studied. An ultrasonic generator was used to homogenize 100 mL of coconut juice with certain energy levels and exposure times. All samples were analyzed under microscope at 1000× magnification to determine the diameters of fat globules. It was found that ultrasonic treatment with high power level has an important effect on coconut milk homogenization and is an effective technique for the reduction of the fat globule size. Effect of reduction represents the symptom of cavitations phenomenon.
Keywords: Coconut milk, fat globules, homogenization, ultrasound
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 117 KB
Title: Homotopy Perturbatıon Sumudu Transform Method for One and Two Dımensıonal Homogeneous Heat Equatıons
Author(s): Hasan Bulut, H Mehmet Baskonus, Seyma Tuluce
Pages: 06-16 Paper ID: 120201-7474-IJBAS-IJENS Published: February, 2012
Abstract: In this paper, we studied to obtain solutions of one-two dimensional homogeneous heat equations by homotopy perturbation sumudu transform method (HPSTM). We drew graphics of these equations by means of programming language Mathematica.
Keywords: Sumudu Transform Method,  Homotopy Perturbation Sumudu Transform Method, One-Two Dimensional Homogeneous Heat Equation
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 132 KB
Title: Saron Demung Instruments Timbre Spectrum Comparison Study on The Gamelans Sekati from Karaton Ngayogyakarta
Author(s): Heru Kuswanto, Sumarna, Agus Purwanto, Cipto Budy Handoyo
Pages: 17-25 Paper ID: 121901-3838-IJBAS-IJENS Published: February, 2012
Abstract: The aim of this research is to compare the timbre spectrums of Saron Demung Instruments of gamelans Nagawilaga and Gunturmadu of Karaton Ngayogyakarta. These gamelan, as a set of traditional Javanese ensemble, are a pelog scale, seven scale in one octave. Sound of Saron Demung Instruments are recorded by sound software. This software can display waveform in time domain and spectrum in frequency domain. The fundamental frequency is shown directly by software.  Other peak frequencies can be traced by shifting the cursor on top of it. The accuracy of frequency that can be produced is 1 Hz. Fundamentals frequencies of  Saron Demung  of gamelan Nagawilaga are higher than of Gunturmadu. The location of the harmonic frequencies are not always consecutive, but sometimes punctuated by another frequency. The number of harmonics or timbre of each instruments of Nagawilaga are different rather than of Gunturmadu.
Keywords: Gamelan, Saron Demung, Nagawilaga, Gunturmadu
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 183 KB
Title: Simulation Model for Dengue Infection
Author(s): N. Nuraini & H. Tasman
Pages: 26-30 Paper ID: 122301-4646-IJBAS-IJENS Published: February, 2012
Abstract: A model of viral infection of monocytes population by dengue virus is formulated here. The model takes into account the immune response and also the haematocrit. The dynamic of haematocrit effect for dengue infection is presenting by the function that concerning the contact between free-virus and immune response. We also simulate the model base on dengue patient data from Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung. From some numerical simulations it is concluded that the first model simulation can capture the phenomena the rise of haematocrit level for dengue infection patient. The second model simulate that the density of thrombocyte decrease during the dengue infection process found in the dengue patient data.
Keywords: Dengue infection, plasma leakage, haematocrit level
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 173 KB
Title: Biodegradable Polymers and their Bone Applications: A Review
Author(s): Saiful Izwan Abd Razak, Noor Fadzliana Ahmad Sharif and Wan Aizan Wan Abdul Rahman
Pages: 31-49 Paper ID: 123101-8585-IJBAS-IJENS Published: February, 2012
Abstract: Several biodegradable polymers were reviewed in regard of their properties to be used as bone substitute. Highlights were made on poly (glycolic acid) (PGA), the stereoisomers forms of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and their copolymer poly (lactic-co-glycolide) (PLGA), poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) including natural biodegradable polymers; chitosan and collagen. Their composites, forms (scaffold and dense), drawbacks and potential usage were also discussed in detail.
Keywords: Synthetic biodegradable polymers, Bone substitute, Scaffold
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 316 KB
Title: Synthesis and Characterization of Calcium Phosphate/Chitosan Composites
Author(s): Kiagus Dahlan, Setia Utami Dewi, Ai Nurlaila, Djarwani Soejoko
Pages: 50-57 Paper ID: 123701-4848-IJBAS-IJENS Published: February, 2012
Abstract: Synthesis of biomaterial composites consisting of organic matrix and inorganic mineral has been performed. The inorganic minerals used were hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite/carbonate apatite compounds. These apatites were resulted from calcium of chicken eggshell calcinated at 1000oC and phosphor of diammonium hydrogen phosphates. The organic matrices used were chitosan originated from shrimp shells. To produce the composites, both apatites were mixed with chitosan. The resulted composite samples were further dried at 50°C. Two types of composition used in this experiment were 20% chitosan mixed with 80% calcium phosphate and 30% chitosan mixed with 70% calcium phosphate. In each composition, the calcium phosphate ceramics consisted of hydroxyapatite  and hydroxyapatite/carbonated apatite. The X-ray diffraction profiles showed that chitosan did not change the calcium phosphate phases. Chitosan seemed only influence the crystallinity of the compound in which an increase of chitosan decreased the crystallinity. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs clearly showed that the surface morphology of hydroxyapatite/carbonated-chitosan composites with the composition of 64% HA/16% HA/CA/20% chitosan were in the form of granules. Samples containing more carbonate apatites showed more granules.
Keywords: biomaterial, hydroxyapatite, apatite, diffraction, crystallinity
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 2466 KB
Title: Viability of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Home Made Yogurt Containing Sago Starch Oligosaccharides
Author(s): AR Rinani Shima, H Farah Salina, M Masniza, A Hanis Atiqah
Pages: 58-62 Paper ID: 124901-8585-IJBAS-IJENS Published: February, 2012
Abstract: The potential of sago starch oligosaccharides (SSO) to enhance the growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in homemade yogurt was studied. Partially gelatinized sago starch was hydrolyzed at pH 6.2 for 24 hours at 65 °C and 1% (v/w) of α-amylase (Termamyl 120L). The SSO obtained was then incorporated in the homemade yogurt at different concentration (8% - 20% w/v) and stored up to 24 hours. It was found that SSO influenced the growth of LAB, lactic acid content and pH value. The fermentation of different concentration shows that 12% (w/v) SSO give the highest growth of LAB, reaching population of 5.46 ± 0.13 log10 cfu/ml after 24 hrs as compared to 4.24 ± 0.14 log10 cfu/ml for control. The lactic acid content of the yogurt supplemented with SSO was also increased from 0.34% to 1.10% after 24 hours of incubation. The pH of the yogurt that contained SSO was decreased from initial pH 6.43 to pH 4.12. Results of this study indicated that sago starch SCO had a positive effect by increasing the number of LAB in the homemade yogurt and have a potential use as a prebiotic health food.
Keywords: sago starch oligosacharides; lactic acid bacteria; homemade yogurt
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 117 KB
Title: The Optical Low-Pass Filter Gain of a Ring Cavity
Author(s): E. H. Hasdeo, M. Nurhuda, Abdurrouf
Pages: 63-68 Paper ID: 125701-9494-IJBAS-IJENS Published: February, 2012
Abstract: We have developed the equations describing the interaction of light and matter. The Maxwell-Schrödinger equations were modified to be The Maxwell-Bloch equations by means of homogeneity and slowly varying wave approximation. The boundary conditions of a unidirectional ring cavity were performed to complete the analytical calculation. From this study, we observed the existence of a low-pass filter gain, parallel with the phenomenon which exists in op-amp circuit.
Keywords: Optical Low-Pass Filter, Ring Cavity
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 176 KB
Title: Antimicrobial And Identification Of Active Compound  Curcuma Xanthorrhiza Roxb
Author(s): Wibowo Mangunwardoyo, Deasywaty, Tepy Usia
Pages: 69-78 Paper ID: 126101-7979-IJBAS-IJENS Published: February, 2012
Abstract: The ethanol 70% extract ofCurcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb inhibited the growth of Gram positive bacteria S. aureus and S. mutans in a concentration of 1.0-5.0% (w/v), while B. cereus in a concentration of 2.0-5.0% (w/v). The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of ethanol 70% extract toward S.  aureus and S. mutans were 0.1% (w/v), while against B. cereus it showed 2.0% (w/v) . Phytochemistry analysis of ethanol 70% extract consists of alkaloid, quinone, and terpenoids. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) analysis showed five spots, the third spot effectively inhibited Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Streptococcus mutans type F (MUI) and Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778 and contain terpenoids.  Analysis UV-Vis and Infra Red spectrophotometry showed that it contains phenolic group at absorbance 275.2 nm and have hydroxyl (-OH) and carbonyl (C-O) functional groups. The result of GC-MS indicated that the extract which contains one compound is xanthorrhizol m/z 218.
Keywords: Antimicrobial; Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.; GC-MS; TLC; UV-Vis and infra-red spectrophotometry
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 533 KB
Title: Extraction of colorant from leaves of Terminalia catappa using Non conventional technique
Author(s): Shweta Umale, P.A Mahanwar
Pages: 79-88 Paper ID: 127901-3636-IJBAS-IJENS Published: February, 2012
Abstract: Recently, dyes derived from natural sources for various applications have emerged as an important alternative to potentially harmful synthetic dyes and pose need for suitable effective extraction methodologies. In present work Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) technique was developed for fast extraction of colorant from Terminalia catappa leaves. The influence of process parameters on the extraction efficiency such as output power, time, effect of solvent system and amount of material has been studied. The method has been compared with conventional extraction methods such as Heat reflux method (HRE) and Soxhlet extraction (SOX). The influence of extraction parameters on the extraction yield of flavonoids has been evaluated. All of the extracts were tested for their radical scavenging and antioxidant activities by measuring their capacity to scavenge the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. To our knowledge no MAE application, for the extraction of colorant from Terminalia catappa have found in bibliography The use of microwave is found to have significant improvement in the extraction efficiency of colorant.
Keywords: Extraction, Microwave, Antioxidant, Flavonoids, Terminalia catappa, conventional methods
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 136 KB