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Title: Investigation of Chemical Composition on Widely Used Al 6061-T6511 Engineered Material: An XRD Analysis Towards Improvement of Mechanical Properties
Author(s): Sivarao, Nur Izan T. J. S. Anand, Fairuz Dimin
Pages: 1-6 Paper ID: 102204-6767-IJBAS-IJENS Published: August, 2010
Abstract: Al 6061-T6511 alloy is widely used for commercial applications in the transportation, construction and similar engineering industries. It possesses excellent mechanical properties which allow it to be machined rapidly and economically. In addition to that, Al 6061-T6511 also has good corrosion resistance due to which the alloy finds extensive application in operating conditions where such properties are key essentials such as naval vessels manufacturing. This work will utilize X-ray diffraction analysis to provide aid to look into the properties of the alloy, its chemical compound and alloying elements analysis to determine its benefits.
Keywords: X-ray Diffraction Analysis, Al 6061-T6511, Chemical Composition 1, Introduction, TiAlN Coated Milling tool
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 361 KB
Title: Preparation of Edible Grade Dye and Pigments From Natural Sources Bixa Orellenae Linn
Author(s): Aminul Islam Chowdhurya, Md. Ashraful Islam Molla, Mithun Sarker, Ashequl Alam Rana, Swapan Kumer Ray, Husna Parvin Nur, Mohammad Mainul Karim
Pages: 7-15 Paper ID: 104704-2929-IJBAS-IJENS Published: August, 2010
Abstract: Annatto is a natural colouring agent obtained from the outer coats of the seeds of the tropical shrub Bixa orellana. The major colour principles of annatto are the carotenoids bixin. Annatto seeds were collected from the local market and it was ground by mortar and pestle. The ground annatto was taken in a steam distillation and evaporated. After the evaporation the sample was dried and ground .The ground annatto seeds are steam distilled in order to remove the odor. It is possible to remove upto 6.42 % of the volatile substances from the annatto. Then different solvents were put on trial and error basis to get the optimum extract of bixin color. All of the extracting solvents gave dark red color of bixin. The used solvents are 95 % ethanol,(cold extraction) 95% ethanol (hot extraction), 10% glacial acetic acid, 100% glacial acetic acid, 1% alkaline solution , 0.5% alkaline solution and 0.25 % alkaline solution .Among the lots of extracting chemical solvents 0.25% alkaline solution gave the optimum color. It could extract upto 41% of the bixin from the annatto seeds. The alkaline solution was afterwards neutralized by acetic acid. Then the collected bixin was taken for a set of characterizations such as FTIR. Since pigments are mostly water insoluble with exceptions of certain pigments of biological origin. Results of the color extraction from the fresh and the dried annatto seeds indicated that the extract from the fresh gave the higher color intensity. From the data it is seen that the longer the extraction time, the more the concentration of the gardenia fruit color extracted from either the dried or the fresh annatto seeds. Owing to the volatile essential oil present in the bixa seeds studied, the efficiency of the color extraction might be interfered. Therefore, the investigations on the color extraction from the annatto seeds with different levels of fat content were performed. Food colorants may be classified into synthetic, nature-identical, inorganic, and natural colorants. Colorant shows activity when applied to a substance. Colorants become the most sensitive part of any commodity not only for its appeal but also, it enhances consumer acceptability The color from bright green spinach, ruby red strawberry, and deep orange pum making a light – screen support; and to increase acceptability of food as an appetizing item. Though chemically very similar, differences in their chemical properties present several challenges to the analytical chemist with respect to stereochemistry, solubility, chromatographic behaviour and stability. This review focuses on the chemistry, stability, and analysis of annatto pertaining to its use as a permitted.
Keywords: Annatto, bixin, achiote, genotoxicity.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 606 KB
Title: Investigation of Tangential Force, Horsepower and Material Removal Rate Associating HAAS CNC Milling, Al6061-T6511 Work Material & TiAlN Coated End Mill Tool
Author(s): Sivarao, Fairuz Dimin, T. J. S. Anand, A. Kamely, Kamil
Pages: 16-21 Paper ID: 103004-5151-IJBAS-IJENS Published: August, 2010
Abstract: High speed machining has emerged to become one of the most versatile material removal processes in industries. In gaining optimum cutting conditions, the investigation of the relationship between cutting conditions and technical performance factors such as tangential forces generated during machining is of great importance. This work presents an experimental study on the material removal rate (MRR), horsepower generated at spindle and tangential forces of CNC milling machine tool at 50 mm/min federate by varying depths of cut (DOC). The objective of this research work is to relate the resultant surface roughness measured in arithmetic average mean roughness, Ra to the MRR, horsepower and tangential forces generated by each depth of cut in analyzing their respective behavior / trend. The experiments were carried out using 6 varying depths of cut beginning from 0.5mm with an increment of 0.5mm each depth until the final depth of cut reaches 3.0mm utilizing a new cutting tool at each depth. At each depth of cut, the material removal rate and horsepower were formulated to obtain the cutting forces in the form of tangential forces exerted on the Al 6061-T6511 workpiece. The trend achieved from this work shows MRR, horsepower and tangential forces were all found to be increased with the amplification of cutting depth. The findings are detailed and fully presented latter in this paper.
Keywords: Milling, tangential force, material removal rate, horsepower, TiAlN, Al6061-T6511.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 181 KB
Title: Thermonechanical and Morphological Interrelationship of Polypropylene-Mutiwalled Carbon Nanotubes (PP/MWCNTs) Nanocomposites
Author(s): A. R., Jeefferie, M. Y. Yuhazri, O. Nooririnah, M. M. Haidir, Haeryip Sihombing, M. A., Mohd Salleh, N. A., Ibrahim
Pages: 22-27 Paper ID: 103104-7272-IJBAS-IJENS Published: August, 2010
Abstract: In this research, the significance effects of MWCNTs at lower percentage addition in affecting the thermomechanical behavior of the fabricated PP/MWCNTs nanocomposites were studied. PP/MWCNTs nanocomposites were compounded by using the internal mixer, through the simple melt blending technique. The improvement effects of MWCNTs addition were well justified by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) surface morphological observation. The interrelationships between the TEM surface observations with the thermomechanical results were established by manipulating the three major plots of dynamic mechanical analysis of storage modulus, loss modulus and damping modulus (tand). From this work, it was found that the improvement of dynamic thermomechanical properties is directly related to the amount of MWCNTs added and the quality of MWCNTs dispersion within the PP matrix.
Keywords: Thermomechanical, PP/MWCNTs nanocomposites, Surface morphological, Interrelationships.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 491 KB
Title: Applications of 3-D Structural Interpretation and Seismic Attribute Analysis to Hydrocarbon Prospecting Over X – Field, Niger-Delta
Author(s): Rotimi Oluwatosin John, Ameloko Anthony Aduojo, Adeoye O. Taiwo
Pages: 28-40 Paper ID: 105104-8383-IJBAS-IJENS Published: August, 2010
Abstract: Complexly faulted subsurface configuration is capable of causing erroneous deductions in the absence of a well packaged interpretation approach and workflow for an oilfield exploration programme, thus a well prepared analysis saddled on the use and integration of sufficient data is indispensable to the unravelling of complex field subsurface structure as the search for oil and gas progresses into deeper waters. Suite of signatures from wireline logs and seismic volume was employed to gain more insight into the complexities of the hydrocarbon hosting units within and outside the vicinity of well control in the X-field Niger Delta. Horizons and fault interpretation were carried out to produce subsurface structure maps. Amplitudes of the horizons mapped were extracted and were used to study the distribution of the hydrocarbon sand. Three hydrocarbon bearing reservoirs were delineated within the study interval, namely: ROJ A, ROJ C and ROJ D. Well to seismic tie revealed that these reservoirs tied direct hydrocarbon indicators (bright spots) on the vertical sections. The structure maps produced revealed a series of NW-SE and E-W trending growth faults and fault echelons, most of which dip to the south. Fault assisted closures were revealed at the southern part of the field, which correspond to the crest of roll over structures and possibly served as the trapping mechanism for the reservoirs. The reflection amplitude of the studied horizons shows a fine network of anomalies that can be correlated to the prediction of the lateral distribution of the hydrocarbon sand. The conclusion of the study was that the western part of horizon ROJ A is a highly prospective area as bright spots were observed in the region. Also in the adjacent southern direction of this horizon, hydrocarbon accumulations have been confirmed from wells. These gas sands are possibly trapped in anticlinal closures located in the same area. On the other hand, the results from the study of horizon ROJ C suggest development opportunities in the southern area. High amplitude gas sands are seen to spread to the south and stratigraphy was assumed to play a major role in hydrocarbon migration. The study over horizon ROJ D reveal likely geologic features like regional sand pinch outs and channels in the southern part of the field. Spectral decomposition interpretation was suggested to be used further in improving the delineation of the thin reservoir sand bodies and for better outlining of their geometries but was not available on the workstation used. The study has shown the feasibility of integrating structural interpretation and instantaneous amplitude in prospect identification and reservoir prediction.
Keywords: Reservoirs, fault, hydrocarbon, seismic, amplitudes, structures.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 2,838 KB
Title: Surface Quality Investigation of Al 6061-T6511 Using TiAlN Coated Milling Tool
Author(s): Sivarao, Fairuz Dimin, T. J. S. Anand, Ridzuan Jamli, A. Kamely
Pages: 41-45 Paper ID: 103204-9494-IJBAS-IJENS Published: August, 2010
Abstract: The study of machining conditions in the machining of alloys is important in quantifying its effects on the overall surface roughness produced by the pre-determined parameters. Material removal processes such as CNC end milling requires an understanding in the machining conditions and setup to achieve a certain targeted finish of the work surface. Machining conditions such as depth of cut, feed rate, cutting speed, cutting tool geometry, material and tool properties play a decisive role in the outcome of the surface roughness. Augmentations to the above mentioned conditions might enhance or have a detrimental effect on the surface finish quality. This work investigates the effects of varying depth of cut which could have significant effect on the surface roughness of Al 6061-T6511 work material by implementing the use of TiALN coated carbide tool using HAAS CNC milling. The outcome clearly witnesses that depth of cut has got significant effect on the surface quality of end product within the range of experimental values.
Keywords: TiAlN, Coated Carbide Tools, Al 6061-T6511, end milling, CNC milling.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 130 KB
Title: Solution Growth and Optical Properties of Lead Silver Sulphide Ternary Thin Films
Author(s): Uhuegbu Chidi C
Pages: 46-53 Paper ID: 1010202-4-9595-IJBAS-IJENS Published: August, 2010
Abstract: Lead Silver Sulphide ternary thin films were grown on glass substrate using solution growth technique with ethylenediaminetetraacetic (EDTA) and triethanolamine (TEA) as complexing agents. The optical and solid state properties were determined. The absorbance and reflectance were high in UV and low in VIS-NIR regions, while the transmittance was low in UV and high in VIS-NIR regions. The absorption coefficient ranged from 0.5x106 to 0.9x106m-1. The real part of the refractive index ranged from 0.1 to 2.3. The corresponding values of optical conductivity ranged from 0.06x1014s-1 to 0.6x1014s-1. The extinction coefficient ranged from 0.010 to 0.140. The direct and indirect band gaps ranged from 1.5eV to 2.1eV and 0.3eV to 0.8eV respectively. The real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant ranged from 0.4 to 5.2 and 0.010 to 0.390 respectively. Some of the possible applications based on these properties were discussed.
Keywords: PbAgS thin film; Solution growth technique; Optical properties; Band gap.
Full Text (.pdf)  International Journals Of Engineering and Science | 693 KB